The modeling of clays has been developed in two directions: macroscopic constitutive modeling and microscopic phenomenological studies. Starting with the linear poroelastic models of Biot and Terzaghi, several constitutive models have been developed at the macroscopic level. Creep and stress relaxation and rate effects, have been studied using viscoelastic or elasto-viscoplastic constitutive models (see Liang and Ma , Perzyna , Cristescu ) and yield, irreversible deformation and hysteretic soil behavior has been modeled using plasticity models (Roscoe and Burlan ). At the microscopic level recent experimental work (Low , Newman , Velde ) has contributed to the understanding of the behavior of clays. The influence of the salt concentration in the water phase, the double-layer forces and the structural changes in the water under the influence of the particle surface has also been studied, to explain for the nonlinear behavior of clays.
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- Size and Double-Layer Effects on the Macroscopic Behavior of Clays
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