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2024 | Book

Selected Proceedings of the 6th Space Resources Conference

KGK 2023

Editors: Agata Kołodziejczyk, Joanna Pyrkosz–Pacyna, Krzysztof Grabowski, Katarzyna Malinowska, Olga Sergijenko

Publisher: Springer Nature Switzerland

Book Series : Springer Aerospace Technology


About this book

This book collects advances, innovations, and applications in the field of space resources and exploration, as presented by international researchers at the 6th Space Resources Conference (KGK), held in Kraków, Poland on May 15-16, 2023. The conference serves as a forum for discussion on the state-of-the-art technologies applicable to current challenges of space exploration, the use of space resources to improve the living conditions of humans and protect Earth’s natural environment, and the latest research results on space resource extraction, transportation, manufacturing in space, and how to develop settlements on the Moon and Mars. Topics include bioastronautics and life support systems, Earth observation and sensors issues, space law, subspace missions, space industry, society and space, space education, and space structures design and operations. The book, which was selected by means of a rigorous peer-review process, presents a wealth of exciting ideas that will open novel research directions and foster multidisciplinary collaboration among different specialists.

Table of Contents


Earth Observation and Sensors Issues

Spaceborne SAR Interferometry or Time Machine for Geodetic Purposes
Despite the systematic observations, the suitability of optical images acquired from the satellite might be reduced due to cloud coverage or night time acquisition. Such kind of limitations can be overcome by using satellites that are equipped with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Thus, each radar image from the collected database can be taken for processing. The InSAR processing and time series analysis, which consist of dozens of images of a certain area, allows not only to assess geodynamic changes that have occurred in the past but also to develop predictive models for future evaluation. This article contains a collection of results focusing on the usage of Sentinel-1 SAR data for solving geodetic and geodynamic tasks. Geodetic control conducted by the PSInSAR technique confirms dam stability in the vertical position. Measured movements correspond to seasonal deformations. As a result of processing 220 radar images, acquired by Sentinel-1 satellite over the territory of Kyiv peninsula in West Antarctica for the period from May 2015 to November 2022 we got 219 ice velocity maps. Statistical analysis of the obtained data allowed to develop an analytical model that could be used to predict the glacier velocity movement in the future. The Differential SAR Interferometry method was used for developing a deformation map that shows geodynamic activity affected by non-tidal atmospheric loading. Data verification performed by comparing the subsidence results on the deformation map with the altitude changes measured by the permanent GNSS station.
Denys Kukhtar
Application of Computer Vision Algorithms Onboard Flying Drones for Earth Observation
Flying drones are one of the modern and effective means of earth observation. Most often, drones transmit streaming video to ground observation points, but in certain conditions this may not be acceptable. The paper proposes to detect objects on board the drone based on CV algorithms and transmit limited data. Research on determining the most effective computer software algorithms and energy-efficient platforms for their implementation is given. The architecture of convolutional neural networks was analyzed. The study was carried out on the basis of neural network training on VEDAI dataset with vehicle objects. The peculiarity of this dataset is that the area of objects is several percent of the image area, which corresponds to the conditions of earth observation. The method of weights was used to analyze and select the most effective platform of single-board computers for the implementation of CV algorithms. The results of the research can be used in standard tasks for EO, such as observing climate change, monitoring environmental problems, studying flora and fauna, etc. Moreover, proposed solutions can significantly improve the military domain by reducing the risk of interception and destruction of flying drones.
Yuliia Lazarovych, Ihor Lazarovych

Habitats, Bioastronautics and Life Support Systems

Closed Ecological System: Space Challenges
Closed ecological systems have been proposed for use in space travel and colonization, as they would allow astronauts to independently produce food, water, and oxygen and recycle their waste. Genetic markers can be valuable tools for studying and managing closed ecosystems in space, such as small populations or isolated environments. In this article, we explore the specific challenges that ecological systems will face in space, how genetic markers can be used to manage them, and also examine the potential for cultivating stone fruit crops in space.
Svitlana Haridzhuk
Morphological Analysis of Microbial Life in Cold Environments of Arctic and Stratosphere
The Arctic seasonal snowpack, spanning a significant portion of Earth’s land surface, serves as a complex and chemically dynamic ecosystem with intricate interactions across the atmosphere, soil, and meltwater. Microbial life within this seemingly barren expanse has gained recognition as a reservoir of diverse microorganisms, shaping the global biosphere. Despite this burgeoning awareness, the ecological dynamics of polar microorganisms remain incompletely understood, enveloping this ecosystem in scientific uncertainty. In this study, we aimed to delve into the heart of Arctic microbial samples, unraveling the tapestry of species abundance, dominance, and ecological classifications. Leveraging the analytical capabilities of Image J software, we examined the nuanced characteristics of these ecologically significant snow-bound inhabitants. Adapted to the Arctic’s rigors, microbial communities demonstrated unique attributes suited for survival in this environment. The distribution of these microbial assemblages reflected the imprint of environmental nuances, with their structure–function relationship revealing a narrative of adaptation driven by specific environmental factors. Furthermore, this research explored microbial stress responses under stratospheric flight conditions, offering a novel perspective not attainable through conventional laboratory techniques. Extremophiles faced extreme stressors during stratospheric flight, mirroring conditions found in near-space environments. This approach facilitated the observation of early stress responses and shed light on the adaptive strategies of microorganisms to these harsh conditions. Overall, our study unveils the intricacies of Arctic microbial realms, spotlighting both familiar inhabitants and enigmatic newcomers. By untangling the functional tapestry shaping these communities, we gain insights into the evolving Arctic landscape and broader narratives of environmental adaptation and change. Furthermore, our investigation of microbial resilience in stratospheric environments contributes to the understanding of extremophiles and their adaptability to challenging conditions beyond Earth’s surface.
Upasana Mohanty, Agata Kołodziejczyk
BIOSTRAT—Development of a Research Capsule to Carry Out Astrobiological Experiments and Testing in a “Near Space” Environment in the Stratosphere
Stratospheric missions are much more accessible than space to test technologies and scientific experimentation but still preparations before the flight require complex and long-term activities very often including testing in the professional laboratories. The construction of the capsule is based on multiple subsystems such as board computers, sensors, mechanical and thermal protection, power supply and customized platform for desired experimentation, which very often exceeds knowledge and experience of a single researcher. On the other hand, a multidisciplinary team requires complex management and control, not to mention time consumption. Thus, to obey the above problems, we decided to develop a universal research capsule to perform multiple astrobiological experiments in the near-space environment. The main goal was to create a construction easy to handle and easy to repair or gently modify if needed. The project we describe is the construction of a lab-on-chip device adapted to the near-space environment in the stratosphere including vacuum, negative temperatures, high UV radiation and cosmic radiation, which enables us to carry out a number of research projects related to astrobiology in the future.
Agata Kołodziejczyk, Piotr Pichór, Wojciech Guziewicz, Wojciech Damian, Anna Wysocka, Mateusz Koba, Bartłomiej Krawczyk, Joanna Stępień, Bartłomiej Klima, Wiktoria Tokarczyk, Wiktoria Foryś, Kacper Duda, Mikołaj Gąbka, Grzegorz Kot, Matt Harasymczuk
The Use of Pressurized Garments in Space Analog Facilities and Studies
Many space analog stations and studies use unpressurized garments in EVA activities. These suits are often non-gas-tight coveralls paired with a bubble-type helmet supplied with standard atmospheric air from fans in an improvised backpack. Such arrangements are intended to add to the complexity and challenge of EVA such that the simulation is more realistic, incorporating the challenges of wearing garments that restrict movement and dexterity, demand radio communications and so on. While such efforts have been useful to date, there are good reasons to use affordable pressurized garments in these situations. This paper outlines the rationale for, logistics and operational issues of pressurized garment use in space analog stations and studies, providing some examples, preliminary test data and commentary on the philosophy of EVA activities.
Cameron M. Smith, Mason Robbins, Trent Tresch, Kai Staats, Matt Harasymczuk, Agata Kołodziejczyk
The Application of Genetic Algorithm in Design of 3D Printed High Altitude Balloon Capsule
Genetic algorithms were applied to design high altitude balloon capsules. Capsule was printed from PLA in FFF and sent into the stratosphere with biological samples. As predicted cargo was not harmed, energy of the landing was absorbed by energy absorbing structures. To lower the mass of the capsule and mission level of risk every generated design underwent 3000 virtual landings on randomly generated surfaces. First batch of 100 designs was generated semi-randomly, following 99 batches came from averaging alphanumeric strings which contained a full description of designs (one string contained description of one design). Amount of designs in a batch was constant.
Michał Gocyła
The Jump into the Void
Space exploration’s primary goal is to understand and in the end explore and habit the cosmos. Space is projection for human dreams and endeavors, but it is looked back upon. When you project ideas, technologies, and practices to space they always reflect back to the terrestrial realm and in the end they emerge at the surface of the Earth. We humans are so bound to our sensorium, scale and timeframe which are almost insignificant when comparing the view of nature, earth, solar system and deep space and time. If we humans want to explore exoplanets, planets that are expected to host an environment favorable to life as we know it in our own galaxy it would take even with speculative expected technologies with maximum speed of 0.005% light years staggering 90 million years. And there are two trillion galaxies estimated in the observable Universe. Dinosaurs were wiped out by an asteroid over 66 million years ago, and modern humans have existed for 300, 000 years. If we reach the outskirts of our galaxy with this method then the concept of human, other life and machines on those vessels would evolve beyond our imagination. Dreaming big is in our blood but it is vital for us to expand our planetary imaginaries of earth and understanding of solar objects and our system. In this presentation/article I will cover short insight to arts and some emergent technologies projected to space and space missions in the framework of analog astronaut training. Some to be mentioned; machine learning, 3D scanning and using 3d modeling and A.I. to explore future and alternative views to space, tech and humans. Another trajectory is to reflect the experience of analog astronaut mission AD Astra 54 and role of art and artist on extreme environments in frame work of subarctic and arctic research missions, stations and underground facilities and research elements like Callio lab and Pyhäsalmi mine, deepest mine in Europe.
Antti Tenetz

Materials and Structures

Planetary Rovers on Extreme Terrains: Emergencies and Responses
Planetary rovers have emerged as indispensable vehicles in space exploration, serving as robotic ambassadors on distant celestial bodies. These robotic explorers have revolutionized space exploration by providing scientists with unprecedented access to alien landscapes and enabling groundbreaking scientific discoveries. This brief article provides an overview of these remarkable machines and their paramount significance in advancing our understanding of the cosmos. In this article, we embark on an expedition to understand the remarkable causes of emergencies faced by these intrepid robotic travelers as they navigate and investigate the extreme terrains found on other celestial bodies. In addition, we explore how planetary rover missions have become essential tools in our pursuit of knowledge beyond Earth’s boundaries.
Mehmet Kara
Graphene Oxide with Controllable Reduction Level: An Approach to Space Applications
The use of graphene oxide has attracted considerable attention in various fields due to its exceptional properties. In this paper, we present an approach focused on the controllable reduction level of graphene oxide and its potential applicability. This controllability not only affects its electrical and optical properties, but also expands the possibilities of its use in specific space applications. This paper investigates the synthesis of graphene oxide using a modified Hummers method. X-ray diffraction patterns of the obtained materials have been analyzed according to the Rietveld method. The average size of graphene oxide particles has been determined. The study has examined the dependence of the optical properties of a colloidal solution of graphene oxide on the pH of the medium. The results obtained offer insights applicable to advancing techniques for the targeted modification of graphene oxide, especially as an acceptor for photovoltaic solar cells. The potential implications of this research contribute to the evolving materials for energy harvesting and conversion applications.
Dariia Khoma, Volodymyra Boychuk, Liliia Turovska
Powder-Filled Epoxy Resin as a Promising Material for Cosmic Radiation Shielding
Space radiation has emerged as a critical factor limiting the duration of space missions, as it poses risks to spacecraft and humans. The impact of cosmic radiation on electronics and materials cannot be ignored, making it even more necessary to reduce radiation exposure. To address this issue, researchers are studying nanomaterial additives, which offer a promising approach to improve the performance of composites used in space structures. Among them, nanomaterial-filled epoxy resins have been shown to be effective in shielding against high-energy cosmic rays. This paper explores the potential of epoxy resin-based composites filled with various powders as effective solutions for cosmic radiation shielding. Through experimental studies, the protective properties of various powder additives, including antimony oxide and sodium tungstate, have been investigated. The results reveal exceptional performance against gamma radiation, making these composites promising candidates for protection against cosmic radiation. Their lightweight, cost-effectiveness, ease of fabrication, and radiation durability make them highly attractive for enhancing the safety and reliability of future space exploration.
Yuliia Petrenko, Volodymyr Kotsyubynsky, Liliia Turovska

Society and Space, Space Education and Sustainability

Space Exploration Perception—Current and Future Research Directions
Space exploration evokes different connotations in different people. For some, it represents human progress and the eternal quest for answers to the most profound questions like “When did the Universe originate?” or “Are we alone in the Universe?”. For others, space exploration is yet another way to exhibit national domination, gain superiority and affluence. As with the development of many new technologies it is not possible to unequivocally determine whether it is good or bad, beneficial or detrimental. Space exploration has its indisputable scientific and pragmatic benefits. But it also can pose threats and lead to abuse or misuse of power or resources. It is therefore important to monitor how society perceives this domain, especially in the moments of its rapid development such as we witness nowadays. Currently both public and private space sectors are developing rapidly. New ambitious missions are being planned and implemented including commercial enterprises worldwide to join in. How people perceive space exploration influences both their own engagement in this subject (for example in terms of educational and vocational choices) but also affect policy makers and public funding strategies. In this article we present an outline of research areas in space exploration perception. We summarize key previous findings and propose an outline for future research directions.
Joanna Pyrkosz-Pacyna, Katarzyna Cieślak
Humanities in Space: Double Bind or Double Opportunity?
The new age of space conquest brings to the forefront questions that the humanities have asked since the first ages of space conquest. For law and philosophy, space now appears in particular as a place to think about in terms of human exploration and settlement, and occupation that is not degrading, unjust or contaminating. For poetry, literature and theater, space is now also a place to be reinvented, no longer as an imaginary and hypothetical frontier but as a place of everyday life. Here, the addition of these questions appears as a double opportunity for the humanities: not only are they asked to reflect on living together in a non-terrestrial environment, one of their essential subjects, especially in the creation of utopias and extraterrestrial civilisations, but it is from the most contemporary perspective, that of ethics, justice and sustainability, that this request is made. The renewal of the conquest of space thus once again confronts human beings with the challenges they faced when they discovered the Orient or America.
Christina Stange-Fayos, Vincent Simoulin

Space Exploration Problems

Analysis of Lunar Satellite Data for Site Selection for Future Commercial In-Situ Resource Reconnaissance Drilling Missions
The subject of the work is the analysis of satellite data in the database “LROC: QuickMap.” The article focuses on water ice deposits which could be converted into hydrogen or oxygen, among other things, and later used as a rocket fuel. The distribution of water ice deposits on the Moon is presented and a micro-trap on the Moon’s south pole is proposed, which in the future could be an object for the exploration of water ice. An exit and descent route to the crater floor for the rover was also proposed, considering the degree of insolation and the degree of slope of the crater walls.
Weronika Binkowska, Adam Jan Zwierzyński, Przemysław Toczek
Prototype of a Conveyor System for the Transport of Lunar Regolith
Transport equipment designed to operate on the Moon will function under conditions of low gravity and the absence of an atmosphere, and will have to meet very high requirements regarding resistance to extremely low temperatures. Moreover, they should be resistant to highly abrasive lunar dust and should not contribute to its stirring from the surface. This article presents the concept, prototype, and laboratory tests of the tandem conveyor system for the transport of lunar regolith—TOLRECON (Tandem Of Lunar REgholit CONveyors). The prototype of this device was created as a result of research and development work of the student scientific group SpaceTeam AGH. The TOLRECON concept involves combining a rod scraper conveyor for horizontal transport of the regolith with a bucket elevator responsible for vertical transport. TOLRECON is equipped with a single synchronous drive system, which simultaneously drives the scraper conveyor and the drive sprocket of the bucket conveyor through a gearbox. The reciprocating motion of the rod gently moves portions of regolith with the help of scrapers, dosing them into buckets mounted on a single chain. As a result of laboratory tests of the device’s design, the number of kinematic pairs sensitive to dust was minimized, the possibility of stirring up dust was limited through the optimization of the shape of scrapers and buckets, and the weight of the entire device was reduced.
Piotr Kulinowski
Anticipatory Cooperation Principles for Autonomous Space Exploratory Rovers
This paper demonstrates the application of anticipatory robotics principles in planning the cooperation and coordination of deep space autonomous intelligent exploratory robots. These robots possess autonomous decision-making capabilities and knowledge of other robots’ decision algorithms. Cooperating robot formations are modeled as evolving anticipatory networks, driven by discrete event systems with virtual supervisors. The core feature of anticipatory coordination, particularly when communication is limited, during the execution of a shared task, involves predicting the future actions of other robots based on their known decision algorithms. The computational homogeneity among the robots allows each of them to periodically act as a coordinator, issuing commands to other robots while considering their expected positions and activity statuses. These principles have been validated in previous experiments with inspection and harvesting robot teams. Drawing from our experience with anticipatory robot coordination, we have assessed current and planned deep space missions, identifying several promising applications. Notably, we rank highest icy moon surface exploration rovers, although similar cooperation and coordination principles are also relevant to Mars rovers during solar conjunction, as well as missions to Titan, Enceladus, and other planetary destinations. As an illustrative example, we present a multicriteria coordination problem involving a team of robots planning nondominated paths and collaborating in an anticipatory network formation for a common task.
Andrzej M. J. Skulimowski

Space Law and Management

From Earth Economy to Space Economy: Harnessing Space Resources for Sustainable Human Habitats
The prospect of new extraterrestrial markets and economic systems, such as the Earth-Moon economy, has attracted considerable interest over the past few decades, largely due to advances in space technology and the growing recognition of space resources. This paper analyzes the development, challenges and potential benefits of establishing an Earth-Moon economic system. The paper addresses the environmental, economic, political and social challenges associated with such ventures. In particular, the lack of initial investment capital, the high indebtedness of distant frontier settlements (Mars, asteroids), and discrepancies in the values of potential objects of exchange. This article serves both as a review of the current state of knowledge and as a basis for future research.
Piotr Kaczmarek-Kurczak
What’s Next for the Regulation of Utilizing Space Resources? Terrestrial Mining Versus Space Mining
The utilization of resources in outer space is essential for enabling and facilitating future deep space exploration by humans, as well as promoting prosperity on Earth. The use of natural resources present in outer space is necessary due to the difficulty and cost of lifting materials from Earth’s gravity, as well as transporting them beyond low Earth orbit. On the other hand, rare elements present in asteroids and smaller objects, if economically extracted and brought down to Earth, could decrease the cost of manufacturing of numerous products. These facts are the starting point of the considerations conducted in the paper with respect to the prospects for the future regulation of utilizing space resources. As we are acting in a legal vacuum, facing a kind of greenfield of legal regulations, the legal approach should be multi-perspective. Most of the recent considerations on the subject have focused on the validity of space mining activity from the perspective of public international law. The authors do not question the importance thereof, however, the more specific aspects of this type of activity should also not be lost. Thus the existing legal regime included in space treaties, as well as the outcomes of the activities of various expert groups, should be just a starting point for the analysis. At first, it seems the basic principles and recommendations developed in the ‘Building blocks’ should be re-established at both the international and the national level through a specific regulation adapted to the nature of space mining activity. Just like earth-based mining, space mining will presumably be an exploitative, dangerous and environmentally damaging activity. Even with strict policies and regulations in place, mining activities will still release dangerous pollution into the surroundings. The technology feasibility studies conducted in this respect have already attempted a comparison of traditional earth mining and asteroid mining, finding many similarities. Thus, the authors’ intention is to attempt to compare the earth-based mining legal regulations, possibly drawing some conclusions as to the specific aspects of space mining, such as the liability regime at a private or national level, licensing, the type of property rights, environmental issues, the risk-sharing regime, compulsory insurance, as well as supervision and control. The issue of the business models, including the public–private partnership, should also be considered. The long tradition of mining laws in countries with established extractive industries may provide interesting regulatory directions for attempts to draft extra-terrestrial mining legislation.
Bartosz Malinowski, Katarzyna Malinowska

UNIVERSEH Space Education

United Web Platform for Space Education and Space Research in Ukraine
The research substantiates the growing trend of increasing interest in space technologies in Ukraine; proves the need to create a united web platform for space education and space research in Ukraine. The main advantages of the united web platform as a tool for obtaining information about space education, space research and space startups are determined. It is shown that a united web platform provides an opportunity to bring together students, scientists and researchers to work together on the main goal of space exploratioṇ. The novelty of the platform is its systemic structure, which is unique and adapted to the needs of space technologies of Ukraine. A structural diagram of the information content of the platform has been developed. It contains three main elements: space education, space research and space startups. An analysis and brief description of the features of space education and space research in Ukraine with the aim of high-quality information content of the united web platform is given. The study has proved the importance of form quality information content of united web platforms by methodizing, categorizing space education, space research, interesting projects and systematizing recent news. The research confirms the potential of a united web platform as a powerful developmental tool for space education and space research in Ukraine and proves the requirement for the implementation of space startups.
Irena Yaremak, Roman Yaremak

Various Aspects of Space Research

Anticipated Network of Optimizers for Energy Applications in Space
Anticipatory networks combined with smart systems can predict spacecraft consumption patterns and transmit electricity according to the expected demand. Modern data-driven techniques are needed to meet spacecraft demand forecasting challenges. Anticipatory networks link data about the future to decisions made today. Multicriteria Decision-Making methodology aims to enrich methods for controlling spacecraft electric elements and create visualizations of proposed control methods. The description of solving the optimization problem was presented. The possibilities of a solution in the energy sector in space with the usage of anticipated networks were given.
Anna Jarosz
Analysis of Accelerations Occurring During the Stratospheric Balloon Flight
Due to the increasing interest in performing experiments onboard stratospheric balloon gondolas, there is a need to deepen the knowledge and understanding of the conditions and forces that could affect the experiment during the flight. An area requiring in-depth analysis is the occurrence of hypergravity during stratospheric balloon flight, related, for example, to the strong winds occurring in the stratosphere or to the impact caused by landing. The paper shows an analysis of data from three stratospheric balloon missions. Each mission by default consists of three phases of flight which are, consecutively: balloon launch, balloon burst, and landing of the gondola. Such a division proposed by the authors, enables analysis of the sample’s in-flight behavior. An accelerometer, placed inside the gondola and representing the payload during flight with lateral accelerations acting on it in all phases, enables data collection and further outcome analysis, which is being discussed in the following paper.
Dagmara Stasiowska, Weronika Żmuda
International Scientific Center “Observatory”/“White Elephant”: Ukrainian-Polish Scientific Project with Pan-European Perspectives
In the mid-1930s, Leon Berbetsky, President of the Supervisory Board of the Polish Anti-Aircraft Defense League, initiated the construction of an astronomical observatory in the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains. With state support, by the middle of 1938, a multi-functional Astronomical—Meteorological Observatory named after Marshal Józef Piłsudski was established on Mount Pip Ivan. It was a unique scientific institution with state-of-the-art equipment, which had no analogues in the Polish state of that time. After the Soviet invasion of Poland, astronomical work was halted. After World War II, it was not restored. Several attempts were made to revive the facility in the 1960s and 1990s, but they ended in failure. The situation changed when Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University and the University of Warsaw took up the task of restoring the observatory. Through the collaborative efforts of these educational institutions, the issue of reconstructing the observatory was raised to the interstate level and by the end of the first decade of the twenty-first century received support from the Presidents of Ukraine and Poland. Despite changes in leadership in both countries in 2010, work to restore the facility continued. Cooperation between universities and the State Emergency Service of Ukraine in Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast played an important role in this effort. In 2017, it established its rescue post at the International Scientific Center “Observatory”. A significant step, marking the transition of restoration work to the pan-European level, was the implementation of the project “Adaptation of the Former Observatory on Mount Pip Ivan for the Needs of a High-Mountain Rescue Center” within the framework of the European Union cross-border cooperation program Poland—Belarus—Ukraine. Its successful completion has opened up new opportunities for further development of the functionality of the astronomical observatory for the Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University and the University of Warsaw, as well as for advancement in the fields of meteorological observations, conducting theoretical and practical research in ecological and safety dimensions.
Igor Tsependa, Ihor Hurak, Iryna Uhorchuk
Selected Proceedings of the 6th Space Resources Conference
Agata Kołodziejczyk
Joanna Pyrkosz–Pacyna
Krzysztof Grabowski
Katarzyna Malinowska
Olga Sergijenko
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