Skip to main content
Top
Published in:

09-09-2019

Sharing the Load: How Do Coresident Children Influence the Allocation of Work and Schooling in Northwestern Tanzania?

Authors: Sophie Hedges, David W. Lawson, Jim Todd, Mark Urassa, Rebecca Sear

Published in: Demography | Issue 5/2019

Login to get access

Activate our intelligent search to find suitable subject content or patents.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

Economic and evolutionary models of parental investment often predict education biases toward earlier-born children, resulting from either household resource dilution or parental preference. Previous research, however, has not always found these predicted biases—perhaps because in societies where children work, older children are more efficient at household tasks and substitute for younger children, whose time can then be allocated to school. The role of labor substitution in determining children’s schooling remains uncertain, however, because few studies have simultaneously considered intrahousehold variation in both children’s education and work. Here, we investigate the influence of coresident children on education, work, and leisure in northwestern Tanzania, using detailed time use data collected from multiple children per household (n = 1,273). We find that age order (relative age, compared with coresident children) within the household is associated with children’s time allocation, but these patterns differ by gender. Relatively young girls do less work, have more leisure time, and have greater odds of school enrollment than older girls. We suggest that this results from labor substitution: older girls are more efficient workers, freeing younger girls’ time for education and leisure. Conversely, relatively older boys have the highest odds of school enrollment among coresident boys, possibly reflecting traditional norms regarding household work allocation and age hierarchies. Gender is also important in household work allocation: boys who coreside with more girls do fewer household chores. We conclude that considering children as both producers and consumers is critical to understanding intrahousehold variation in children’s schooling and work.

To get access to this content you need the following product:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 340 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Versicherung + Risiko




Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Appendix
Available only for authorised users
Literature
go back to reference Al-Samarrai, S., & Peasgood, T. (1998). Educational attainments and household characteristics in Tanzania. Economics of Education Review, 17, 395–417.CrossRef Al-Samarrai, S., & Peasgood, T. (1998). Educational attainments and household characteristics in Tanzania. Economics of Education Review, 17, 395–417.CrossRef
go back to reference Altmann, J. (1974). Observational study of behavior: Sampling methods. Behaviour, 49, 227–266.CrossRef Altmann, J. (1974). Observational study of behavior: Sampling methods. Behaviour, 49, 227–266.CrossRef
go back to reference Baksh, M. (1989). The spot observations technique in time allocation research. Cultural Anthropology Methods, 1(2), 1–3. Baksh, M. (1989). The spot observations technique in time allocation research. Cultural Anthropology Methods, 1(2), 1–3.
go back to reference Basu, K., & Van, P. H. (1998). The economics of child labor. American Economic Review, 88, 412–427. Basu, K., & Van, P. H. (1998). The economics of child labor. American Economic Review, 88, 412–427.
go back to reference Becker, G. S. (1960). An economic analysis of fertility. In National Bureau of Economic Research (Ed.), Demographic and economic change in developed countries (pp. 209–240). New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Becker, G. S. (1960). An economic analysis of fertility. In National Bureau of Economic Research (Ed.), Demographic and economic change in developed countries (pp. 209–240). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
go back to reference Bock, J. (2002). Evolutionary demography and intrahousehold time allocation: School attendance and child labor among the Okavango Delta Peoples of Botswana. American Journal of Human Biology, 14, 206–221.CrossRef Bock, J. (2002). Evolutionary demography and intrahousehold time allocation: School attendance and child labor among the Okavango Delta Peoples of Botswana. American Journal of Human Biology, 14, 206–221.CrossRef
go back to reference Borgerhoff Mulder, M. (1998). Brothers and sisters. Human Nature, 9, 119–161.CrossRef Borgerhoff Mulder, M. (1998). Brothers and sisters. Human Nature, 9, 119–161.CrossRef
go back to reference Borgerhoff Mulder, M., & Caro, T. M. (1985). The use of quantitative observational techniques in anthropology. Current Anthropology, 26, 323–335.CrossRef Borgerhoff Mulder, M., & Caro, T. M. (1985). The use of quantitative observational techniques in anthropology. Current Anthropology, 26, 323–335.CrossRef
go back to reference Brown, J. E., & Dunn, P. K. (2011). Comparisons of Tobit, linear, and Poisson-gamma regression models: An application of time use data. Sociological Methods & Research, 40, 511–535.CrossRef Brown, J. E., & Dunn, P. K. (2011). Comparisons of Tobit, linear, and Poisson-gamma regression models: An application of time use data. Sociological Methods & Research, 40, 511–535.CrossRef
go back to reference Brunette, W., Sundt, M., Dell, N., Chaudhri, R., Breit, N., & Borriello, G. (2013). Open Data Kit 2.0: Expanding and refining information services for developing regions. In ACM HotMobile ‘13: Proceedings of the 14th Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (article 10). Jekyll Island, Georgia: ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/2444776.2444790 Brunette, W., Sundt, M., Dell, N., Chaudhri, R., Breit, N., & Borriello, G. (2013). Open Data Kit 2.0: Expanding and refining information services for developing regions. In ACM HotMobile ‘13: Proceedings of the 14th Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (article 10). Jekyll Island, Georgia: ACM. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1145/​2444776.​2444790
go back to reference Canagarajah, S., & Coulombe, H. (1993). Child labor and schooling in Ghana. (Ghana: Labor Markets and Poverty background paper). Washington, DC: World Bank. Canagarajah, S., & Coulombe, H. (1993). Child labor and schooling in Ghana. (Ghana: Labor Markets and Poverty background paper). Washington, DC: World Bank.
go back to reference Chernichovsky, D. (1985). Socioeconomic and demographic aspects of school enrollment and attendance in rural Botswana. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 33, 319–332.CrossRef Chernichovsky, D. (1985). Socioeconomic and demographic aspects of school enrollment and attendance in rural Botswana. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 33, 319–332.CrossRef
go back to reference Coates, J., Swindale, A., & Bilinsky, P. (2007). Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) for measurement of household food access: Indicator guide (v. 3). Washington, DC: FHI 360/FANTA. Coates, J., Swindale, A., & Bilinsky, P. (2007). Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) for measurement of household food access: Indicator guide (v. 3). Washington, DC: FHI 360/FANTA.
go back to reference Cornwell, K., Inder, B., Maitra, P., & Rammohan, A. (2005). Household composition and schooling of rural South African children: Sibling synergy and migrant effects (Monash Economics working papers). Clayton, Australia: Department of Economics, Monash University. Cornwell, K., Inder, B., Maitra, P., & Rammohan, A. (2005). Household composition and schooling of rural South African children: Sibling synergy and migrant effects (Monash Economics working papers). Clayton, Australia: Department of Economics, Monash University.
go back to reference Dammert, A. C. (2010). Siblings, child labor, and schooling in Nicaragua and Guatemala. Journal of Population Economics, 23, 199–224.CrossRef Dammert, A. C. (2010). Siblings, child labor, and schooling in Nicaragua and Guatemala. Journal of Population Economics, 23, 199–224.CrossRef
go back to reference Dammert, A. C., & Galdo, J. C. (2013). Child labor variation by type of respondent: Evidence from a large-scale study (IZA Discussion Paper No. 7446). Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor. Dammert, A. C., & Galdo, J. C. (2013). Child labor variation by type of respondent: Evidence from a large-scale study (IZA Discussion Paper No. 7446). Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor.
go back to reference Dillon, A., Bardasi, E., Beegle, K., & Serneels, P. M. (2010). Explaining variation in child labor statistics (IZA Discussion Paper No. 5156). Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor. Dillon, A., Bardasi, E., Beegle, K., & Serneels, P. M. (2010). Explaining variation in child labor statistics (IZA Discussion Paper No. 5156). Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor.
go back to reference Downey, D. B. (2001). Number of siblings and intellectual development. American Psychologist, 56, 497–504.CrossRef Downey, D. B. (2001). Number of siblings and intellectual development. American Psychologist, 56, 497–504.CrossRef
go back to reference Edmonds, E. V. (2006). Understanding sibling differences in child labor. Journal of Population Economics, 19, 795–821.CrossRef Edmonds, E. V. (2006). Understanding sibling differences in child labor. Journal of Population Economics, 19, 795–821.CrossRef
go back to reference Eloundou-Enyegue, P. M., & Williams, L. B. (2006). Family size and schooling in sub-Saharan African settings: A reexamination. Demography, 43, 25–52.CrossRef Eloundou-Enyegue, P. M., & Williams, L. B. (2006). Family size and schooling in sub-Saharan African settings: A reexamination. Demography, 43, 25–52.CrossRef
go back to reference Emerson, P. M., & Souza, P. A. (2008). Birth order, child labor, and school attendance in Brazil. World Development, 36, 1647–1664.CrossRef Emerson, P. M., & Souza, P. A. (2008). Birth order, child labor, and school attendance in Brazil. World Development, 36, 1647–1664.CrossRef
go back to reference Fafchamps, M., & Wahba, J. (2006). Child labor, urban proximity, and household composition. Journal of Development Economics, 79, 374–397.CrossRef Fafchamps, M., & Wahba, J. (2006). Child labor, urban proximity, and household composition. Journal of Development Economics, 79, 374–397.CrossRef
go back to reference Gibson, M. A., & Gurmu, E. (2011). Land inheritance establishes sibling competition for marriage and reproduction in rural Ethiopia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 2200–2204.CrossRef Gibson, M. A., & Gurmu, E. (2011). Land inheritance establishes sibling competition for marriage and reproduction in rural Ethiopia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 2200–2204.CrossRef
go back to reference Gibson, M. A., & Lawson, D. W. (2011). “Modernization” increases parental investment and sibling resource competition: Evidence from a rural development initiative in Ethiopia. Evolution and Human Behavior, 32, 97–105.CrossRef Gibson, M. A., & Lawson, D. W. (2011). “Modernization” increases parental investment and sibling resource competition: Evidence from a rural development initiative in Ethiopia. Evolution and Human Behavior, 32, 97–105.CrossRef
go back to reference Gibson, M. A., & Sear, R. (2010). Does wealth increase parental investment biases in child education? Current Anthropology, 51, 693–701.CrossRef Gibson, M. A., & Sear, R. (2010). Does wealth increase parental investment biases in child education? Current Anthropology, 51, 693–701.CrossRef
go back to reference Glick, P., & Sahn, D. E. (2000). Schooling of girls and boys in a West African country: The effects of parental education, income, and household structure. Economics of Education Review, 19, 63–87.CrossRef Glick, P., & Sahn, D. E. (2000). Schooling of girls and boys in a West African country: The effects of parental education, income, and household structure. Economics of Education Review, 19, 63–87.CrossRef
go back to reference Gomes, M. (1984). Family size and educational attainment in Kenya. Population and Development Review, 10, 647–660.CrossRef Gomes, M. (1984). Family size and educational attainment in Kenya. Population and Development Review, 10, 647–660.CrossRef
go back to reference Gurven, M., & Kaplan, H. (2006). Determinants of time allocation across the lifespan: A theoretical model and an application to the Machiguenga and Piro of Peru. Human Nature, 17, 1–49.CrossRef Gurven, M., & Kaplan, H. (2006). Determinants of time allocation across the lifespan: A theoretical model and an application to the Machiguenga and Piro of Peru. Human Nature, 17, 1–49.CrossRef
go back to reference Haile, G., & Haile, B. (2012). Child labour and child schooling in rural Ethiopia: Nature and trade-off. Education Economics, 20, 365–385.CrossRef Haile, G., & Haile, B. (2012). Child labour and child schooling in rural Ethiopia: Nature and trade-off. Education Economics, 20, 365–385.CrossRef
go back to reference Hedges, S., Borgerhoff Mulder, M., James, S., & Lawson, D. W. (2016). Sending children to school: Rural livelihoods and parental investment in education in northern Tanzania. Evolution and Human Behavior, 37, 142–151.CrossRef Hedges, S., Borgerhoff Mulder, M., James, S., & Lawson, D. W. (2016). Sending children to school: Rural livelihoods and parental investment in education in northern Tanzania. Evolution and Human Behavior, 37, 142–151.CrossRef
go back to reference Hedges, S., Sear, R., Todd, J., Urassa, M., & Lawson, D. W. (2018). Trade-offs in children’s time allocation: Mixed support for embodied capital models of the demographic transition in Tanzania. Current Anthropology, 59, 644–654.CrossRef Hedges, S., Sear, R., Todd, J., Urassa, M., & Lawson, D. W. (2018). Trade-offs in children’s time allocation: Mixed support for embodied capital models of the demographic transition in Tanzania. Current Anthropology, 59, 644–654.CrossRef
go back to reference Heissler, K., & Porter, C. (2010). Know your place: Ethiopian children’s contributions to the household economy (Working Paper No. 61). Oxford, UK: Young Lives. Heissler, K., & Porter, C. (2010). Know your place: Ethiopian children’s contributions to the household economy (Working Paper No. 61). Oxford, UK: Young Lives.
go back to reference Hertwig, R., Davis, J. N., & Sulloway, F. J. (2002). Parental investment: How an equity motive can produce inequality. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 728–745.CrossRef Hertwig, R., Davis, J. N., & Sulloway, F. J. (2002). Parental investment: How an equity motive can produce inequality. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 728–745.CrossRef
go back to reference Hivos/Twaweza (2014). Are our children learning? Literacy and numeracy across East Africa (Report). Nairobi, Kenya: Twaweza. Hivos/Twaweza (2014). Are our children learning? Literacy and numeracy across East Africa (Report). Nairobi, Kenya: Twaweza.
go back to reference Hrdy, S. B., & Judge, D. S. (1993). Darwin and the puzzle of primogeniture: An essay on biases in parental investment after death. Human Nature, 4, 1–45.CrossRef Hrdy, S. B., & Judge, D. S. (1993). Darwin and the puzzle of primogeniture: An essay on biases in parental investment after death. Human Nature, 4, 1–45.CrossRef
go back to reference Janzen, S. A. (2018). Child labor measurement: Whom should we ask? International Labour Review, 157, 169–191.CrossRef Janzen, S. A. (2018). Child labor measurement: Whom should we ask? International Labour Review, 157, 169–191.CrossRef
go back to reference Jeon, J. (2008). Evolution of parental favoritism among different-aged offspring. Behavioral Ecology, 19, 344–352.CrossRef Jeon, J. (2008). Evolution of parental favoritism among different-aged offspring. Behavioral Ecology, 19, 344–352.CrossRef
go back to reference Jones, J. H., & Bliege Bird, R. (2014). The marginal valuation of fertility. Evolution and Human Behavior, 35, 65–71.CrossRef Jones, J. H., & Bliege Bird, R. (2014). The marginal valuation of fertility. Evolution and Human Behavior, 35, 65–71.CrossRef
go back to reference Kaplan, H. (1996). A theory of fertility and parental investment in traditional and modern human societies. American Journal of Physical Anthropology: Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 39(S23), 91–135. Kaplan, H. (1996). A theory of fertility and parental investment in traditional and modern human societies. American Journal of Physical Anthropology: Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 39(S23), 91–135.
go back to reference Kaplan, H., Bock, J., & Hooper, P. L. (2015). Fertility theory: Embodied-capital theory of life history evolution. In J. Wright (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences (2nd ed., pp. 28–34). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.CrossRef Kaplan, H., Bock, J., & Hooper, P. L. (2015). Fertility theory: Embodied-capital theory of life history evolution. In J. Wright (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences (2nd ed., pp. 28–34). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.CrossRef
go back to reference Kevane, M., & Levine, D. I. (2003). Changing status of daughters in Indonesia (Working Paper No. C03-126). Berkeley: Center for International and Development Economics Research, University of California, Berkeley. Kevane, M., & Levine, D. I. (2003). Changing status of daughters in Indonesia (Working Paper No. C03-126). Berkeley: Center for International and Development Economics Research, University of California, Berkeley.
go back to reference Kishamawe, C., Isingo, R., Mtenga, B., Zaba, B., Todd, J., Clark, B., ... Urassa, M. (2015). Health & Demographic Surveillance System profile: The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS). International Journal of Epidemiology, 44, 1851–1861.CrossRef Kishamawe, C., Isingo, R., Mtenga, B., Zaba, B., Todd, J., Clark, B., ... Urassa, M. (2015). Health & Demographic Surveillance System profile: The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS). International Journal of Epidemiology, 44, 1851–1861.CrossRef
go back to reference Kramer, K. L. (2002). Variation in juvenile dependence: Helping behavior among Maya children. Human Nature, 13, 299–325.CrossRef Kramer, K. L. (2002). Variation in juvenile dependence: Helping behavior among Maya children. Human Nature, 13, 299–325.CrossRef
go back to reference Kramer, K. L. (2005). Children’s help and the pace of reproduction: Cooperative breeding in humans. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 14, 224–237.CrossRef Kramer, K. L. (2005). Children’s help and the pace of reproduction: Cooperative breeding in humans. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 14, 224–237.CrossRef
go back to reference Kramer, K. L. (2011). The evolution of human parental care and recruitment of juvenile help. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 26, 533–540.CrossRef Kramer, K. L. (2011). The evolution of human parental care and recruitment of juvenile help. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 26, 533–540.CrossRef
go back to reference Kumar, S. (2016). The effect of birth order on schooling in India. Applied Economics Letters, 23, 1325–1328.CrossRef Kumar, S. (2016). The effect of birth order on schooling in India. Applied Economics Letters, 23, 1325–1328.CrossRef
go back to reference Lawson, D. W., & Mace, R. (2009). Trade-offs in modern parenting: A longitudinal study of sibling competition for parental care. Evolution and Human Behavior, 30, 170–183.CrossRef Lawson, D. W., & Mace, R. (2009). Trade-offs in modern parenting: A longitudinal study of sibling competition for parental care. Evolution and Human Behavior, 30, 170–183.CrossRef
go back to reference Lawson, D. W., Schaffnit, S. B., Hassan, A., Ngadaya, E., Ngowi, B., Mfinanga, S. G. M., ... Borgerhoff Mulder, M. (2017). Father absence but not fosterage predicts food insecurity, relative poverty, and poor child health in northern Tanzania. American Journal of Human Biology, 29(3), 1–16. Lawson, D. W., Schaffnit, S. B., Hassan, A., Ngadaya, E., Ngowi, B., Mfinanga, S. G. M., ... Borgerhoff Mulder, M. (2017). Father absence but not fosterage predicts food insecurity, relative poverty, and poor child health in northern Tanzania. American Journal of Human Biology, 29(3), 1–16.
go back to reference Lawson, D. W., & Uggla, C. (2014). Family structure and health in the developing world: What can evolutionary anthropology contribute to population health science? In M. Gibson & D. W. Lawson (Eds.), Applied evolutionary anthropology: Darwinian approaches to contemporary world issues (pp. 85–118). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRef Lawson, D. W., & Uggla, C. (2014). Family structure and health in the developing world: What can evolutionary anthropology contribute to population health science? In M. Gibson & D. W. Lawson (Eds.), Applied evolutionary anthropology: Darwinian approaches to contemporary world issues (pp. 85–118). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRef
go back to reference Lee, R., & Kramer, K. L. (2002). Children’s economic roles in the Maya family life cycle: Cain, Caldwell and Chayanov revisited. Population and Development Review, 28, 475–499.CrossRef Lee, R., & Kramer, K. L. (2002). Children’s economic roles in the Maya family life cycle: Cain, Caldwell and Chayanov revisited. Population and Development Review, 28, 475–499.CrossRef
go back to reference Liddell, C., Barrett, L., & Henzi, P. (2003). Parental investment in schooling: Evidence from a subsistence farming community in South Africa. International Journal of Psychology, 38, 54–63.CrossRef Liddell, C., Barrett, L., & Henzi, P. (2003). Parental investment in schooling: Evidence from a subsistence farming community in South Africa. International Journal of Psychology, 38, 54–63.CrossRef
go back to reference Lindskog, A. (2013). The effect of siblings’ education on school-entry in the Ethiopian highlands. Economics of Education Review, 34, 45–68.CrossRef Lindskog, A. (2013). The effect of siblings’ education on school-entry in the Ethiopian highlands. Economics of Education Review, 34, 45–68.CrossRef
go back to reference Lloyd, C. B., & Blanc, A. K. (1996). Children’s schooling in sub-Saharan Africa: The role of fathers, mothers, and others. Population and Development Review, 22, 265–298.CrossRef Lloyd, C. B., & Blanc, A. K. (1996). Children’s schooling in sub-Saharan Africa: The role of fathers, mothers, and others. Population and Development Review, 22, 265–298.CrossRef
go back to reference Lloyd, C. B., & Gage-Brandon, A. J. (1994). High fertility and children’s schooling in Ghana: Sex differences in parental contributions and educational outcomes. Population Studies, 48, 293–306.CrossRef Lloyd, C. B., & Gage-Brandon, A. J. (1994). High fertility and children’s schooling in Ghana: Sex differences in parental contributions and educational outcomes. Population Studies, 48, 293–306.CrossRef
go back to reference Mace, R. (1996). Biased parental investment and reproductive success in Gabbra pastoralists. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 38, 75–81.CrossRef Mace, R. (1996). Biased parental investment and reproductive success in Gabbra pastoralists. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 38, 75–81.CrossRef
go back to reference Morduch, J. (2000). Sibling rivalry in Africa. American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings, 90, 405–409.CrossRef Morduch, J. (2000). Sibling rivalry in Africa. American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings, 90, 405–409.CrossRef
go back to reference Moyi, P. (2010). Household characteristics and delayed school enrollment in Malawi. International Journal of Educational Development, 30, 236–242.CrossRef Moyi, P. (2010). Household characteristics and delayed school enrollment in Malawi. International Journal of Educational Development, 30, 236–242.CrossRef
go back to reference Parish, W. L., & Willis, R. J. (1993). Daughters, education, and family budgets: Taiwan experience. Journal of Human Resources, 28, 863–898.CrossRef Parish, W. L., & Willis, R. J. (1993). Daughters, education, and family budgets: Taiwan experience. Journal of Human Resources, 28, 863–898.CrossRef
go back to reference Patrinos, H. A., & Psacharopoulos, G. (1995). Educational performance and child labor in Paraguay. International Journal of Educational Development, 15, 47–60.CrossRef Patrinos, H. A., & Psacharopoulos, G. (1995). Educational performance and child labor in Paraguay. International Journal of Educational Development, 15, 47–60.CrossRef
go back to reference Price, J. (2008). Parent-child quality time: Does birth order matter? Journal of Human Resources, 43, 240–265.CrossRef Price, J. (2008). Parent-child quality time: Does birth order matter? Journal of Human Resources, 43, 240–265.CrossRef
go back to reference Pritchett, L. H. (2013). The rebirth of education: Schooling ain’t learning. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development. Pritchett, L. H. (2013). The rebirth of education: Schooling ain’t learning. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.
go back to reference Rammohan, A., & Dancer, D. (2008). Gender differences in intrahousehold schooling outcomes: The role of sibling characteristics and birth-order effects. Education Economics, 16, 111–126.CrossRef Rammohan, A., & Dancer, D. (2008). Gender differences in intrahousehold schooling outcomes: The role of sibling characteristics and birth-order effects. Education Economics, 16, 111–126.CrossRef
go back to reference Randall, S., Coast, E., & Leone, T. (2011). Cultural constructions of the concept of household in sample surveys. Population Studies, 65, 217–229.CrossRef Randall, S., Coast, E., & Leone, T. (2011). Cultural constructions of the concept of household in sample surveys. Population Studies, 65, 217–229.CrossRef
go back to reference Rosati, F. C., & Rossi, M. (2003). Children’s working hours and school enrollment: Evidence from Pakistan and Nicaragua. World Bank Economic Review, 17, 283–295.CrossRef Rosati, F. C., & Rossi, M. (2003). Children’s working hours and school enrollment: Evidence from Pakistan and Nicaragua. World Bank Economic Review, 17, 283–295.CrossRef
go back to reference Roth, E. A. (1991). Education, tradition, and household labor among Rendille pastoralists in northern Kenya. Human Organization, 50, 136–141.CrossRef Roth, E. A. (1991). Education, tradition, and household labor among Rendille pastoralists in northern Kenya. Human Organization, 50, 136–141.CrossRef
go back to reference Ryan, S., Koczberski, G., Curry, G. N., & Germis, E. (2017). Intra-household constraints on educational attainment in rural households in Papua New Guinea. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 58, 27–40.CrossRef Ryan, S., Koczberski, G., Curry, G. N., & Germis, E. (2017). Intra-household constraints on educational attainment in rural households in Papua New Guinea. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 58, 27–40.CrossRef
go back to reference Sear, R. (2011). Parenting and families. In V. Swami (Ed.), Evolutionary psychology: A critical introduction (pp. 215–250). West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. Sear, R. (2011). Parenting and families. In V. Swami (Ed.), Evolutionary psychology: A critical introduction (pp. 215–250). West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
go back to reference Steelman, L. C., Powell, B., Werum, R., & Carter, S. (2002). Reconsidering the effects of sibling configuration: Recent advances and challenges. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 243–269.CrossRef Steelman, L. C., Powell, B., Werum, R., & Carter, S. (2002). Reconsidering the effects of sibling configuration: Recent advances and challenges. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 243–269.CrossRef
go back to reference Trivers, R. L. (1972). Parental investment and sexual selection. In B. Campbell (Ed.), Sexual selection and the descent of man (pp. 136–179). Chicago, IL: Aldine. Trivers, R. L. (1972). Parental investment and sexual selection. In B. Campbell (Ed.), Sexual selection and the descent of man (pp. 136–179). Chicago, IL: Aldine.
go back to reference Varkevisser, C. M. (1973). Socialization in a changing society: Sukuma childhood in rural and urban Mwanza, Tanzania. The Hague: Centre for the Study of Education in Changing Societies. Varkevisser, C. M. (1973). Socialization in a changing society: Sukuma childhood in rural and urban Mwanza, Tanzania. The Hague: Centre for the Study of Education in Changing Societies.
go back to reference Wijsen, F., & Tanner, R. (2002). “I am just a Sukuma”: Globalization and identity construction in northwest Tanzania. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Rodopi.CrossRef Wijsen, F., & Tanner, R. (2002). “I am just a Sukuma”: Globalization and identity construction in northwest Tanzania. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Rodopi.CrossRef
Metadata
Title
Sharing the Load: How Do Coresident Children Influence the Allocation of Work and Schooling in Northwestern Tanzania?
Authors
Sophie Hedges
David W. Lawson
Jim Todd
Mark Urassa
Rebecca Sear
Publication date
09-09-2019
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Demography / Issue 5/2019
Print ISSN: 0070-3370
Electronic ISSN: 1533-7790
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-019-00818-x

Other articles of this Issue 5/2019

Demography 5/2019 Go to the issue