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2023 | Book

Smart Small Satellites: Design, Modelling and Development

Proceedings of the International Conference on Small Satellites, ICSS 2022

Editors: Chander Prakash, V. Sambasiva Rao, D. V. A. Raghava Murthy

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering


About this book

This book comprises the select proceedings of the International Conference on Small Satellites and its Applications (ICSS) 2022. It aims to provide a comprehensive and broad-spectrum picture of the state-of-the-art research, development, and commercial perspective of various discoveries conducted in the real-world smart small satellites, applications and their services. The contents of this book focuses on efficient power management system, application-based optimum payload designs, telemetry and telecommand, advanced navigation and RF systems, flight and ground software’s, structure, mechanism and materials, space craft autonomy, quality, testing and reliability for designing the small satellites through advanced computational procedures for a variety of applications, etc. This book proves a valuable resource for those in academia and industry.

Table of Contents

Miniaturized TR Modules for Radar Imaging Payloads: A Review of Materials to Methods for Manufacturability
Radar Imaging payload of a satellite has Synthetic Aperture Radar comprising of large number of Transmit Receive modules that form the active elements. These modules essentially have the function of transmitting or receiving the horizontal and vertical polarized signals that generate multipolar beams. To produce reliable and large volumes for onboard use, the need for TR module design to be manufacturable is a critical requirement. In addition, the cost-effective payload requirements combined with weight volume constraints make these modules to be mandatorily miniaturized. The miniaturization uses advances in thermal packaging technologies with judicious combination of attachment and interconnect processes. Starting from the selection of materials with electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties and their suitability for high frequency operations, enhancing the density of electronics for high-reliability performance become the key success factors. This paper presents a detailed review of the materials for manufacturing methods of space grade TR modules.
Vinod S. Chippalkatti, Rajashekhar C. Biradar
B-Dot Controller Simulation for a 3U CubeSat: BMSCE Upagraha
The B-Dot Controller is an attitude control algorithm used in the detumbling of satellites. It uses the Earth’s magnetic field to detumble the satellite in orbit. The law used to perform detumbling in a B-Dot Controller is called B-Dot Law. This paper consists of a detailed explanation of the B-Dot Controller and the B-Dot Law, as well as, the results of a simulation of the B-Dot Controller run on MATLAB. The simulation is run for J2 orbit propagation for a 3U CubeSat in both, the presence and absence of a gyroscope on board the CubeSat. Appropriate noise and bias have been considered while coding the simulation, and a basic filtering process has been included in the code. The result of the simulation shows graphically (on an Angular Velocity vs. Time graph) the time taken by the CubeSat to detumble at different values of Initial Angular Velocity and Magnetorquer Capacity while also considering different lengths of the major cycle in the OBC while reading input from the sensors.
V. Sankar
Overview of On-Board Computing Subsystem
In the era of wireless communication, satellites play a very important role in making wireless communication feasible. Satellite comprises many subsystems such as On-Board Computing, Power, Telemetry Tracking and Control, Structure, Payload, Thermal, etc. On-Board Computing handles all communication between each subsystem and is also responsible for data processing and data handling. The Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based On-board Computing (OBC) boards are being designed with the microcontroller instead of the traditional OBC design which included a single standard microcontroller. These FPGAs also provide lower power consumption and are also fault-tolerant. Different interface protocols can be designed within the FPGA such as Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter (UART), Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI), Inter-integrated Circuits (I2C) for interfacing different sensors into the OBC board. This paper is a detailed survey regarding the overview of the On-Board Computing subsystem.
Manoj S, Sannidhi Kasturi, Chandrakala G. Raju, H. N. Suma, Jayanthi K. Murthy
Thermal Management Scheme for SWIR IDDCA Used in Space Payloads
A Passive thermal management scheme is devised while taking various Opto-thermal, Opto-mechanical & space environmental constraints into consideration. The finite element model of the thermal management scheme is established in NX NASTRAN to analyze the design the given payload and satellite design parameters. The scheme is based on flexible thermal straps made of copper material. This scheme will help in achieving the desired thermal management while isolating the IDDCA assembly from the external vibrations and loads. The scheme is validated through implementation on the actual IDDCA & measuring the change in temperature time at critical locations.
Bharat Ram Meena, Maneesh Pawar, Shekhar Tomar, Umesh Kumar, Manvendra Singh
EO Characterization of SATURN SWIR Detector Array
For precise panchromatic and hyperspctral imaging, it is essential to model the transfer function of complete imaging system. The modeling mandates accurate determination of, EO parameters of detector array, optical system transfer function and their dependence on thermal and vibration variations. This paper presents the methodology and experimental setup for characterization of the EO parameters for SATURN SWIR integrated detector array and Dewar cooler assembly (IDDCA) to determine the charge to voltage function (CVF), linearity, readout noise, dark current, non-uniformity, array operability and Full well capacity (FWC), electrical dynamic range (DR). The presented method uses the photo-detector linear signal model to generate a photon transfer curve (PTC) which is further used to calculate the SWIR detector EO parameters.
Maneesh Pawar, Bharat Ram Meena, Manvendra Singh
Hardware and Simulation Comparison of Synchronous Buck Topology for Hi-Rel Applications
The present Paper presents the Design and Development of Synchronous Buck-Converter with output 20 V/3.9 A for achieving higher efficiency of up to 97% with the input voltage range of 28–36 V and operating at a switching frequency of 200 kHz for HiRel applications. The proposed Synchronous Buck converter is a part of the power supply used to power various subsystems and pay loads Hi-Rel systems. Efficiency calculations will be estimated with the help of a simulation software LT-Spice and compared with the hardware test results. High voltage synchronous and current mode controlled Integrated Chip IC is used with external MOSFETs. In addition to efficiency Load regulation of <1% and Output ripple voltage of <1% is achieved in this design.
Thadisetti Kanaka Nagaraju, Nishanth B. Kulkarni, S. Pradeep, Bhoopendra Kumar Singh
Design and Implementation of 32 W Dual Output Forward Converter with Bias Feedback for Spaceborne Systems
This paper is focused on the hardware implementation of a forward converter with feedforward, voltage mode control topology, Bias feedback technique and coupled inductor for better load and cross regulations were used. This converter will operate at 500 kHz switching frequency and uses UC2825 PWM controller which can operate both in voltage and current mode control. PWM controller has better soft start, maximum control on duty, under voltage and higher frequency operation. A dedicated winding is provided for feedback which will also power up the control circuitry. It has protections such as under voltage and over power. The proposed converter is a very highly reliable one and will be used for space applications.
S. Pradeep, T. K. Nagaraju, Bhoopendra Kumar Singh, Vinod Chippalakatti
Design and Implementation of High Frequency Single Output Forward Converter for Space Application
Forward Converter topology is very much favored for designing Power Supply Units in space applications, due to its modest structure and the nature of imparting perfect isolation between the input and output. The proposed converter is designed using single switch forward converter topology operating at 500 kHz. A continuous and regulated output of 5 V/8 A is generated from an input range of 18–50 V using voltage mode control through magnetic isolation along with the input voltage feed forward technique. Lossless snubber is incorporated to improve the core reset process. Converter efficiency is greater than 75% at full load. Inhibition and protection circuits are incorporated. The complete converter is also realized using hybrid microcircuit technology in addition to PCB.
M. R. Ramkumar, C. V. Bhanuprakash, Bhoopendra Kumar Singh, Vinod Chippalakatti
Design and Implementation of High Power Pulsed Output DC-DC Converter
This project is aimed at design and implementation of high-power pulsed output DC-DC converter for space application. Interleaved flyback topology is used to reduce the stress in the primary transformer, main power MOSFET and secondary diodes. Interleaved flyback converter topology has the benefits of reduced RMS current in the input capacitors, reduced peak currents in transformer windings and reduced EMI due to the result of reduced peak currents. Hence interleaving enables the converter topology to operate at increased power levels. Pulsed Power DC-DC Converters are used for powering the transmitter and receivers in various types of Radars such as Pulse Doppler Radar, Terminal Doppler Weather Radar and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Transceivers in satellites need pulsed power for RF Circuit, the RF circuit requires High frequency voltage with minimum rise time, fall time and output ripple. To generate the pulsed output the rectified output voltages are connected through the pulse modulator circuit.
M. Harish Kumar, K. E. Rayees, Bhoopendra Kumar Singh, Vinod Chippalkatti
EMI Reduction of Forward Converter with Backshells and Copper Braid for Space Application
This paper explains the design and development of EMI/EMC compliant high reliability space grade power supply unit (PSU). Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI) is the possible interference to other electronic equipment. Due to the EMI system performance may effect, to take that need to design the proper EMI filter design and proper harness. Electronic Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) is defined as the ability of devices and systems to operate in their electromagnetic environment without impairing their functions and without faults and vice versa. Electronic equipments must function properly in its natural electromagnetic ambient. But due to the increasing usage of electronic equipment the natural ambient is polluted by the electromagnetic fields. This means if all the equipments have to co-exist then each should work in the specified electromagnetic field and as well should not radiate more than the specified amount. Similarly, while electronic equipments draws power from the mains, it should not pollute the mains more than the specified amount as well should work in the presence of specified amount of mains noise. This means equipments are compatible electromagnetically. EMI filters are used in converter to attenuate the flow of noise current through the power line to and from the converter. Inbuilt EMI/EMC filter of converter is compiled to MIL-STD-461E. There are four elements in EMI they are CE-Conducted Emission, RE-Radiated Emission, CS-Conducted Susceptibility and RS-Radiated Susceptibility.
Prakash Guthi, B. L. Santosh, Bhoopendrakumar Singh, Vinod Chippalkatti
Automatic Gain Control for High Dynamic Signals Using Feedforward Technique
This paper proposes Automatic Gain Control (AGC) implementation using feedforward technique to ensure the input signal dynamic range is not in saturation level or below noise tolerance level for the succeeding analog to digital converter (ADC) block. Using this technique, AGC implementation and Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) measurement can be done simultaneously. AGC is a closed loop feedback control system which adjusts the arbitrary received signal strength to a predetermined level. It is employed to delimit the dynamic range of the signal and hence reducing the power consumption of ADC. RSSI is used to determine the signal strength at the input of the receiver. It is estimated by measuring the voltage at the detector whose output voltage is proportional to the input signal level. In the proposed design, AGC maintains the constant output signal level of −20 ± 2 dBm for the input signal varying from −58 to −1 dB with a dynamic range of 57 dB.
Aparna Bhuvanagiri, M. Prakruthi, Ranjit Kumar Dora
Solar Panel Deployment Mechanism for Nano-Satellite
A new solar panel deployment mechanism for nano-satellites is developed and successfully deployed on-orbit with an objective of achieving modularity and optimization in terms of mass and volume. The modular hinge mechanism simplifies ground testing and can be operated in Earth’s gravity, thereby eliminating the need for gravity compensation system for solar panel deployment. The miniature hinge is configured without locking linkages and holds the panel by ensuring positive spring torque at the end of deployment. Similar existing miniature hinge mechanisms either lack indication switch or use fragile elements like tape springs. Hinge design presented in the paper addresses all such limitations. After hold down release, panel rotates by 90°, hits the stopper bracket of the hinge and rebounds. The panel oscillates few times before eventually settling down in the deployed state. Deployment dynamics of the solar panel is modeled in a multi-body dynamics tool, MSC ADAMS and analyzed to evaluate settling time. It is important to evaluate settling time as it governs the timeline of the sequence of mission critical events to be executed by satellite’s on board computer. The peak angular velocity of the satellite during deployment is evaluated using the developed dynamics model. The evaluated peak reaction body rates and deployment settling time are compared with the actual on-orbit observations for the nano-satellite.
Amit Kamboj, Aditya, Anoop Kumar Srivastava, K. Balaji, Abhishek Kumar, B. P. Nagaraj, H. N. Suresha Kumar, Alok Kumar Shrivastava
Design and Development of an Electrical Power System for a 3U Cubesat
Electrical Power System (EPS) is an important component of a satellite. The design and implementation of EPS to cater to the power demand of all the subsystems of the satellite is a challenging task. This work details the design and simulation of an efficient Electrical Power System for a 3U CubeSat. The objective is to build and launch a student satellite in Low Earth Orbit and perform on-orbit operations to demonstrate the imaging of the Earth’s surface, high altitude operations, and de-orbiting maneuver. The EPS was designed taking into consideration the power requirement from all the subsystems of the satellite. The system design includes a battery tied bus consisting of surface mounted and deployable solar panels, Lithium-ion batteries with over-voltage and under-voltage control. The EPS also involves the design of a highly efficient controllable power distribution system consisting DC–DC Converters which are capable to provide 3.3 V and 5 V regulated DC supply as well as unregulated supply.
M. Varsha, J. Stephen, S. Divya, R. S. Geetha
Solar Panel Based Wireless Power Bank Works in a Small Satellite Power Management System
The goal of this study is to create a wireless power bank for mobile phones and other devices using solar panels. Using sunlight as its primary source of energy, which can be used successfully daily or in the event of a calamity. It has constructed a solar panel that turns solar energy into electrical energy. The utility model shows a solar energy wireless charger, which is a lithium battery charger that can use solar energy and transmit electricity wirelessly. A charging pedestal and an electric energy emission pedestal make up the charger. A power supply management module, an electric energy emission module, an electric energy reception module, an electric energy receiving rectification voltage stabilization module, and a lithium battery charging module together comprise an interior section. The battery output current (almost 10,000 mA/h) so that the current is capped at 2000 milliamps. Only a few components are used in the design, resulting in a low-cost and extremely portable device.
Shahriar Mahmud, Shakti Raj Chopra
Design and Computational Analysis of Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger with Effectiveness Improvement Technique
Execution of a heat exchanger with a rough surface and grooved tube to increase the surface area for heat exchange. Because there are larger surface cross-sectional areas on the outside grooved surface of the tube (fins), heat exchange is faster. Furthermore, it is used to exchange hot and cold liquids as well as to lower the temperature of hot liquid by the exchange of hot to cold liquids. The research of parallel flow heat exchangers with rectangular finned type configuration with 2D investigation has been carried out in this work under various stream parameters.
D. Sujay, B. Abhiram, P. Akshay Kumar, C. K. Jayanth, Akhila Rupesh
FPGA Implementation of TTC and OBC for a Cubesat
This paper describes the implementation of the telecommand decoder and telemetry data encoder on FPGA for cube satellite operations. The objective is to design and launch a student satellite in Low Earth Orbit and perform on-orbit operations to demonstrate the imaging of the Earth’s surface, high-altitude operations and de-orbiting maneuver. The Telemetry, Tracking and Telecommand (TTC) and On-Board Computer (OBC) subsystem implementation allow the CCSDS-compliant ground stations to communicate with the satellite to facilitate telemetry, telecommand and ranging functions throughout the life of the satellite mission. The use of FPGA in space missions provides high computational power, and parallel processing at relatively lower power consumption. Telemetry encoder and telecommand decoder are implemented in HDL Verilog, and simulation is conducted in the Vivado design suite for Xilinx Zynq 7000 FPGA.
R. Sathyanvesh, Jayanthi K. Murthy, Chandrakala G. Raju, H. N. Suma
Smart Small Satellites: Design, Modelling and Development
Chander Prakash
V. Sambasiva Rao
D. V. A. Raghava Murthy
Copyright Year
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN

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