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About this book

This book discusses population growth and the resultant problems, and highlights the need for immediate action to develop a set of planned satellite towns around Indian megacities to reduce their population densities and activity concentrations. It addresses problems like unplanned spatial expansion, over-concentration of populations, unmanageable situations in industrial growth, and poor traffic management, concluding that only megacities and their satellites, when planned properly, can together mitigate the urgent problem of urban concentration in and around the megacities.

Identifying the general problems, the book develops a quantitative and spatially fitting regional allocation model of population and economic activities. It also offers a policy-based planned program of development for the selected megacities in India along with their satellites and fringe areas to ensure a healthy, balanced and prospective urban scenario for India in the coming decades.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Growth of Metropolises and Megacities with Focus on Global South

Abstract
We are living in the century of metropolitan development when the majority of the world population resides in the metropolitan regions. Metropolitan regions are prospered in every continent, and they present many profound challenges and opportunities. Also, the emerging world mega-regions are the real powerhouses in today’s global economy. This chapter highlights that the majority of the metropolises and megacities, particularly in the global south, are in crisis stage, and rejuvenating them will be the biggest challenge in the years to come. For almost the last two decades, existing metropolises and megacities in the global south have gone through the neoliberal market-driven local-global interface in metropolitan transformation. The metropolitan management tools, techniques, and policies (spatial planning and management) need to be retrofitted in order for metropolitan cities to become more innovative, planned, sustainable, and equitable in the future. The impact of metropolises and megacities on regional, national and global level and their competitiveness are a new emerging area that requires an integrated regional approach which requires constant professional attention from focus of planners, city managers, and policymakers.
Amit Chatterjee, R. N. Chattopadhyay

Chapter 2. Problems and Policies of Metropolitan Growth in India

Abstract
Contemporary metropolitan planning is a dynamic and evolving process in which population movements, economic fluctuations, and social dynamism play a crucial role. The metropolitan growth of population indicates that unplanned spatial expansion covering fringe areas and the development of satellite towns around these cities is inevitable in the future. Indian metropolises are in a stage of massive urban transition as mega industrial corridors are emerging in a big way. Due to the effect of globalization, liberalization, and privatization, the Indian economy is oriented towards a gradual structural transformation. This chapter gives stresses on Indian metropolitan growth since the last century and analyses their situations in the light of the achievements made under various new government initiatives like Smart Cities Mission, National Rurban Mission, Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT), Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana (HRIDAY), Housing for All (Urban), and National Urban Livelihood Missions (NLUM), etc. The study also focuses on the contemporary metropolitan development in India and traces the economic and spatial restructuring of peripheral areas of metropolitan cities as part of economic liberalization.
Amit Chatterjee, R. N. Chattopadhyay

Chapter 3. Satellite Town Development in Retrospect and Prospect

Abstract
In the latter half of the 20th Century, urban development policies in India focused on growth control strategies of metropolitan cities and megacities, and the idea of satellite town emerged widely. Countries like the UK, USA, and France, during the sixties and seventies, has shown excellent results in satellite development. Between 1960 and 1980, for Asian cities like those of Japan, China, India, etc. attempts were made in developing satellite cities particularly close to capital cities. This chapter reviews the earlier efforts made to create satellite towns around metropolitan cities, particularly around Delhi, Greater Mumbai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Bengaluru, and also try to find out their role in sharing the concentrated activity load in the main city. This chapter also attempts the experiences of developing satellite towns around metropolitan cities in the UK, USA, Japan, China, Egypt, etc. and also critically assesses their responsibilities in pulling the activity loads of the metropolitan city. This chapter also identifies the set of factors that explain the success and failure of satellite city development. Giving a concise and prolonged account of the Indian satellite development scenario, it also focuses on international trends and practices in this regard.
Amit Chatterjee, R. N. Chattopadhyay

Chapter 4. Metropolitan Regions of India: Rapid Growth, Changing Landuse and Challenges

Abstract
This chapter attempts to study the trend in population growth and changes in land use, highlighting the extent to which land under forest, green areas, water bodies, and other vacant spaces are declined over time across mega-city regions in India. Many associated problems like unplanned growth, unemployment, poor traffic management, scarcity of resources, environmental degradation, etc. appear as constraints of development. The emphasis should be on land management in metropolitan cities and its satellite towns, which should reduce over-exploitation of natural resources, accelerate economic viability, assure livability, and promote environmental quality.
Amit Chatterjee, R. N. Chattopadhyay

Chapter 5. Metropolitan City-Satellites-Fringe Villages Relationship: Case Studies with Greater Mumbai, Bengaluru and their Regions

Abstract
For most of the metropolitan areas, urban growth is seen to trickle down in areas beyond the city limit, which includes its immediate surrounding areas and satellite towns already developed. Two megacity regions, i.e., Greater Mumbai and Bengaluru have been selected based on contrasting urban population growth rate (positive and negative), variation in economic bases (service-oriented and manufacturing) as well as varied satellite development history in the temporal era (old and comparatively new). This chapter attempts to highlight how relationships among megacity-satellites-fringe villages have developed in the context of these two Indian metros and their regions. These megacities and their environs need meticulous analysis and planning in respect of rational population distribution and allocation of activities by integrating economy and space for the coming decades. This step is necessary to shape a healthy and planned urban mosaic within the Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) as well as in the Bangalore Metropolitan Region (BMR).
Amit Chatterjee, R. N. Chattopadhyay

Chapter 6. Demographic and Economic Growth Potentials of Satellites of MMR and BMR

Abstract
There are many western models of sustainable city development, which are often not replicable in Indian situations due to their unique urban landscape, urban governance, urban fiscal policies besides cultural milieu, and overall face of urbanism. Although these models are quite efficient in the context of western cities, their relevance for application in India and similar situations is questionable. Finding out suitable models applicable to the developing world is a difficult task. This chapter suggests that for successful analysis of the present problem existent in Greater Mumbai and Bengaluru city, the approach should be holistic, where urban compactness and economic sustainability are taken as the two prime pillars of development. The ‘Relative Employment Potential (REP)’ model developed for comparative static analysis could also be applied for projecting a path of growth of the megacity regions over key time points in the future. A validation exercise has also been carried out to judge the statistical significance of the model. Further, the applicability of carrying capacity based ‘Sustainable Accommodation through Feedback Evaluation (SAFE)’ model is also worked out for achieving spatial sustainability. Carrying capacity has been tested with various Floor Area Ratio (FAR) options (with existing FAR and with increased FARs) to find out future FAR requirements for Greater Mumbai and Bengaluru cities and their satellite towns within the megacity region.
Amit Chatterjee, R. N. Chattopadhyay

Chapter 7. Regional Allocation of Sustainable Population and Economic Growth

Abstract
This chapter describes the method by which future population can be allocated for Greater Mumbai and Bengaluru city through Relative Employment Potential (REP) and Sustainable Accommodation through Feedback Evaluation (SAFE) models. Allocation of the surplus population could be made to the capable satellite towns. Capacity assessment of Greater Mumbai and Bengaluru city and their satellite towns has to be carried out with a focus on developable land, Floor Area Ratio (FAR), and economic opportunities. The ways to fulfill the allocation of land required for future populations of all urban centres of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) and Bangalore Metropolitan Region (BMR) are also worked out before assessment of carrying capacities through the application of SAFE Model.
Amit Chatterjee, R. N. Chattopadhyay

Chapter 8. Balanced Development Across the Megacity Regions: 2031 Scenario

Abstract
This chapter highlights the allocation of population, density, workers and industrial space requirements for Greater Mumbai, Bengaluru city, and their satellite towns for creating planned and prospective future metropolitan scenarios. To provide sustainable urban economy and ways of living, some inevitable recommendations are necessary, which include both basic (land and economic base) and supporting infrastructures (physical and social amenities). The provisions for strengthening the regional linkages and upgradation of physical and social infrastructures are felt necessary and accordingly suggested for planned and integrated development across the megacity regions are suggested.
Amit Chatterjee, R. N. Chattopadhyay

Chapter 9. Urban Development Policies in Metropolitan Regions

Abstract
Final policy target on the subject aims at decentralization of metropolitan growth (particularly in Greater Mumbai and Bengaluru city), control of megacities population growth and further, future planned population allocation to the satellite towns and fringe areas for planned and equitable development of entire Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) and Bangalore Metropolitan Region (BMR). Suggested recommendations for future directions of development of MMR and BMR are forwarded depending upon policies like urban growth policies, liberalization of economic growth policies, industrial policies, etc. Those policies are depending on the extent of pragmatic roles that the satellite towns can play in megacity regions. It calls for an integrated approach that would facilitate not only increased investments but also an appropriate policy set focused on land use and the region’s economy for the future market potentials of megacity regions. Both short and long term strategies and actions for MMR and BMR are proposed and finally suggest the necessary policy shift towards converting BMR and MMR into Smart and intelligent regions.
Amit Chatterjee, R. N. Chattopadhyay

Chapter 10. Conclusion

Abstract
Indian Metropolises and megacities are in an important phase of transformation, particularly in the neoliberal era. Only the megacity and its satellites, when appropriately planned, can together mitigate this alarming problem of urban concentration in and around the megacities. The policies and programmes in this regard, when implemented will ensure a healthy, equitable, and prospective urban scenario for India in the coming decades. Findings suggest that a new method of developing a systematic model encompassing economic growth and spatial sustainability is applicable for Neo-metropolitan Development in the developing world. Metropolises in India are now seen as part of interconnected networks that dominate economic growth and prosperity. The study has indicated many clues for the further development of the approach vis-à-vis the model itself through its application in metropolises other than the Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) and Bangalore Metropolitan Region (BMR). The study also traces the need for separate metropolitan development policies for taking care of managing the spatially dispersed metropolitan system.
Amit Chatterjee, R. N. Chattopadhyay
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