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About this book

This book presents the main outcomes of the first European research project on the seismic behavior of adjustable steel storage pallet racking systems. In particular, it describes a comprehensive and unique set of full-scale tests designed to assess such behavior. The tests performed include cyclic tests of full-scale rack components, namely beam-to-upright connections and column base connections; static and dynamic tests to assess the friction factor between pallets and rack beams; full-scale pushover and pseudodynamic tests of storage racks in down-aisle and cross-aisle directions; and full-scale dynamic tests on two-bay, three-level rack models. The implications of the findings of this extensive testing regime on the seismic behavior of racking systems are discussed in detail, highlighting e.g. the confirmation that under severe dynamic conditions “sliding” is the main factor influencing rack response. This work was conceived during the development of the SEISRACKS project. Its outcomes will contribute significantly to increasing our knowledge of the structural behavior of racks under earthquake conditions and should inform future rack design.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Despite their lightness, racking systems (see appendix A for detailed information about structural typologies, standard pallet types and sizes as well as nomenclature) carry very high live load (many times larger than the dead load, opposite of what happens for usual civil engineering structures) and can raise a considerable height. For these reasons they have to be properly designed (Fig. 1.1).
Carlo Andrea Castiglioni

Chapter 2. Component Tests

Abstract
Component tests were performed with the aim of characterizing the behaviour of both beam-to-upright and base connections, in order to allow a correct interpretation of full scale tests as well as in order to calibrate numerical models.
Carlo Andrea Castiglioni

Chapter 3. Pallet Sliding

Abstract
Friction is the tangential reaction force between two surfaces in contact. Physically these reaction forces are the results of many different mechanisms, which depend on contact geometry and typology, properties of the bulk and surface materials of the bodies, displacement and relative velocity of the bodies and presence of lubrication.
Carlo Andrea Castiglioni

Chapter 4. Pushover Tests

Abstract
Two push-over tests (one in down-aisle, the other in cross-aisle direction) were carried out, in order to evaluate the possibility to propose in a Standard Design Code for Racks in Seismic Areas, static push-over analyses (currently available in many commercially available software packages for structural analysis) as alternative to dynamic (linear or non-linear) analyses, as it seems to be the current trend in many codes for seismic design of building structures.
Carlo Andrea Castiglioni

Chapter 5. Pseudodynamic Tests

Abstract
The pseudo-dynamic test method is a hybrid analysis method, combining analytical techniques with experimental methods, aimed at the study of the seismic behaviour of structures.
Carlo Andrea Castiglioni

Chapter 6. Dynamic Full-Scale Tests

Abstract
Shake-table testing of full-scale storage rack systems loaded with real merchandise represents the most direct experimental procedure to assess their seismic behaviour. Unfortunately, this type of testing is expensive compared to other methodologies and only a very limited number of shake-table studies on storage racks have been performed to date in the world and are available in the literature.
Carlo Andrea Castiglioni

Chapter 7. Conclusions

Abstract
Despite their lightness, racking systems carry very high live load (many times larger than the dead load, opposite of what happens for usual civil engineering structures) and can raise a considerable height. Prediction of the structural behaviour of pallet racks is difficult because is affected by the particular geometry of their structural components: members made by high slenderness thin-walled, open-section profiles (hence prone to global, local and distortional buckling problems), beam-to-upright and base-plate joints exhibiting a non-linear behaviour.
Carlo Andrea Castiglioni

Backmatter

Additional information