Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Hint

Swipe to navigate through the articles of this issue

Published in: Journal of Coatings Technology and Research 2/2021

19-10-2020

Simultaneous tracking of hardness, reactant conversion, solids concentration, and glass transition temperature in thermoset polyurethane coatings

Authors: Ting Wang, Juan José Segura, Erik Graversen, Claus Erik Weinell, Kim Dam-Johansen, Søren Kiil

Published in: Journal of Coatings Technology and Research | Issue 2/2021

Login to get access
share
SHARE

Abstract

In this work, the curing and hardness evolution of a two-component polyurethane (PU) coating in four different environments, three of which were solvent evaporation-suppressed conditions, were studied. In contrast to previous studies, the simultaneous use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, gravimetric analysis, and pendulum hardness allowed a transient mapping of the degree of isocyanate conversion, solids concentration, and coating hardness. Furthermore, to explore in more detail the coupling of the underlying mechanisms, the evolution in the average coating glass transition temperature was estimated by dynamic mechanical analysis, and the data was simulated using the so-called Kelley–Bueche equation. For the curing conditions investigated, the final coating hardness differed by a factor of two, with the lowest values obtained for the evaporation-suppressed conditions. Due to the isocyanate groups reaching full conversion for all four series, the reason for the lower hardness was attributed entirely to the plasticizing effect of residual solvent. Using a Kα value of 0.687 in the Kelley–Bueche equation, the coating glass transition temperature as a function of the PU volume fraction could be successfully simulated and was found to increase from about 282 K at a volume fraction of 0.79 to 319 K at one of 0.93. In addition, when the experimental temperature was lower than the coating glass transition temperature, a proportional increase in the pendulum hardness with the reciprocal loss factor was seen. The effects of catalyst concentration in the coating were also investigated, and this parameter was found to have a strong influence on both the surface conversion, the solids concentration, and the coating hardness. A too fast curing rate shortens the time to vitrification, after which the solvent evaporation rate becomes diffusion-controlled and very low, leading to higher residual solvent contents and significantly lower hardness values. The results obtained provide guidelines for how to optimize ventilation conditions during the curing of solvent-based, thermoset PU coatings.

To get access to this content you need the following product:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 69.000 Bücher
  • über 500 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Testen Sie jetzt 15 Tage kostenlos.

Springer Professional "Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 50.000 Bücher
  • über 380 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe




Testen Sie jetzt 15 Tage kostenlos.

Literature
1.
go back to reference Sørensen, PA, Kiil, S, Dam-Johansen, K, Weinell, CE, “Anticorrosive Coatings: A Review.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 6 (2) 135–176 (2009) CrossRef Sørensen, PA, Kiil, S, Dam-Johansen, K, Weinell, CE, “Anticorrosive Coatings: A Review.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 6 (2) 135–176 (2009) CrossRef
2.
go back to reference Yi, C, Rostron, P, Vahdati, N, Gunister, E, Alfantazi, A, “Curing Kinetics and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Based Coatings: The Influence of Added Solvent.” Prog. Org. Coat., 124 (May) 165–174 (2018) CrossRef Yi, C, Rostron, P, Vahdati, N, Gunister, E, Alfantazi, A, “Curing Kinetics and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Based Coatings: The Influence of Added Solvent.” Prog. Org. Coat., 124 (May) 165–174 (2018) CrossRef
3.
go back to reference Kiil, S, “Quantification of Simultaneous Solvent Evaporation and Chemical Curing in Thermoset Coatings.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 7 (5) 569–586 (2010) CrossRef Kiil, S, “Quantification of Simultaneous Solvent Evaporation and Chemical Curing in Thermoset Coatings.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 7 (5) 569–586 (2010) CrossRef
4.
go back to reference Kiil, S, “Mathematical Modelling of Simultaneous Solvent Evaporation and Chemical Curing in Thermoset Coatings: A Parameter Study.” Prog. Org. Coat., 70 (4) 192–198 (2011) CrossRef Kiil, S, “Mathematical Modelling of Simultaneous Solvent Evaporation and Chemical Curing in Thermoset Coatings: A Parameter Study.” Prog. Org. Coat., 70 (4) 192–198 (2011) CrossRef
5.
go back to reference Esmaeilpour, M, Niroumand, B, Monshi, A, Salahi, E, Ramezanzadeh, B, “Effects of Curing Condition on the Surface Characteristics of Two-Pack Polyurethane Coatings Containing Low Surface Energy Additive.” Soft Mater., 13 (3) 144–149 (2015) CrossRef Esmaeilpour, M, Niroumand, B, Monshi, A, Salahi, E, Ramezanzadeh, B, “Effects of Curing Condition on the Surface Characteristics of Two-Pack Polyurethane Coatings Containing Low Surface Energy Additive.” Soft Mater., 13 (3) 144–149 (2015) CrossRef
6.
go back to reference Vessot, S, Andrieu, J, Laurent, P, Galy, J, Gérard, JF, “Air Convective Drying and Curing of Polyurethane-Based Paints on Sheet Molding Compound Surfaces.” J. Coat. Technol., 70 (882) 67–76 (1998) CrossRef Vessot, S, Andrieu, J, Laurent, P, Galy, J, Gérard, JF, “Air Convective Drying and Curing of Polyurethane-Based Paints on Sheet Molding Compound Surfaces.” J. Coat. Technol., 70 (882) 67–76 (1998) CrossRef
7.
go back to reference Huang, Z, Ma, X, Qiao, Z, Wang, S, Jing, X, “Pendulum Hardness of Polyurethane Coatings During Curing.” Pigment Resin Technol., 43 (5) 271–276 (2014) CrossRef Huang, Z, Ma, X, Qiao, Z, Wang, S, Jing, X, “Pendulum Hardness of Polyurethane Coatings During Curing.” Pigment Resin Technol., 43 (5) 271–276 (2014) CrossRef
8.
go back to reference Tambe, SP, Jagtap, SD, Choudhari, RN, Mallik, BP, “Influence of Cross-Linking Agents and Curing Condition on the Performance of Epoxy Coating.” Pigment Resin Technol., 45 (5) 354–362 (2016) CrossRef Tambe, SP, Jagtap, SD, Choudhari, RN, Mallik, BP, “Influence of Cross-Linking Agents and Curing Condition on the Performance of Epoxy Coating.” Pigment Resin Technol., 45 (5) 354–362 (2016) CrossRef
9.
go back to reference Dušková-Smrčková, M, Dušek, K, “Processes and States During Polymer Film Formation by Simultaneous Crosslinking and Solvent Evaporation.” J. Mater. Sci., 37 (22) 4733–4741 (2002) CrossRef Dušková-Smrčková, M, Dušek, K, “Processes and States During Polymer Film Formation by Simultaneous Crosslinking and Solvent Evaporation.” J. Mater. Sci., 37 (22) 4733–4741 (2002) CrossRef
10.
go back to reference Yamamura, M, Horiuchi, K, Kajiwara, T, Adachi, K, “Decrease in Solvent Evaporation Rate Due to Phase Separation in Polymer Films.” AIChE J., 48 (11) 2711–2714 (2002) CrossRef Yamamura, M, Horiuchi, K, Kajiwara, T, Adachi, K, “Decrease in Solvent Evaporation Rate Due to Phase Separation in Polymer Films.” AIChE J., 48 (11) 2711–2714 (2002) CrossRef
11.
go back to reference Dušek, K, Dušková-Smrčková, M, “Network Structure Formation During Crosslinking of Organic Coating Systems.” Prog. Polym. Sci., 25 (9) 1215–1260 (2000) CrossRef Dušek, K, Dušková-Smrčková, M, “Network Structure Formation During Crosslinking of Organic Coating Systems.” Prog. Polym. Sci., 25 (9) 1215–1260 (2000) CrossRef
13.
go back to reference Miller, FA, Wilkins, CH, “Infrared Spectra and Characteristic Frequencies of Inorganic Ions.” Anal. Chem., 24 (8) 1253–1294 (1952) CrossRef Miller, FA, Wilkins, CH, “Infrared Spectra and Characteristic Frequencies of Inorganic Ions.” Anal. Chem., 24 (8) 1253–1294 (1952) CrossRef
14.
go back to reference DIN, E, “1522: 2007-04 Paints and Varnishes–Pendulum Damping Test (ISO 1522: 2006).” Ger. version EN ISO, 1522 (2006) DIN, E, “1522: 2007-04 Paints and Varnishes–Pendulum Damping Test (ISO 1522: 2006).” Ger. version EN ISO, 1522 (2006)
15.
go back to reference Nacas, AM, Vidotti, SE, Chinellato, AC, dos Santos, DJ, “The Role of Polyol Reaction Catalysts in the Cure Kinetics and Mechanical Behavior of Polyurethane Adhesives.” J. Adhes., 94 880–892 (2018) CrossRef Nacas, AM, Vidotti, SE, Chinellato, AC, dos Santos, DJ, “The Role of Polyol Reaction Catalysts in the Cure Kinetics and Mechanical Behavior of Polyurethane Adhesives.” J. Adhes., 94 880–892 (2018) CrossRef
16.
go back to reference Ginic-Markovic, M, Choudhury, NR, Matisons, JG, Williams, DRG, “Characterization of Polyurethane Coatings Using Thermoanalytical Techniques.” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 59 (1) 409–424 (2000) CrossRef Ginic-Markovic, M, Choudhury, NR, Matisons, JG, Williams, DRG, “Characterization of Polyurethane Coatings Using Thermoanalytical Techniques.” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 59 (1) 409–424 (2000) CrossRef
17.
go back to reference Elwell, MJ, Ryan, AJ, Grunbauer, HJM, VanLieshout, HC, “An FT IR Study of Reaction Kinetics and Structure Development in Model Flexible Polyurethane Foam Systems.” Polymer (Guildf), 37 (8) 1353–1361 (1996) CrossRef Elwell, MJ, Ryan, AJ, Grunbauer, HJM, VanLieshout, HC, “An FT IR Study of Reaction Kinetics and Structure Development in Model Flexible Polyurethane Foam Systems.” Polymer (Guildf), 37 (8) 1353–1361 (1996) CrossRef
18.
go back to reference Berry, NG, D’Almeida, JRM, Barcia, FL, Soares, BG, “Effect of Water Absorption on the Thermal-Mechanical Properties of HTPB Modified DGEBA-Based Epoxy Systems.” Polym. Test., 26 (2) 262–267 (2007) CrossRef Berry, NG, D’Almeida, JRM, Barcia, FL, Soares, BG, “Effect of Water Absorption on the Thermal-Mechanical Properties of HTPB Modified DGEBA-Based Epoxy Systems.” Polym. Test., 26 (2) 262–267 (2007) CrossRef
19.
go back to reference Nogueira, P, Ramírez, C, Torres, A, Abad, MJ, Cano, J, López, J, et al., “Effect of Water Sorption on the Structure and Mechanical Properties of an Epoxy Resin System.” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 80 (1) 71–80 (2001) CrossRef Nogueira, P, Ramírez, C, Torres, A, Abad, MJ, Cano, J, López, J, et al., “Effect of Water Sorption on the Structure and Mechanical Properties of an Epoxy Resin System.” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 80 (1) 71–80 (2001) CrossRef
20.
go back to reference Kelley, FN, Bueche, F, “Viscosity and Glass Temperature Relations for Polymer-Diluent Systems.” J. Polym. Sci., 50 (154) 549–556 (1961) CrossRef Kelley, FN, Bueche, F, “Viscosity and Glass Temperature Relations for Polymer-Diluent Systems.” J. Polym. Sci., 50 (154) 549–556 (1961) CrossRef
21.
go back to reference Fried, JR, Polymer Science and Technology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River (2014) Fried, JR, Polymer Science and Technology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River (2014)
23.
go back to reference Garfield, LJ, Petrie, SE, “Viscosity and Glass-Transition Behavior of Polymer-Diluent Systems.” J. Phys. Chem., 68 (7) 1750–1754 (1964) CrossRef Garfield, LJ, Petrie, SE, “Viscosity and Glass-Transition Behavior of Polymer-Diluent Systems.” J. Phys. Chem., 68 (7) 1750–1754 (1964) CrossRef
24.
go back to reference Sato, K, “The Hardness of Coating Films.” Prog. Org. Coat., 8 (1) 1–18 (1980) CrossRef Sato, K, “The Hardness of Coating Films.” Prog. Org. Coat., 8 (1) 1–18 (1980) CrossRef
25.
go back to reference Ma, X, Qiao, Z, Huang, Z, Jing, X, “The Dependence of Pendulum Hardness on the Thickness of Acrylic Coating.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 10 (3) 433–439 (2013) CrossRef Ma, X, Qiao, Z, Huang, Z, Jing, X, “The Dependence of Pendulum Hardness on the Thickness of Acrylic Coating.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 10 (3) 433–439 (2013) CrossRef
27.
go back to reference Fox, PG, Freeman, IB, “What Does the Pendulum Hardness Test Measure?” J. Mater. Sci., 14 (1) 151–158 (1979) CrossRef Fox, PG, Freeman, IB, “What Does the Pendulum Hardness Test Measure?” J. Mater. Sci., 14 (1) 151–158 (1979) CrossRef
28.
go back to reference van der Weij, FW, “Kinetics and Mechanism of Urethane Formation Catalyzed by Organotin Compounds. II. The Reaction of Phenyl Isocyanate with Methanol in DMF and Cyclohexane Under The Action of Dibutylin Diacetate.” J. Polym. Sci. A, 19 (12) 3063–3068 (1981) van der Weij, FW, “Kinetics and Mechanism of Urethane Formation Catalyzed by Organotin Compounds. II. The Reaction of Phenyl Isocyanate with Methanol in DMF and Cyclohexane Under The Action of Dibutylin Diacetate.” J. Polym. Sci. A, 19 (12) 3063–3068 (1981)
Metadata
Title
Simultaneous tracking of hardness, reactant conversion, solids concentration, and glass transition temperature in thermoset polyurethane coatings
Authors
Ting Wang
Juan José Segura
Erik Graversen
Claus Erik Weinell
Kim Dam-Johansen
Søren Kiil
Publication date
19-10-2020
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Journal of Coatings Technology and Research / Issue 2/2021
Print ISSN: 1547-0091
Electronic ISSN: 1935-3804
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11998-020-00407-3

Other articles of this Issue 2/2021

Journal of Coatings Technology and Research 2/2021 Go to the issue

Premium Partners