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About this book

This book helps to solve the problems and challenges of satellite sensing in the current environment of increasing communications bandwidths and multiplicity of electromagnetic signals. It presents technology that makes full use of the broadband low-loss advantages of optoelectronic technology and research into new broadband radio-frequency channelization and receiving technology based on photoelectric sensing.

The methods presented allow improvements in system performance in terms of receiving bandwidth, frequency-sensing accuracy, channel equalization, adjacent channel crosstalk, dynamic range, and complexity of the system structure. In addressing the difficulty of satellite spectrum control, including the issue of high-precision and real-time wide-spectrum sensing not being able to be obtained simultaneously, the book solves the problem of accurate and parallel-decomposition sensing technology using the dual-phase optical frequency comb. This method avoids the involvement of fine filtering and does not require fine alignment between the source and the filter but achieves high perceptual accuracy.

Satellite Photoelectric Sensing Technology explores the research background, significance, and current challenges associated with the technology, making it relevant and interesting to academics, practitioners, and postgraduate students in this field.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
With the continuous development and advancement of science and technology, modern warfare has developed into a high-tech war with information warfare as the core. Electromagnetic spectrum resources are the only strategic resources that can penetrate into the strategic aspects of space, land and sea, and provide support to all joint functions. The competition for electromagnetic spectrum resources brings traditional electronic warfare to the strategic level, and the concept of future warfare is important.
Analog electronic devices are difficult to achieve uniform high performance in one or several octaves, resulting in low dynamic range and making traditional RF frequency measurement systems based on traditional microwave devices face the contradiction between frequency intercept probability and frequency resolution. The development of photonic technology has made people realize that relying on its high bandwidth and low loss, photonic technology will become a new analog signal processing platform to separate the sensing and frequency conversion functions from the DSP, avoiding the huge and high-energy digital processing.
The main contents of this chapter are:
(1) Problems in electromagnetic spectrum situational awareness
(2) Research progress on RF channelization reception of photonic technology
(3) Challenges and development trends of photonic channelization receiving technology.
Jianjun Zhang, Jing Li

Chapter 2. Microwave Photonics

Abstract
Microwave photonics is an emerging interdisciplinary subject involving microwave engineering and photonics. The generation of microwave photonics is to make full use of the advantages of low loss, light weight, small size, wideband and anti-interference of photonic technology to break through the electronic bottleneck encountered in microwave engineering, thus achieving the previous failure in the analog or electrical domain. It is precisely because of these unique advantages that microwave photonics has become the focus of research and has been widely used in various fields.
The main contents of this chapter are:
(1) The conceptual connotation of microwave photonics
(2) Research progress of microwave photonics
(3) Applications of microwave photonics
(4) Key technologies of microwave photonics
Jianjun Zhang, Jing Li

Chapter 3. Spacecraft System

Abstract
The system concept of spacecraft is explained in the chapter, and to whether it is manned or not, the classification of spacecraft is systematically summarized, and application satellites such as communication satellites, meteorological satellites, earth resource satellites, marine satellites, navigation satellites and reconnaissance satellites are classified and introduced. The two parts, payload and platform, describe the composition of the spacecraft.
Jianjun Zhang, Jing Li

Chapter 4. Communication Satellite Technology

Abstract
The overall technical concepts of communication satellites are systematically summarized in the chapter. The boundaries of machine frequency allocation in the communication satellite business category are expounded, its orbit and constellation design are introduced and the components of the load system design and the system design are analyzed.
Jianjun Zhang, Jing Li

Chapter 5. Satellite System Spectrum Sensing

Abstract
The introduction of cognitive radio theory in satellite communication systems to realize the dynamic spectrum access concept of satellite cognitive wireless networks is to solve the contradiction between the shortage of spectrum resources available in satellite communication systems and the low spectrum utilization. According to the basic definition of cognitive radio, cognitive radio problems originate from signal detection problems, and spectrum perception is the cornerstone of cognitive space systems from theory to practical application.
The main contents of this chapter are:
(1) Spectrum sensing concept
  • Spectrum parameters
  • Spectrum sensing technology model
  • Spectrum sensing technology classification
(2) Spectrum sensing principle in space systems
  • Typical satellite cognitive network scenario
  • Problems in satellite spectrum sensing
Jianjun Zhang, Jing Li

Chapter 6. RF Channelization Technology

Abstract
The channelized receiving technology combines the advantages of channelization and digitization, and gradually replaces analog channelization into a new development trend. The core of channelization is the structural design of digital filter arrays. The digital circuits realized by various integrated chips can be flexible. Freely dividing and switching channels, with high-frequency resolution and good system stability, digital channelization receiving technology plays an important role in electronic countermeasures.
The main contents of this chapter are:
(1) Channelized receiver
(2) Analog channelized receiver
(3) Digital channelized receiver
(4) Broadband channelized frequency measurement based on cognitive technology
  • Principle of cognitive digital channelization
  • Cognitive digital channelization features
Jianjun Zhang, Jing Li

Chapter 7. The Basis of RF Photonic Channelization Technology

Abstract
With the increase of communication bandwidth, the radio frequency photonic channelization receiving technology modulates the broadband radio frequency signal onto the optical carrier, fully utilizes the broadband low-loss characteristics of the optoelectronic device, avoids the electronic bottleneck, and maps the frequency and power of the broadband radio frequency signal to the optical. Based on the parameters such as power, wavelength, time and space of the carrier, the optical signal is used to narrow-band the signal to realize parallel real-time reception of the sub-channel and sub-band of the radio frequency signal. The optical channelization receiving system is mainly divided into electro-optical modulation, spectral separation and photoelectric conversion. Therefore, the optical link is the basic structure of the receiver, which determines the overall performance of the receiver system.
The main contents of this chapter are:
(1) Structural characteristics and basic principles of key components of each functional module of the channelized optical link.
(2) Link gain, noise, dynamic range, adjacent channel crosstalk etc. are the main indicators for evaluating the performance of the channelized receiving system.
(3) Structural characteristics of coherent reception.
(4) Key dispersive devices such as spectrally separated dispersion fiber and Bragg grating.
(5) Optical sampling link based on pulse source for multi-band RF signal down conversion.
Jianjun Zhang, Jing Li

Chapter 8. Optical Frequency Comb Generation Mechanism and Application

Abstract
The optical frequency comb has been widely studied by researchers as one of the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physics. The performance of the optical frequency comb in the frequency domain is such that the spacing between each of its frequency components is equal, in the form of a comb we use every day. Due to its unique frequency distribution, the optical frequency comb provides us with a bridge between optical and RF. The optical frequency comb converts the unknown optical frequency information into radio frequency information, analyzes and controls the unknown parameters by analyzing the radio frequency information. Applications include optical frequency measurement, high-quality optical clock source generation, gas molecular measurement, ultra-fast optical signal processing and photon arbitrary waveform generation.
The main contents of this chapter are:
(1) Optical frequency comb generation method
  • Optical frequency comb generation is based on mode-locked laser
  • It is a single modulator method
  • This method is based on cascade of intensity modulation and phase modulation
  • Optical frequency comb generation of optical cavity is based on phase modulation
  • Generation of optical frequency comb is based on self-phase modulation in optical fiber
  • It is also based on micro resonator cavity
(2) Experiments to generate broadband flat optical frequency combs with high frequency intervals
  • Generation of broadband flat optical frequency comb is based on RFS
  • Principle of an RFS-based optical frequency comb
(3) Generation technology of bi-coherent optical frequency comb based on time lens method
  • Principle of optical frequency comb generated by time lens method
  • Experimental device for generating coherent optical frequency combs
Jianjun Zhang, Jing Li

Chapter 9. Channelized Receiving Technology Based on Optical Frequency Comb

Abstract
Future applications require military RF systems that can handle higher frequencies and greater bandwidth. However, due to the size and power consumption of conventional RF devices, real-time, high-precision radio spectrum detection cannot be achieved. It is therefore important to divide the broadband RF signal into subchannels that are compatible with modern digital systems. And because photonics has the advantage of broadband, it has been used to process broadband RF signals.
The main contents of this chapter are:
(1) Channelized filtering reception technology based on Fabry-Perot filter
  • Fabry-Perot filter principle
  • Channelization filtering principle
  • Simulation of channelization filter receiver system
  • Experimental results and analysis of channelized filter receiver system
(2) Coherent optical communication technology
  • Coherent reception technology
  • I/Q demodulation technology
(3) RF channelization receiving technology based on dual-coherent optical frequency comb
  • Coherent channelization reception principle
  • Experimental structure of RF channelization based on dual-coherent optical frequency comb
Jianjun Zhang, Jing Li

Chapter 10. Channelized Link Distortion Compensation Based on Digital Signal Processing

Abstract
Channelized reception technology can achieve multi-signal reconnaissance reception in a large bandwidth range, but channelized receivers also face limitations imposed by system nonlinearity. As we know, the linearity of traditional RF systems is an important indicator. In general, the linearity of an analog optical link is often limited by third-order intermodulation distortion. A number of schemes have been proposed to suppress third-order intermodulation distortion in conventional narrowband analog optical links. However, for a wideband channelized receiver, nonlinearity is not limited to third-order intermodulation distortion, but there is also inter-channel crosstalk. Therefore, the traditional scheme of suppressing third-order intermodulation is not applicable to wideband channelized receivers. However, we propose a combination of forward distortion signal extraction and backward digital signal processing to achieve simultaneous suppression of third-order inter-channel and inter-channel cross-talk distortion. With this scheme, the channelized receiver can achieve high fidelity processing and reception for wideband multi-signal.
The main contents of this chapter are:
(1) Significance of channelized link distortion compensation
(2) Non-linear distortion generation mechanism in multi-carrier RF optical links
(3) Channelized link distortion compensation principle based on digital signal processing
(4) Non-linear suppression experiment and performance discussion of channelized links based on digital processing.
Jianjun Zhang, Jing Li
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