Skip to main content
Top
Published in: Thermal Engineering 9/2023

01-09-2023 | HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER, PROPERTIES OF WORKING BODIES AND MATERIALS

Simulation of Mixing of Single-Phase Fluids in T-Junctions

Authors: F. V. Tuponosov, V. I. Artemov, G. G. Yan’kov, N. S. Dushin, O. A. Dushina, A. V. Dedov

Published in: Thermal Engineering | Issue 9/2023

Log in

Activate our intelligent search to find suitable subject content or patents.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to sample a procedure for numerical simulation and calculation of the processes of mixing in pipes of a T-junction (tee) of natural gas with the so-called “stripped” components, such as methane, hydrogen, and nitrogen, to obtain a mixture that can be used as a fuel at thermal power plants. The specific of fuel gas mixing is high Reynolds numbers of the simulated flows, which can be as high as Re = (5–10) × 106. An analysis is presented of some experimental and modern computational studies of the processes of flow mixing in pipes and T-junctions. It is pointed out that the application of various well-accepted models for eddy viscosity or Reynolds stresses in the numerical simulation on the basis of Reynolds-averaged conservation equations yields a satisfactory agreement with experimental data on mixing flows in a T-mixer only with an unjustified decrease of the turbulent Schmidt (Prandtl) number to the value 0.1 or an increase of the known constant of turbulence models Cμ by a factor of 9. It can be concluded that eddy-resolving methods are unsuitable for the investigation of mixing processes in fuel pipeline joints due to high Reynolds numbers and a great length of the main pipe. An analysis of the predictions has revealed large fluctuations in the local ratio of the generation rate of the turbulent kinetic energy to the rate of its dissipation and a sharp decrease in its value averaged over the pipe cross section at a distance of several diameters from the starting point of mixing, which is not characteristic of pipe flows, mixing layers, or jets. An attempt was made to improve the predictive capabilities of the standard k–ε model for developed turbulence, while keeping the turbulent Schmidt number \({\text{S}}{{{\text{c}}}_{t}}\) and the constant Сμ within the substantiated limits. An empirical formula for \({\text{S}}{{{\text{c}}}_{t}}\) and a modification of the standard k–ε model, which takes into account the variability of Сμ according to the Rodi dependence carefully verified against data on various free flows, are proposed. Experimental investigations of isothermal mixing of air flows in a tee mixer, one of which contained tracers in the form of glycerin-based liquid microdroplets, were carried out. The profiles of hydrodynamic characteristics of the flow downstream of the tee were measured by the planar optical SIV method at a distance of 5.5D from the axis of the pipes' intersection. To verify the modified k–ε model, numerical simulation was performed of the mixing of gases and liquids in a tee mixer, and the predictions were compared with the experiment. The results are presented of the calculation of natural gas mixing in a tee mixer with a methane-hydrogen fraction from petrochemical facilities.

Dont have a licence yet? Then find out more about our products and how to get one now:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 390 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe




 

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Literature
1.
go back to reference E. L. Paul, V. A. Atiemo-Obeng, and S. M. Kresta, Handbook of Industrial Mixing: Science and Practice (Wiley, Hoboken, N.J., 2004). E. L. Paul, V. A. Atiemo-Obeng, and S. M. Kresta, Handbook of Industrial Mixing: Science and Practice (Wiley, Hoboken, N.J., 2004).
3.
go back to reference Z. H. Khokhar, M. S. Al-Harthi, B. F. Abusharkh, H. H. Al-Ali, R. N. Sharma, H. D. Zughbi, A. A. Shaikh, H. H. Redhwi, A. Abdurraheem, S. U. Rehman, S. J. Zaidi, Z. U. Khan, I. A. Hussain, and B. S. Yilbas, “Heat and mass transfer mixing enhancements in pipe-line; Numerical CFD and experimental chores: A review,” Int. J. Eng. Sci. Innovat. Technol. (IJESIT) 2 (1), 1–11 (2013). Z. H. Khokhar, M. S. Al-Harthi, B. F. Abusharkh, H. H. Al-Ali, R. N. Sharma, H. D. Zughbi, A. A. Shaikh, H. H. Redhwi, A. Abdurraheem, S. U. Rehman, S. J. Zaidi, Z. U. Khan, I. A. Hussain, and B. S. Yilbas, “Heat and mass transfer mixing enhancements in pipe-line; Numerical CFD and experimental chores: A review,” Int. J. Eng. Sci. Innovat. Technol. (IJESIT) 2 (1), 1–11 (2013).
4.
go back to reference A. M. Ger and E. R. Holley, Turbulent Jets in Crossing Pipe Flow (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Ill., 1974). A. M. Ger and E. R. Holley, Turbulent Jets in Crossing Pipe Flow (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Ill., 1974).
5.
go back to reference A. M. Ger and E. R. Holley, “Comparison of single-point injections in pipe flow,” J. Hydraul. Div. 102, 731–746 (1976). CrossRef A. M. Ger and E. R. Holley, “Comparison of single-point injections in pipe flow,” J. Hydraul. Div. 102, 731–746 (1976). CrossRef
6.
go back to reference T. Maruyama et al., “Pipeline mixing between two fluid streams meeting at a T-junction,” Int. Chem. Eng. 21, 205–212 (1981). T. Maruyama et al., “Pipeline mixing between two fluid streams meeting at a T-junction,” Int. Chem. Eng. 21, 205–212 (1981).
10.
go back to reference L. M. Sroka and L. J. Forney, “Fluid mixing in a 90° pipeline elbow,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 28, 850–856 (1989). CrossRef L. M. Sroka and L. J. Forney, “Fluid mixing in a 90° pipeline elbow,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 28, 850–856 (1989). CrossRef
12.
go back to reference R. Zboray, A. Manera, B. Niceno, and H.-M. Prasser, “Investigations on mixing phenomena in single-phase flows in a T-junction geometry,” in Proc. 12th Int. Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-12), Sheraton Station Square, Pittsburgh, Penn., USA, Sept. 30 – Oct. 4, 2007 (American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, Ill., 2007), paper no. 71. R. Zboray, A. Manera, B. Niceno, and H.-M. Prasser, “Investigations on mixing phenomena in single-phase flows in a T-junction geometry,” in Proc. 12th Int. Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-12), Sheraton Station Square, Pittsburgh, Penn., USA, Sept. 30 – Oct. 4, 2007 (American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, Ill., 2007), paper no. 71.
14.
go back to reference J. Westin, F. Alavyoon, L. Andersson, P. Veber, M. Henriksson, and C. Andersson, “Experiments and unsteady CFD-calculations of thermal mixing in a T‑junction,” in Proc. OECD/NEA/IAEA Workshop on the Benchmarking of CFD Codes for Application to Nuclear Reactor Safety (CFD4NRS), Garching, Munich, Germany, Sept. 5–7, 2006, pp. 494–508. J. Westin, F. Alavyoon, L. Andersson, P. Veber, M. Henriksson, and C. Andersson, “Experiments and unsteady CFD-calculations of thermal mixing in a T‑junction,” in Proc. OECD/NEA/IAEA Workshop on the Benchmarking of CFD Codes for Application to Nuclear Reactor Safety (CFD4NRS), Garching, Munich, Germany, Sept. 5–7, 2006, pp. 494–508.
17.
go back to reference G. Roley and R. W. Fahien, Gaseous Diffusion at Moderate Flow Rates in Circular Conduits, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology Report No. IS-330 (U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1960). G. Roley and R. W. Fahien, Gaseous Diffusion at Moderate Flow Rates in Circular Conduits, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology Report No. IS-330 (U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1960).
21.
go back to reference CFD-Code PHOENIX. https://​www.​cham.​co.​uk/​ phoenics.php CFD-Code PHOENIX. https://​www.​cham.​co.​uk/​ phoenics.php
24.
go back to reference R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, and E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, 2nd ed. (Wiley, India, 2006). R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, and E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, 2nd ed. (Wiley, India, 2006).
28.
go back to reference CFD-Code ANSYS-CFX. https://​www.​ansys.​com/​ products/fluids/ansys-cfx CFD-Code ANSYS-CFX. https://​www.​ansys.​com/​ products/fluids/ansys-cfx
30.
go back to reference F. Menter and Y. A. Egorov, “Scale adaptive simulation model using two-equation models,” in Proc. 43rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibition, Reno, Nev., USA, Jan. 10–13, 2005 (American Inst. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2005). https://​doi.​org/​10.​2514/​6.​2005-1095 F. Menter and Y. A. Egorov, “Scale adaptive simulation model using two-equation models,” in Proc. 43rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibition, Reno, Nev., USA, Jan. 10–13, 2005 (American Inst. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2005). https://​doi.​org/​10.​2514/​6.​2005-1095
31.
go back to reference CFD-Code ANSYS-Fluent. https://​www.​ansys.​com/​ products/fluids/ansys-fluent CFD-Code ANSYS-Fluent. https://​www.​ansys.​com/​ products/fluids/ansys-fluent
33.
go back to reference B. J. Bora, B. K. Debnath, N. Gupta, N. Sahoo, and U. K. Saha, “Investigation on the flow behaviour of a Venturi type gas mixer designed for dual fuel diesel engines,” Int. J. Energ. Technol. Adv. Eng. 3, 202–209 (2013). B. J. Bora, B. K. Debnath, N. Gupta, N. Sahoo, and U. K. Saha, “Investigation on the flow behaviour of a Venturi type gas mixer designed for dual fuel diesel engines,” Int. J. Energ. Technol. Adv. Eng. 3, 202–209 (2013).
35.
go back to reference CFD-Code STAR-CCM+. https://​plm.​sw.​siemens.​ com/en-US/simcenter/fluids-thermal-simulation/star-ccm/ CFD-Code STAR-CCM+. https://​plm.​sw.​siemens.​ com/en-US/simcenter/fluids-thermal-simulation/star-ccm/
36.
go back to reference C. Evrim, X. Chu, F. E. Silber, A. Isaev, S. Weihe, and E. Laurien, “Flow features and thermal stress evaluation in turbulent mixing flows,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 178, 121605 (2021). CrossRef C. Evrim, X. Chu, F. E. Silber, A. Isaev, S. Weihe, and E. Laurien, “Flow features and thermal stress evaluation in turbulent mixing flows,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 178, 121605 (2021). CrossRef
37.
go back to reference CFD-Code OpenFoam. https://​www.​openfoam.​com.​ CFD-Code OpenFoam. https://​www.​openfoam.​com.​
38.
go back to reference S. Abaqus, 2016 User’s Manual and Documentation (Dassault Systèmes Simulia, USA, 2016). S. Abaqus, 2016 User’s Manual and Documentation (Dassault Systèmes Simulia, USA, 2016).
41.
go back to reference CFD-Code FlowVision. https://​flowvision.​ru/​ru/​ CFD-Code FlowVision. https://​flowvision.​ru/​ru/​
46.
go back to reference P. Spalart and S. Allmaras, “A one-equation turbulence model for aerodynamic flows,” in Proc. 30th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibition, Reno, Nev., USA, 6–9 Jan. 1992 (American Inst. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, DC, 1992). https://​doi.​org/​10.​2514/​6.​1992-439 P. Spalart and S. Allmaras, “A one-equation turbulence model for aerodynamic flows,” in Proc. 30th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibition, Reno, Nev., USA, 6–9 Jan. 1992 (American Inst. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, DC, 1992). https://​doi.​org/​10.​2514/​6.​1992-439
47.
go back to reference P. Spalart, W.-H. Jou, M. Strelets, and S. Allmaras, “Comments on the feasibility of LES for wings, and on a hybrid RANS/LES approach,” in Advances in DNS/LES: Proc. 1st AFOSR Int. Conf. on DNS/LES, Ruston, La., USA, Aug. 4–8, 1997 (Greyden, Columbus, Oh., 1997). P. Spalart, W.-H. Jou, M. Strelets, and S. Allmaras, “Comments on the feasibility of LES for wings, and on a hybrid RANS/LES approach,” in Advances in DNS/LES: Proc. 1st AFOSR Int. Conf. on DNS/LES, Ruston, La., USA, Aug. 4–8, 1997 (Greyden, Columbus, Oh., 1997).
48.
go back to reference L. G. Loitsyanskii, Mechanics of Liquids and Gases (Nauka, Moscow, 1973; Pergamon, Oxford, 1966). L. G. Loitsyanskii, Mechanics of Liquids and Gases (Nauka, Moscow, 1973; Pergamon, Oxford, 1966).
51.
go back to reference F. Menter, J. C. Ferreira, T. Esch, and B. Konno, “The SST turbulence model with improved wall treatment for heat transfer predictions in gas turbines,” in Proc. Int. Gas Turbine Congr., Tokyo, Japan, Nov. 2–7, 2003. F. Menter, J. C. Ferreira, T. Esch, and B. Konno, “The SST turbulence model with improved wall treatment for heat transfer predictions in gas turbines,” in Proc. Int. Gas Turbine Congr., Tokyo, Japan, Nov. 2–7, 2003.
53.
go back to reference CFD-Code ANES. http://​anes.​ch12655.​tmweb.​ru CFD-Code ANES. http://​anes.​ch12655.​tmweb.​ru
55.
go back to reference W. Rodi, The Prediction of Free Turbulent Boundary Layers by Use of a Two-Equation Model of Turbulence, PhD Thesis (Engineering Univ.; Imperial College, London, 1972). W. Rodi, The Prediction of Free Turbulent Boundary Layers by Use of a Two-Equation Model of Turbulence, PhD Thesis (Engineering Univ.; Imperial College, London, 1972).
56.
go back to reference G. Schlichting, Boundary-Layer Theory (G. Braun, Karlsruhe, 1968; McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968; Nauka, Moscow, 1974). G. Schlichting, Boundary-Layer Theory (G. Braun, Karlsruhe, 1968; McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968; Nauka, Moscow, 1974).
Metadata
Title
Simulation of Mixing of Single-Phase Fluids in T-Junctions
Authors
F. V. Tuponosov
V. I. Artemov
G. G. Yan’kov
N. S. Dushin
O. A. Dushina
A. V. Dedov
Publication date
01-09-2023
Publisher
Pleiades Publishing
Published in
Thermal Engineering / Issue 9/2023
Print ISSN: 0040-6015
Electronic ISSN: 1555-6301
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1134/S0040601523090070

Other articles of this Issue 9/2023

Thermal Engineering 9/2023 Go to the issue

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER, PROPERTIES OF WORKING BODIES AND MATERIALS

A Complex Study of Superheated Water Atomization

STEAM-TURBINE, GAS-TURBINE, COMBINED-CYCLE POWER PLANTS AND THEIR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT

A New Method for Determining the Aerodynamic Forces Arising in Turbine Seals

STEAM-TURBINE, GAS-TURBINE, COMBINED-CYCLE POWER PLANTS AND THEIR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT

The Effectiveness of Film Cooling with Injection of Pulsating Air Flow (Review)

Premium Partner