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2022 | Book

Smart Technologies for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, Vol 2

Select Proceedings of ICSTEESD 2020

Editors: Mohan Lal Kolhe, S. B. Jaju, P. M. Diagavane

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Springer Proceedings in Energy


About this book

This book contains select proceedings of the International Conference on Smart Technologies for Energy, Environment, and Sustainable Development (ICSTEESD 2020). The book is broadly divided into the themes of energy, environment, and sustainable development; and discusses the significance and solicitations of intelligent technologies in the domain of energy and environmental systems engineering. Topics covered in this book include sustainable energy systems including renewable technologies, energy efficiency, techno-economics of energy system and policies, integrated energy system planning, environmental management, energy efficient buildings and communities, sustainable transportation, smart manufacturing processes, etc. The book will be a valuable reference for young researchers, professionals, and policy makers working in the areas of energy, environment and sustainable development.

Table of Contents

Quality Enhancement of Bituminous Concrete Using Cenosphere Fillers

Bituminous concrete is used these days as the main ingredient for the manufacturing of high-strength roads and highways. However, due to high heat in the atmosphere, roads are severely affected due to water surpassing into the pavement. Regular maintenance and heavy traffic can cause damage to the road. In this context, the present work highlights the use of better quality material to enhance the strength of the bituminous concrete for roads. Cenosphere is part of the fly ash and due to its spherical shape and hollow structure, it is named as cenosphere. The cenosphere can be effectively utilized in the concrete to improve its quality as it helps in reducing stress due to water and heat, rutting and cracking. The modification in ingredients of the material mix of bituminous and cenosphere can effectively improve the quality of the road. In the present work, an experimental analysis of the material mix has been studied and validated. The evaluations were carried out using the Marshall stability test (MST). Both modified and conventional tests are done for validation in these experiments. This experimental study with proper laboratory validation can effectively help the researchers to further study the tensile strength and stability of the density in coal-based fly ash products such as the cenosphere-enhanced bituminous concrete material for roads.

Maitri Mallick, Bhabanisankar Sahani, Mohini Priya Padhi, Jyoti Prasad Ganthia, Nihar Ranjan Mohanta, Dhanada Kanta Mishra
Analysis of Liquid Storage Concrete Containers Partially Restraint at the Base

Ground-supported liquid storage tanks are commonly used in water treatment plants and chemical industries. These tank containers are mostly made with concrete. Fixity at the base of the container largely depends on the type of joint between the base slab and container. It also depends on the thickness of the container and base slab. Practically, a perfect hinge or fixed condition is difficult to achieve. Practically, some yielding might occur at the base that may result in outward deflection of container wall at the base. IS: 3370 (Part IV) 1967 (Reaffirmed 1999) has not provided design data for the analysis of tanks with loss of restraint at the base. In this study, circular water storage tanks subjected to hydrostatic pressure are analyzed using continuity analysis considering the loss of restraint. Internal forces developed in the container due to different levels of restraint are compared and results are presented.

Rameshwar J. Vishwakarma, Ramakant K. Ingle
A Study on Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Exterior Beam-Column Joint: A Literature Review

The beam-column joint is defined as that part of the column within which the portion of the beam support rests into the column. A beam-column joint is known to be the utmost critical and weak zones in the moment resistance frame structure subject to earthquake loading. There are two main failures at the junction of the beam columns. They are i) joint shear failure and ii) inadequate reinforcement details due to anchorage failure that has occurred after strong earthquakes. The ultimate resistance capacity of beam-column joints depends directly on their actual behavior of materials such as concrete damage, steel plasticity, etc. This study of literature review specifically focuses on the general behavior of common types of beam-column joints with structural properties at the moment-resisting RC frames to realize the important principle of the beam-column joint for enhanced performance.

Yogesh Narayan Sonawane, Shailendrakumar D. Dubey
Encouragement of Magnetic Treated Grey Water in High-Strength Concrete

The scarcity of water becomes an important issue for concrete industries. The alternative sustainable solution needed for making concrete become important to ensure the viability of utilization of water. The renewable source is used to make the grey water as a solution by changing its properties for concrete making. The production of grey water in developing countries like India is higher and increasing year by year. The physical and mechanical properties of concrete made with magnetic-treated grey water in high strength concrete provide better workability without super-plasticizer. The 18% increase in strength parameters ensures the feasibility of magnetic water addition in concrete. Fly ash-replaced concrete with magnetically treated (at 1.2 T) grey water produces better strength compared to conventional concrete.

E. Prabakaran, M. Nithya, Jessy Rooby, A. Vijayakumar
Spiritual Elixir: Application of Ganga Water in Treatment of Wastewater

Since age-old times it has been perceived that Ganga river water in its original form at the source point (Gangotri) does not get deteriorate due to which it is even called Brahma dravya, which means divine liquid. The Ganga water is considered and known to be blessed with bacteriophage viruses that manifold themselves at a swift pace. These viruses are not only antimicrobial but also give Ganga water a self-healing capacity and have strength even to abolish noxious bacteria like Escherichia coli. The potential application of the presence of microphages has been already used in wastewater treatment systems to improve drinking water standards. This current study will utilize this healing property of pious river to treat wastewater by analyzing through various experiments.

Monika Negi, Ayushi Maithani, Sakshi Gupta
Seismic Response of Base Isolated Elevated Circular Water Tank

Water tank is considered to be one of the important lifeline structures. Especially under lateral vibrations like earthquake or wind load, the study of water tanks in different head conditions becomes very critical. The base isolators are generally provided in structures to isolate the structure from the ground and subsequently reduce the damages caused by the lateral forces in the system. The present study aims to compare the seismic response of elevated circular water tank with and without base isolator by time history analysis. The analysis of the tank is performed in finite element-based software.

Tanuja Khati, Smita Kaloni, Shashi Narayan, Chetana
Analysis of Pauri Garhwal Forest Fire Burned Area for the Years 2015–2019—A Case Study

Forest fire is a major threat to biodiversity as it can affect the various species of flora and fauna as well as affects the human respiration system adversely. Forest fire can create an imbalance in the environment due to the release of harmful gases during the burning. Hence, it becomes necessary to have information on forest fire, so the proper management of fire can be done, and the further impact can be reduced. The main purpose of the study is to calculate the burned area of the Pauri Garhwal region of Uttarakhand by using Normalized Burned Ratio (NBR) of pre- and post-fire season and to classify the region as per the severity range proposed by the United States of Geological Survey (USGS). The study has been conducted for the years 2015–2019 using Landsat-8 Level 1 data, which has finer spatial resolution than the satellite currently used for fire monitoring system, i.e. MODIS and SNPP/VIIRS. The result shows extracted burned area of each year as per its severity level and burned area mostly lies between moderate to low severity level.

Pooja Dobhal, Rishi Prakash, Nitin Mishra, B. V. Khode
Enhancement of Seismic Properties of Reinforced Concrete Beam–Column joints—A Review

The collapse of RC structures during earthquake excitation accentuates the need for enhancing the seismic characteristics of a structure. Research studies have been conducted aiming to improve the strength in critical zones such as beam–column joints. Seismic properties such as energy dissipation capacity, ductility, stiffness, and the associated failure pattern are considered while designing an earthquake-resistant structure. The paper presents a critical review of the different seismic enhancement techniques prevailing in the construction industry. The wrapping of carbon-reinforced polymer sheets is an extensively used technique due to its high load carrying capacity and externally bonded reinforcement on grooves, which provides high ductility. Other polymer sheets are also considered to contribute to an increase in seismic strength but over a period of time, the debonding of sheets becomes an issue of concern, which can be overcome with the usage of NSM sheets and Epoxy resin injections. Concrete can also be used to strengthen the structure, such as the use of high-strength self-compacting concrete, which reduces the cracks at the core zone in addition to improving strength. This study also reviews the replacement of coarse aggregates by polyvinyl alcohol fiber. The above-mentioned methods of strengthening the seismic properties were analyzed in detail, and graphical plots were generated to draw comparisons based on various performance measures.

P. Nikita, V. M. Preethi
Geotextile Filters in Earthen Dam—A Review Study on Construction and Rehabilitation

Geotextiles as the filter medium in addition to simple gravel or chimney filter can serve the purpose of sustainability along with durability, stability and efficiency. This paper reviews the effect of base soil present, material and hydraulic properties and the effect of clogging of geotextiles when used as filter medium for dam construction. Geotextiles fulfil the filter criteria and are found to be a better companion for the soil to hold the dam constructively, as evident from various studies conducted. In some sites where granular material is not readily available or where the appropriate aggregate sizes cannot be obtained in sufficient quantities and filter has to satisfy engineering requirements, nothing can be best than geotextiles as a filter medium. This study has been made on functional comparison of conventional granular filter with geotextile filter.

Hridesh Kumar Trivedi, Nikita Choudhari, Sumit Gandhi
Seismic Response Control of RCC Building Using Dampers

Structures are subjected to various types of loading conditions such as earthquake, wind loads, etc. For structures in earthquake zones, they are designed to resist seismic forces. Earthquake is one of the greatest catastrophic threats to humankind and other living creatures as well as properties by nature. It is impossible to prevent earthquakes from occurring. Whenever earthquake occurs, it causes devastating results. As earthquake waves travel in soil, it starts to penetrate the base of building. Due to which the building will tend to vibrate to a frequency, and if the frequency of building matches the frequency of ground, it is called as resonance, which can cause heavy damages. To avoid or to lower such damages, seismic dampers can be used in buildings. Seismic dampers can decrease the damaging effect and improve the building’s seismic performance. The structure with damping system is analyzed in structural program for earthquake data. The structure is analyzed for different positions of dampers at different story levels, and by adopting optimization technique, we can obtain the required numbers and optimum location of damper.

Chinmay Gurmule, S. S. Sanghai, P. Y. Pawade
Utilization of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash for the Stabilization of Pavement Subgrade: A Probabilistic Approach

The present research was focused on the utilization of the waste material named sugarcane bagasse ash for stabilization subgrade layer using black cotton soil and makes it suitable for pavement construction. However, the safety and strength valuation of this layer require the modelling of the uncertainty of its properties as it will very depends on many factors. Hence, the present research is based on the study of experimental as well as statistical variations of the subgrade properties, stabilized with sugarcane bagasse for pavement construction. The different mechanical properties like California bearing ratio (CBR) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test were carried out with various compositions by replacing the sugarcane bagasse in different percentages by weight. From the experimental study, it was observed that as usual as the soil stabilized with cement offered better results compared with other combinations considered in the study. However, the black cotton soil stabilized with sugarcane bagasse ash also offered a promising result in terms of CBR (both soaked and unsoked) and UCS test. Furthermore, the same was validated through probabilistic study. For this, 25 probabilistic distributions were chosen to get the best suit fit of probabilistic model that closely represents the soaked CBR value of the stabilized subgrade layer. The best fit probability distribution was found by goodness-of-fit (GOF) tests on the available experimental data with Johnson SB (JSB) probability distribution. The P-P and Q-Q plots were also studied, which confirmed the appropriateness of Johnson SB (JSB) distribution to soaked CBR value as it satisfies the minimum value required according to IRC specification for pavement construction.

Monalisa Priyadarshini, Jyoti Prakash Giri
Experimental and Analytical Study of Negative Stiffness Device for Protection of Structures Against Earthquake—A Review

Seismic forces and displacement in existing structures can be effectively reduced by reducing the strength and stiffness of the structure and adding a supplemental damper. However, this additionally brings about inelastic movements and permanent damage of the structure during a seismic activity. Another approach towards controlling the response of structures during earthquake is by introducing negative stiffness in the structure. It is obtained by incorporating a mechanical system, called Negative Stiffness Device that produces a force that helps in the motion of structure instead of opposing it thereby significantly reducing or eliminating rigid movements and irreversible deformations. The NSD comprises of (1) intensely compressed spring that contributes negative stiffness, (2) a magnification system to amplify the negative stiffness, (3) a self-containment system to prevent the framework from resisting the large forces required for developing the negative stiffness, and (4) a “gap spring assembly” (GSA) system that causes a lag in the development of negative stiffness till the structural frame experiences a certain displacement. This paper explains the concept of Negative stiffness, advantages of NSD over other simpler systems, description and working and behaviour of the NSD, tools that depict the nature of the device and experimental outcomes that verify weakening with the help of the NSD.

Vaishali Kishan, Priyanka Jadhav
Laboratory Study of Permeability for Sub-Base Using Flyash and Fibre

Granular Sub-Base (GSB) is an intermediate layer provided between sub-grade and base course. It works as drainage layer and provides strength and support to the overlying pavement. Usually, the material used for sub-base consists of natural sand, crushed gravel, crushed stone and natural mineral materials. Particularly, in hill roads, it is not economical to use conventional sub-base material all time, because transportation distance is substantial. The locally available materials found during hill roads excavation in Chamoli district, Uttarakhand were used in this study. The aim of this study is to find out the effect of permeability on GSB. In this study, Type-I and Type-II aggregates were collected from Chamoli district, Uttarakhand and Type-III aggregate was collected from local area. Additives such as flyash and fibre were used. The three various types of aggregates were mixed with 22, 25, 28 of flyash by total weight and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0% of fibre by total weight. The standard proctor test and permeability test were conducted on various GSB mixtures. Addition of flyash decreases the permeability characteristics of the GSB mixture whereas inclusion of polypropylene fibre enhanced the permeability characteristics of the GSB mixtures. It is concluded from this study that polypropylene fibre is the most suitable GSB material as it is more permeable compared to flyash.

Dharampal Singh Kandari, Deepak Kumar Singh, Shashank Kothari
Comparative Analysis of CFST Columns and RC Columns Under Uniaxial Compressive Loads

The use of columns having steel and concrete as composite sections is popular over a long time. At the start, it absolutely was won’t to give sufficient protection to the steel structures. But later on, the concrete sheathed columns came in trend in respect to enhancement of strength properties. However, till the sixties, such concrete-filled steel tubes were never analyzed or used. Nowadays, such composite structural parts are progressively utilized in bridges, tall buildings and alternative styles of structures due to its composite effects. Such sections provide much economical structural system when compared with traditional structures having reinforced concrete structural members. In the following study a concrete-filled steel tubular column is modeled and analyzed in finite element analysis software ABAQUS. Stress, strain behavior along with buckling analysis of CFST and RCC column is done for different lengths and cross-sections to analyze the behavioral changes in compressive strength of columns.

Shashank Kothari, Deepak K. Singh, Pankaj Chamoli
Use of Bagasse Ash as a Filler Material in Soils

India is a land of agriculture and produces about 310 million tons of sugarcane annually. Bagasse ash (BA) is a by-product obtained from boilers of sugar and alcohol factories from the cogeneration process. It is mainly composed of silica, which is used as a mineral admixture in various aspects of civil engineering such as soil stabilization, mortar and concrete. Previous studies have shown that the use of BA can improve the cementitious properties of lime and cement. This work investigates the filler effects of residual Bagasse ash in reducing the plastic behavior of soils without comprising with the engineering properties of the soil. Initially, the study focuses on the suitable particle size of BA to be used in the soil so that the optimum packing density of soil can be achieved. Later, the plastic behavior of bagasse ash admixed soil was analyzed. The results indicate that BA can be used in the plastic soil, but that its efficiency significantly depends upon its particle size and degree of fineness.

Rahul Vaishnava, Ajit Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar
Assessing the Accuracy of Open Source Altitude Data for the Hilly Area in Tehri Garhwal District of Uttarakhand, India

Altitude information from Digital elevation model (DEM) data SRTM, at 30 m, 90 m, ASTER at 30 m and Google Earth (GE) are available at different vertical resolution for the entire globe. But it is very difficult to come to know which altitude model is most suitable for classes of target to estimate altitude information. In present research, we statistically evaluated which altitude information is most accurate with respect to Survey of India (SOI) toposheet for study area (Tehri District of Uttarakand, India). Such type of analysis is important for those areas where field data are not or available with high restriction. Present study reveals that a DEM model cannot be used for estimation of altitude information for all classes because every DEM data is recorded with unique technology. Therefore, altitude information will not be same from different sources of DEMs with respect to any reference’s altitude data. We found that SRTM30m has good altitude accuracy for all classes (Forest, Towers, Boundary pillars (BP), and other types of Tree) except Settlement and Temples with respect to SOI toposheet. Most of the time SRTM30m score first rank for all classes except Settlement and Temples. For Temples thermal remote sensing-based ASTER30m score first rank while SRTM90m show good altitude accuracy for Settlement classes with respect to SOI toposheet of study area.

Kishan Singh Rawat, Sanjeev Kumar, Anil Kumar Mishra, Sudhir Kumar Singh
Crop-Type Classification Using Sentinel-2A and in Situ Data: Case Study of Shri Dungargarh Taluk of Rajasthan, India

India has two main types of crops Kharif and Rabi. Rabi crops are sown and harvested in winters (October–March). Remote sensing technique helps to identify and monitor crop health and production. This will help to the agriculturalist, resource managers and planners to provide best decision and achieve the agricultural sustainability. Sentinel-2A and field data were used to identify crop types based on supervised classification (maximum likelihood classifier) approach. For growing season 2019–20 classification results were achieved. The overall accuracy was 87.50%. The main challenge of the present study was to classify wheat, mustard, gram and other crops at high accuracies.

Pritam K. Meshram, Kishan Singh Rawat, Sanjeev Kumar, Sudhir Kumar Singh
Evaluation of Total Dissolved Solids and Quality Zones of Groundwater Using Vertical Electrical Soundings and GIS Method

In this research work a relationship has been identified between electrical resistivity (ρ) and total dissolved solid (TDS), to delineate subsurface TDS in groundwater in study area. TDS data have been collected from twenty-three wells spread across study area. At seventy locations vertical electrical soundings (VES) surveys were carried out. Quadratic least square technique has been used to generate an empirical model for TDS and ρ with a significant high coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.73. Developed empirical model was validated using statistical tests and found to be very near to observed values. The statistical tests for validation of model, revealed that predicted and observed TDS values are also strongly correlated with R2 value (0.89), whereas other statistical tests (Standard Error of Estimate (SEE), Root mean square error (RMSE), Relative-RMSE (R-RMSE), Percent RMSC (%RMSE), t-statistic test, Volume Error (VE), Normalized RMSE (N-RMSE), Mean absolute error (MAE), Mean bias error (MBE), Mean absolute percent error (MAPE), Average index ratio (IR) and Percent of error (PE) have also revealed that established model have a good capability to predict TDS on the basis of ρ. On the basis of developed empirical model, groundwater TDS mapping has been carryout using ArcGIS within study area and delineated as fresh, brackish and saline zones.

Kishan Singh Rawat, Sanjeev Kumar, Sudhir Kumar Singh
Monitoring Drought of Maharashtra, India by Using Standardized Precipitation Index

Drought mainly causes damage to agricultural land and affect livestock, human activity. This study mainly dealt with the drought during the kharif season (Jun–Oct) in Maharashtra state. Drought of Maharashtra is measured by using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). During the kharif season, some area of Maharashtra have less rainfall and high temperature. For calculation of Standardized Precipitation Index, the collection of 16 days average rainfall data is done from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). According to its range, the Standardized Precipitation Index was classified into different classes. There are seven classes in which above than +2 show extreme wet condition and less than -2 show extreme dry conditions. According to the SPI value many areas of Maharashtra were affected by the drought during 2013 kharif season and affected agricultural land. The major crop affected by the drought is wheat.

Smruti Ranjan Sahu, Kishan Singh Rawat, Sanjeev Kumar, Anil Kumar Mishra, Sudhir Kumar Singh
Precipitation Trends Along the Himalayan and Pir Panjal Mountains of Jammu and Kashmir

Precipitation changes have widely affected the ecosystems worldwide as we are witnessing increases in the extreme events due to warming there are far-more consequences on the mountains regions where its form has changed. The change of precipitation from snow to rain has stressed the availability of water in the summer and autumn seasons. As the precipitation fall in the form of rain, it gets transported as runoff and there is no storage left for the summer which decreases the snowmelt runoff. In this study, these changes are explored over Jammu and Kashmir. Changes in precipitation from last 100 years are explored in this study using the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) data and the various other satellite and model data sets on different environmental settings. Four transacts/zones are made (a) the Pir Panjal mountain range (b) Kashmir valley plains (c) the Himalayan range. It’s observed that all the three transacts show significant changes. However, the form of precipitation has changed mostly in the Pir Panjal and Valley planes. The area has also witnessed heavy precipitation events recently leading to floods and snow avalanches and posing a threat of GLOFS. Also, there is shift in the snowfall events.

Mohammd Rafiq, Kishan Singh Rawat, Sarish Mukhtar, Anil Kumar Mishra, Sanjeev Kumar, K. K. Gupta
Evaluation of Critical Performance Parameter for Tube Settlers

Colour, odor, & turbidity contributed in raw water because of presence of suspended solids. For the removal of these suspended solids and removal of turbidity, sedimentation process plays an important role in water treatment process. Prior to introduction of high rate settling concept, the removal of suspended particles was done with conventional process of sedimentation with clarifiers. There are many gaps in operation of conventional clarifiers like depth of tank is about 3.5 to 4 m, detention time is about 3 to 4 h, use of mechanical scrappers for removal of settled sludge requires operational &maintenance cost, etc. And hence lot of time requires for conventional sedimentation process for settlement of flocs. Henceforth application of high rate sedimentation is widely used worldwide. In this, shallow depth gravitational settling devices like plates or tubes with very low detention time in the order of 10 to 20 min are used. In order to reduce the detention time, the distance travelled by particle (critical settling velocity) to reach the sludge zone of tank is to be reduced by application of tube settlers. There are various basic cross-sections of tube settlers are available like circular, square, triangular, chevron & hexagonal. In the proposed study some modifications are done in the conventional square & hexagonal shape tubes out of which hexagonal shape is considered for evaluation of critical performance parameter.

M. P. Bhorkar, P. B. Nagarnaik
Climate Change: Understanding the Frail Associations Between Scientific Evidence and Public Perception

Climate change and related issues can effectively be coped with a strong public awareness of public participation. This study evaluates the public perception and quality of information relating to climate change in the state of Uttarakhand, Western Himalayas. This study was designed to assess the perception of the common public on climate change through a web form survey, where a hundred and sixty respondents took the survey till August 2020. A structured form was used to evaluate the general public view of changing climate and its impact. This form was sent to random respondents over social media and also the responses were analyzed through descriptive statistics. Though the results have shown high public awareness of climate change issues, the knowledge on the prevention of impacts of climate change remained rudimentary. The study conjointly disclosed that the respondents’ insights on the triggers, effects and alleviation strategies of changing climate across the state had substantial disparities. The variations in the respondents’ insights were accredited by the variances in the level of education and differences in the sources of climate information. Though climate change as a word has fairly reached the common public, this study concluded that the extent of climate change information available for the general public is inadequate and necessitates publicity to assist the community to make meaningful decisions in its mitigation and adaptation strategies. Hence, all the stakeholders ought to intensify mass education and knowledge sharing portals to disseminate climate information on causes, impacts, mitigation, and adaptation strategies.

A. Arun Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar, Ramesh Krishnamurthy, Vandana Rani
Comparative Analysis of MIVAN Formwork and Conventional Formwork

In the conventional method of construction, the cost of construction increases due to the high labor cost and long duration of the project, as it requires more finishing work. To provide a decisive system for mass construction in developing countries MIVAN technology is introduced. MIVAN is an aluminum formwork for constructing monolithic structures. In this system Walls, Beams, Columns, and Slabs are cast together in a well-ordered manner. The finish obtained from MIVAN is good and hence requires no plasterwork, which is best suited for mass constructions and conditions like India.

Prakash Patil, Palash Mundhada
Study of Indirect Traffic Parameters Along Metro Construction Route

Metro rail is proving to be beneficial in many countries over the time as it reduces the traffic congestion. The construction of elevated metro lines consumes the road spaces and hinders the traffic leading to congestions and delays that gives the reduced speed of journey or the increased time for the same. These contribute to the major indirect costs associated with the construction. The purpose of this study is to discuss the effect of various parameters such as pedestrian interference, vehicles in lateral entry, vehicles in wrong entry, slow-moving vehicles, and parked vehicles count along the metro construction route on the speed of test vehicles. The study uses a method of test vehicle that runs between two major stations of Pune Metro construction (Corridor II) which is taken as the case study. The correlation between these parameters and the speed of the test vehicle is studied and found that they are strongly correlated.

Smita Pataskar, Sunil Pimplikar
Performance Investigation of Desiccant Wheels for Air Dehumidification

This work compares the performance of simple silica gel desiccant wheel (SG) and composite desiccant (CD) wheels using parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) as a heat source. The adsorption rate (AR) and regeneration rate (RR) were checked experimentally. From experimental investigations, it was observed that CD wheel having composition silica gel-lithium chloride-molecular sieve (SG-LiCl-MS) has enabled more AR and RR. It was observed that the percentage improvement in adsorption rate (PIAR) is 35%, 43.6%, and 85.5%, the percentage improvement in (PIRR) is 5.7%, 7.1%, and 14.4% for CD wheel made from SG-MS, SG-LiCl, and SG-LiCl-MS, respectively. The same wheel showed wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector of 0.234 and wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector of 2.366.

Kishor Rambhad, Manoj Kumbhalkar, Vednath Kalbande, Rahul Jibhakate, Nikhil Jumde, Pramod Walke
Corruption and Its Mitigation Strategy Using Lean Philosophy

Corruption is becoming a global problem in the contemporary world. The administrators of any organization are questioned frequently regarding corruption-related charges in different parts of the world. Accountability and credibility of the concerned organization are largely at stake due to corruption. Furthermore, the basic elements of corruption are also hard to find out due to complex interdisciplinary factors. In this regard, the present investigation proposes lean philosophy, i.e., prevention, detection, and diagnostics (PDD) mechanism against corruption. Each step of the PDD mechanism is explained lucidly. Furthermore, the Ishikawa diagram tool is utilized to determine the cause and effect of the corruption problem. The present mechanism can be utilized in determining the corruption level using the Ishikawa diagram and then trap the corruption using the PDD mechanism. The proposed mechanism can be especially helpful in defining corruption during the pandemic crisis of COVID-19. The outcomes of the present investigation are in terms of the Ishikawa diagram for the cause and effect of corruption. Further, the framework of the PDD mechanism is also presented. The targeted audience of the present study is industrial practitioners, policymakers, and management graduates.

Brajesh Kumar Kanchan, Guddakesh Kumar Chandan, Roma Kumari, Ojaswi Gautom
A New Approach for the Prediction of the Stability of Lotka-Volterra Model as a Biological Reaction

In this paper, a new approach for the evaluation of the stability of chemical species like Lotka-Volterra model is proposed. The main idea is to allow the given model to small perturbation from their steady-state concentrations which generate the sustained oscillations and the state becomes unstable. Additionally, the nonequilibrium stationary states and oscillatory states have been discussed in this paper. The domain stability, instability, and oscillatory is clearly revealed in our investigation.

Pragati Dethe, Arvind Bodhe
Review of Investigation in Performance of Magnetic Refrigeration System

Nowadays, the refrigeration system is one of the most important systems in the industry. Developers are constantly seeking how to avoid damage to the environment. Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging, environment-friendly technology based on a magnetic solid that acts as a refrigerant by magneto-caloric effect (MCE). Magnetization of a magneto-caloric material is equivalent to the compression of a gas (heating), while demagnetization is equivalent to the expansion of a gas (cooling). The foremost requirements are that these variations must be achieved speedily, repeatedly, reversibly with minimum energy losses [1]. In this paper, the explanation and the method for increasing the coefficient of performance of magnetic refrigerators have been explained and also magnetic refrigeration seems to posses’ great potential for future generations.

Aniket R. Ingale, Pranay D. Kumbhare, Ram G. Sanodiya, Ravindra A. Ravane, Ashish S. Raut
A Comparative Study on the Effect of Nanoparticles in Vapour Compression Refrigeration System

With the growing world economy, energy conservation plays a very important role. Refrigeration and air conditioning are the widely used equipment by human beings for their comfort which consume a large amount of energy. In many developing countries like India, energy is generated from fossil fuels. With the limited resources of fossil fuels, it needs to improve the efficiency of this equipment. Recently, many researchers found that by adding various nanoparticles in refrigerants enhances the performance of a vapour compression refrigeration system. Therefore, this paper discusses the effect of various parameters of nanoparticles such as size, shape, concentration, etc. on the performance of vapour compression refrigeration system. Further, it also discusses the performance of various nanoparticles with different refrigerants.

Saroj Chavhan Borkar, Sanjeo Choudhary
An Experimental Evaluation of FEA-Based Helical Compression Spring to Design a Shock Absorber

A spring is an elastic object used to store mechanical energy. Springs are usually made out of spring steel. Small springs can be wound from pre-hardened stock, while larger ones are made from annealed steel and hardened after fabrication. Carbon steel material is used for helical compression spring. A shock absorber is a mechanical device designed to smooth out or damp shock impulse & dissipate kinetic energy. The main function of helical compression spring in shock absorber is to resist the shocks obtained from the irregularities and bumping from road. The main objective of this paper is to design and analysed the helical compression spring for the purpose of shock absorber in motorcycle. In this paper to study the material of spring and inspected as per standards then made 2D model of helical compression spring in Creo-parametric software and imported into ANSYS analysis software for analysis and evaluation of stresses and deformation. The analysis results compared with experimental results.

Amol Vikas Joshi, Devanand Tayade, Wasim Patel
Laboratory Investigation of Composite Made of Alumina Dispersed Aluminium Prepared by UTM Pressed Powder Metallurgy Method

The present study reported that fine grain powders of Al2O3/Al composites containing 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt.% of alumina, prepared by Universal testing machine (UTM) pressed Powder metallurgy method (PMM) to find out the change in microstructural, as well as mechanical properties, as compared to pure metal. A close ball mill is used to confirm the effect of speed and time during the mixing and milling of powders. The milled powders were pressed under UTM and then sintered at a predetermined temperature. The maximum value of observed density of the mixed and milled sample was recorded as 8.23% and 6.17%, respectively, for a mixture containing 10 wt.% of Al2O3 as compared to pure aluminium. It was also observed that the highest densification occurs when 10wt.% of ceramics (Al2O3) present in pure aluminium. The sharp increase in hardness occurs up to 4 wt.% of Al2O3 mixed composite. The maximum value of hardness of the composite is increased by 50%. The lowest value of Poisson ratio was recorded as 0.33 for the composite containing 4% wt. of ceramics and the maximum value was observed as 0.53 for composite having 10% wt. of Al2O3 /Al. The micro graphical analysis clearly shows the good distribution of particles and very less agglomerations of alumina within the range of composites made of PMM. The enhancement of breaking load is recorded as 50.9% for composite containing 4 wt.% of Al2O3/Al and ultimate tensile strength increases to 68.3% for composite containing 6 wt.% of Al2O3 as compared to pure aluminium.

M. K. Manik, Mani Bhushan Singh, Vishal Vhagat
A Computational Study of a Dump Combustor with and Without Swirler

Combustor is an important component in all heat engines. A major goal of combustion research is to develop accurate, tractable, and predictive models for the phenomena occurring in the combustor. There are numerous parameters that affect the combustion process in the combustor. Hence, several experiments have been conducted by researchers to study those parameters and their effects. This study is also a small effort in the same direction to focus on phenomena occurring in the combustor. In this paper, cold flow of air in a combustor is simulated to take an insight view of phenomena occurring inside. A swirling cold flow is also done and compared to the results without swirl flow. In without swirl condition, the flow field is compared at variable Reynolds numbers 2285 to 3428 and in swirl condition, the flow field is compared at different swirl vane angles (30°–75°). At the inlet point, pressure and temperature is 60psi and 300 K, respectively. At the outlet point, pressure and temperature is equal to atmospheric condition. The potential core, recirculation, and shear zone are found in the non-swirling flow. In the recirculation zone, there is a clear effect of variation in Reynolds number. It is seen that recirculation strength increases with an increase in Reynolds number in non-swirling type combustor. The effects of swirl vane angles on central and corner recirculation zones are visualized in swirl flow. All studies have been done on a dump combustor and numerically simulated by using ANSYSFLUENT simulation package.

Rohan R. Pande, Mohd Zeeshan
Effect of Aspect Ratio on Fatigue Behaviour of Steel Shear Wall

Shear walls are secondary prominent structure that predominantly serves best in resisting lateral loads when primary structures fail to take the load. Steel shear walls are vastly used in high-rise buildings to provide resistance to lateral and seismic loads. The first phase of this study involves numerical validation of experiment on behavioural analysis and performance of steel shear wall under cyclic loading. The results of phase one are considered as inputs for further parametric study on aspect ratio. Aspect ratio for the shear wall is an important parameter as it decides the shear capacity and shear distribution in a structure. The study involves variation in fatigue behavioural changes of steel shear wall with respect to change in aspect ratio. 3D models were stimulated using CATIA and the models were analyzed using ANSYS Workbench. The results obtained are in the form of a hysteresis graph which elucidates the energy dissipating capacity of the steel shear wall. A stable hysteresis graph was observed after an aspect ratio 1.5. Aspect ratio 2 was found to be the best possible solution for designing steel shear wall.

R. K. Chethan Gowda, K. Ashwini, H. M. Rajashekaraswamy
Life Cycle Analysis for Biodiesel Fuels—A Holistic Approach

As fossil fuels are depleting at a high rate, it is imperative to find alternative fuels to fulfill the ever-increasing energy demands. Many renewable sources of energy have been considered to replace fossil fuels. Biodiesel is one such renewable fuel that has come to the forefront recently. A holistic life cycle analysis of four biodiesel, namely Jatropha, Coconut, Karanja, and Neem, is carried out, including the cultivation of the feedstock, transportation, transesterification of the oil to produce biodiesel, and finally, usage of the biodiesel produced in a stationary diesel engine. The impacts associated with each stage of the life cycle, namely energy, greenhouse gas emissions, acidification, eutrophication, human appropriation of net primary productivity, and carbon dioxide sequestration, are also analyzed. The usage of biodiesel results in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when compared to fossil diesel. The Coconut biodiesel system requires 67% lesser energy consumption compared to fossil diesel system in its production process. The energy reductions from Neem (53%), Karanja (51%), and Jatropha (48%) would follow in that order. Karanja biodiesel is a potential candidate for reducing the equivalent CO2 emission (89%) in the atmosphere due to the high CO2 absorption capacity of its plant. The equivalent CO2 emission reduction from Coconut (83%), Jatropha (81%), and Neem (61%) would follow in that order. It has been found in the study that the feedstock alone makes up more than 80–85% of the cost in the production of biodiesel used.

Anurag Mishra, R. Arjun Thangaraj, Pramod S. Mehta
The Role of 3D Printing in the Biomedical Application: A Review

The world is constantly witnessing rapid development. This development is the reason for the increased use of more advanced technologies in almost every field. Medical science is the field which is focusing on the use of such advanced technologies in their working environment. Additive manufacturing is now evolving as one of the important tools in medicine. Almost every field in medicine such as dentistry, orthopedics, neurosurgery, pharmaceutics, and oncology is using this technology. The advantage of technology may include the creation of complex structures and personalized surgical guides, organ printing, and fast prototypes which are not possible with traditional manufacturing. This paper presents a systematic review of the role of additive manufacturing in medical science and the application of 3D printing in various fields of medicine.

Ujwal Sontakke, Santosh Jaju
Microsurfacing Machines: A Review

Microsurfacing is like slurry seal. It comprises of the utilization of a blend of water, asphalt emulsion, total (small squashed stone), and substance added to a current black-top solid asphalt surface. Polymer is usually added to the black-top emulsion to give better blend properties. The significant distinction between slurry seal and microsurfacing is by the way they “break” or solidify. Slurry depends on vanishing of the water in the black-top emulsion. The black-top emulsion utilized in microsurfacing contains concoction added substances which permit it to break without depending on the sun or warmth for dissipation to happen. In this manner, microsurfacing is an application that solidifies snappier than slurry seals and can be utilized when conditions would not permit slurry seal to be effectively positioned. Roads that have a great deal of shade and roads that have a ton of traffic are acceptable contender for microsurfacing. In this paper, we will study about different microsurfacing machines and these machines are being manufactured by different industries/companies. The manufacturing of these types of machines varies according to its need, functioning and cost. Thus, the buyer has options to choose among the various machines available which is suitable for the purpose. So, the below discussion is about different types of microsurfacing machines.

Kratika Ravekar, Santosh B. Jaju
Shape Memory Alloy as a Smart Material: A Review

The paper presents shape memory alloys (Nitinol), as a smart material .This review initially discuss a brief summary of their applications such as robotics, automotive, biomedical, aerospace and some of their important topics, including historical overview. Shape memory alloy works on the principle of shape memory material which regain their original shape after passing through different temperature phases. SMA gets some more attention in incoming years due to their superior and unique properties.

Shrutika Dahake, Nilesh Awate, Rupesh Shelke, Abhay Khalatkar
Influence of Room Temperature Rolling Process on Mechanical and Corrosion Behaviors of Al 6061alloy

The present work reports the effects of room temperature rolling on mechanical and corrosion behaviors of Al 6061 alloy. The Al 6061 alloy was rolled for multiple thickness reductions 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%, respectively, at room temperature. For all rolled samples, mechanical properties like tensile strength, elongation, toughness, and hardness were studied. Corrosion behavior was studied by immersion test with weight loss method in 3.5% NaCl solution. The rolled Al alloy has shown the significant enhancement in tensile strength as compared to the coarse-grained (CG) bulk alloy due to strain hardening, accumulation of higher dislocations density, and grain refinement in rolled Al alloys. After 20% RTR, 40% RTR, 60% RTR, and 80% RTR, an increment of 12.34%, 18.04%, 27.85%, and 36.71% in the strength and a decrement of 6.25%, 25%, 37.5%, and 76.6% in elongation are obtained, respectively. After 20% RTR, 40% RTR, 60% RTR, and 80% RTR, an increment of 23%, 43.37%, 68.58% and 49.13% in hardness values are achieved. Corrosion behavior of Al 6061 alloy was found to be improved to the thickness reduction of 40% RTR and beyond (for 60% and 80% RTR) that it shows a negative effect of rolling on corrosion behavior.

Alok Singh Verma, Anuj Jain
Enhancement of Activated Flux Tungsten Inert Gas Welding Using SiO2 Flux for Joining 304L Stainless Steel Sheets

Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding can be used to join limited thickness of workpiece for hard materials such as stainless steel. Use of the oxide flux while welding is one of the trustworthy techniques to improve arc penetration in TIG welding. Welding up to 10-mm-thick sheets without any joint preparation is possible in single pass by Activated-TIG (A-TIG) welding. In this study, oxide flux powder SiO2 mixed with acetone is used. A thin uniform layer of oxide flux is applied on joint before welding of AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel. Experiments are conducted according to L9 orthogonal array table of Taguchi’s method, in which arc gap, welding current, gas flow rate, and welding speed are the selected input parameters with three levels. Ultimate tensile strength test, microhardness test, and metallographic tests are conducted. To analyze the effect of heat input, three different heat input levels, namely, low heat, medium heat and high heat are taken. These samples are tested for tensile test, metallographic test, and microhardness tests. It is observed that activated flux SiO2 flux is very efficient to increase weld depth penetration and joint strength. It is also found that extent of grain coarsening increases with the increase in heat input.

Dattatray Chopade, Prashant Lugade, Nitish Sinha, Avinash Panchal, Shivji Kumar
An Overview on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Vibrated Magnesium Alloy During Solidification

AZ91 Mg alloys are highly demanding in the automotive, aerospace, electric, and communication industries. However, there are some melting and casting problems associated with Mg alloys. The Peeling–Bedworth ratio of MgO is only 0.7. Hence, the oxidation of the metal is progressive and it requires protection against oxidation. Magnesium alloys are melted under a flux cover of KCl + MgCl2 which dissolves MgO. Before removal, the dross is usually thickened by the addition of CaF2. After dross removal, the exposed magnesium melt burns in contact with air. Hence, the exposed magnesium bath is protected by sprinkling sulfur powder which prevents magnesium oxidation. Alternatively, the melting may be carried out in an atmosphere of CO2 + 0.5 SF3. During pouring, sulfur powder is usually sprinkled on to the stream of metal. So, great care is required in synthesizing the Mg alloy. Due to the large freezing range, Mg–Al Alloys are subjected to the formation of coarse grained structure. Magnesium alloys are therefore treated for grain refinement. Microstructure refinement can either be done by the chemical method in which grains are refined by adding the grain refiners; or by imposing vibrations to the solidifying melt. Due to imposed vibrations, the dendrites are broken down and result in finer and equiaxed morphology. The vibrations can be imposed through three different ways: mechanical vibrations, electromagnetic vibrations, and ultrasonic vibrations. In mechanical vibrations, the mold is vibrated. There are two distinct views regarding the mechanism of mechanical vibrations: (i) cavitation effects and (ii) the effect of the fluid-flow phenomena. The mechanism of microstructure formation during electromagnetic vibration processing is also cavitation, from which the shock pressure is yielded and thus the growing dendrites fragmented into small pieces that provide an artificial source of effective nuclei for grain multiplication. During ultrasonic vibrations, the intensity of vibration soothes quickly as the distance from the transmitter increases. Consequently, the grain refinement is always limited near the area of the vibration source. Vibrations have a strong effect on microstructure and mechanical properties. The changes in properties remain consistent with fine uniform non-dendritic grains. In the present paper, the above issues are critically discussed along with the mechanism of grain refinement.

Vatsala Chaturvedi, Trinath Talapaneni
CFD Analysis of Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System of Diesel Generator Set

Conventional Diesel Generator (DG) sets operation produces electric power as well as exhaust heat. These DG sets are comparatively inefficient in terms of fuel consumption and they generate a large amount of exhaust heat. About one-third of the input energy is in terms of exhaust gas and generally, this is not harnessed for any useful applications. Exhaust heat from DG set employed in high altitude areas can be an essential heat source for residential/commercial shelters for various applications like hot water for hygiene, sanitation, and laundry purpose. It can be used for radiant heating of residential/commercial spaces utilizing WHR system. This paper presents the design and parametric analysis of waste heat recovery system (WHR) based on the exhaust of DG set with specific application of residential/commercial space heating at high altitude. To evaluate the performance of the developed WHR, CFD-based analysis was carried out using ANSYS FLUENT. Two models of WHR were analyzed for performance evaluation. The first conventional segmental baffle-based WHR was evaluated followed by Helical baffled WHR. Parametric CFD analysis for baffle inclinations was carried out. The analysis shows that the effectiveness predicted by CFD simulation with 10° helical baffled WHR is 15% higher than segmental baffled WHR.

Tejas Shankhpal, Vikrant Haribhakta, Santosh Trimbake
Optimization of Solar Hot Water Storage Tank Performance During Charging Process Using Buckingham’s Theorem

Buckingham's theory uses quantitative analysis to include the basic concepts of mathematical modeling by reducing the number of parameters in equations, making it simpler for quality studies. In this work, the novel mathematical modeling has been developed to study and optimize the solar water storage tank during the charging processes. Experiments were conducted in a tank to store hot water under natural conditions on various days in Jalgaon Maharashtra, India to test the performance of the system. These experimental data were used to prepare mathematical modeling based on the Buckingham theorem by subject to dependant variable (TL) and independent variables (V, gβΔt, Cp, ρ, U, Qs). The progression of the Mathematics model was compared with that of ANN. Operating parameters, i.e., loading temperature; thermal stratification, as well as thermal insulation have been used in the model of ANN. The statistical modeling and ANN results obtained are verified with test data. Studies show that high deviations of 2.7° C and 1.76° C were found, respectively. The operation of the hot water storage tank during the charging process is best performed by linear programming problem (LPP). The result of the Mathematics model shows two correct solutions for the hot water storage tank during the charging process. As a result, two optimum points are set during charging.

Mahesh V. Kulkarni, Dheeraj S. Deshmukh, S. P. Shekhawat, M. S. Deshmukh
Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Module Using Microchannels and Nanofluids

A Photovoltaic (PV) module consists of a number of interconnected solar cells, which convert solar radiation into electrical energy. One of the important characteristics of PV module is the conversion efficiency, which replicates the fraction of solar energy which can be converted into electrical energy by module. The surface temperature of PV module is found to be an important parameter that influences the conversion efficiency of module. Most of the literature focuses on the different methods of improving conversion efficiency of PV module by reducing its surface temperature, i.e., cooling via heat dissipation. Presented work also extends the trend of surface cooling of PV module using PVT hybrid system experimentally. The PVT system consists of PV module underlying with microchannels through which working fluid flows. The experimental analysis found a significant drop-in module surface temperature in the range of 15–19 °C, this temperature drop enhances the efficiency of PV module to the extent of 25–35%. The module temperature and conversion efficiency were both found to be strongly dependent on the extent of cooling. The extent of cooling can be modulated by altering the working fluid. Hence different configurations of nanofluids were subjected to experimentation. The conversion efficiency of PV module may be studied as a strong function of nanofluid concentration. The presented analysis concluded that the system of microchannel in combination with nanofluid is found to be substantially better and comparable to other methods in literature and the result also ties well with previous studies.

S. M. Lawankar, Shoeb J. Inamdar, Shubham K. Changole
Thermal Analysis of Salinity Gradient Solar Pond in Nagpur City

A salinity gradient solar pond is one of the technologies which can collect and store thermal energy. It consists of three zones, upper convective zone, non-convective zone, and lower convective zone. The thermal energy received from the sun is stored in the lower convective zone and can be extracted for different low temperature applications. The amount of energy extracted is significantly influenced by the climatic conditions of the location. In this present study, a computational thermal model is used to investigate the behavior of solar pond. The temperature of the lower convective zone is very much influenced by the selection of commencing day of heat extraction. The impact of the rate of heat extraction and commencing day of heat extraction on the temperature behavior of the lower convective zone is reported. It is found that the temperature achieved by LCZ decreases with the rise in the rate of heat extraction. The thermal behavior of the solar pond should be precisely investigated before the selection of commencing day of heat extraction for the particular location.

Shyamal G. Chakrabarty, Uday S. Wankhede, Rupesh S. Shelke
Mathematical and Thermal Modeling for Solar Drying of Tomato Slices

A direct forced convective solar tunnel greenhouse dryer was designed, manufactured, and commissioned at Nashik, India for food processing. In this manuscript, drying kinetics of tomato was investigated firstly by thin-layer mathematical (semi-theoretical, theoretical, and empirical) models followed by thermal modeling for estimating convection heat and mass transfer coefficient. All models are validated with root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) through regression analysis. Based on the curves, Wangh and Singh model (R2 = 0.9958; RMSE = 0.0116) was chosen as the finest model to illuminate the drying kinetics. Experimental data was used to ascertain the values of constants C and n by means of linear regression and consequently, values of convection heat (2.17–13.51 W/m2K) and mass transfer (94-854 W/m2K) coefficients were anticipated. Result showed that the technology can be straightforwardly adopted for commercial use by the farming venture for small- and medium-scale farmers in India. Thin-layer mathematical drying models along with thermal modeling plays a significant role in perfect design and enhancement of the dryer. The dryer has been tested for different commodities and found exceptional for mass fabrication, superb transportability, effortless tracking, and easy assembling at site makes it a Do It Yourself (DIY) kit.

Rajendra C. Patil, Yogesh S. Kulkarni
Efficiency Improvement of Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) System by Way of Various Active and Passive Cooling Techniques—A Review

In a Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) system, the amount of light not converted into electricity is converted into heat. This waste heat is responsible for increasing the operating temperature of CPV module. Since the cell operating temperature plays a vital role in the electrical efficiency of CPV module, both electrical efficiency and power output of CPV module depend linearly on cell operating temperature. Solar cell performance deteriorates with increasing operating temperature. To obtain a optimum performance of multijunction solar cell module with high reliability, power output and codal life, the operating cell temperature must be within the range prescribed by standard test condition. In passive cooling methods, extended surfaces, heat pipe and micro-fins are mostly used to dissipiate heat of CPV module. In active cooling methods, Peltier effect and compressed air cooling are used to maintain the optimum temperature of MJT cell. This paper focuses on the review of various active and passive cooling techniques suggested by researchers and their results.

Yogesh Nandurkar, Vivek Korde, Narendra Giradkar
Experimental Study of Vacuum Tube Heat Pipe-Based Solar Collector for Cooking Application

Cooking is the only energy demand activity worldwide, practiced by all in many ways, irrespective of their economic status, using various energy sources in different countries. The majority still use conventional fuel. In the urban lifestyle, LPG, PNG, or electricity are majorly used for cooking. The long-term availability of conventional fuels is limited. Its excessive global use is creating climate change issues; hence, the efforts and exploration to use alternatives and green fuel for cooking have risen. Solar energy is one such green energy. In this work, an experimental study is done to evaluate the potential of non-concentrating and passive solar tracking type solar collectors with heat pipe for cooking by boiling. An experimental setup was developed and tested using heat transfer fluid (HTF) for stagnation temperature, water boiling, and rice and split pigeon peas lentil cooking by boiling. The results obtained are presented and discussed. It is concluded that with the developed prototype, cooking can be done through boiling in water; around 2.0 kg dry rice and 1.5 kg split pigeon pea have been cooked when tested for the whole day.

Asim Kumar Joshi, Sachin Gupta, Arunendra Kumar Tiwari, Falgun Raval, Milan Sojitra
Reliability Assessment of Smart Grid with Renewable Energy Sources, Storage Devices, and Cyber Intrusion

Aiming at the series of problems existing in current power system, this paper evaluates the reliability indices by considering the cyber intrusion phenomenon at the distribution side of smart grid infrastructure using MATLAB software. Modernization of grid will help to improve the reliability and promote energy efficiency. This will allow the customer to generate and store electricity and use in case of an outage. Furthermore, the paper also discusses the cyberattack modeling and its impact on reliability indices. The reliability indices such as system average interruption frequency index (SIAFI), system average interruption duration index (SAIDI), customer average interruption duration index (CAIDI), average service availability index (ASAI), average service unavailability index (ASUI), energy not supplied index (ENS), average energy not supplied (AENS), annual customer interruptions (ACI), customer interruption duration (CID) for each case are evaluated and the impact of cyber intrusion on reliability indices is also taken into consideration.Assessment is carried out on IEEE 14 bus system for the following four cases:Case 1: System with conventional sourcesCase 2: System with renewable energy sources (RES),Case 3: System with conventional, renewable energy sources, and storage devices (SDs),Case 4: System with conventional, renewable sources, and storage devices, including cyber intrusion (CIs).

Lalit Tak, Atul Kumar Yadav, Neeraj Kumar Singh, Vasundhara Mahajan
Distance Relaying with Power Swing Detection in the Presence of Distributed Resources

In the presence of distributed generation, the fault current from utility increases as fault current from the generator is added in it. For feeder end fault, the effective reach of relay decreases when its value of impedance measured and then its actual impedance are increased. To increase the relay security to achieve the voltage and current stability, the distance protection with combination of additional criteria has to be added. This paper shows application of distance relaying with power swing detection of transmission lines including distributed generation. An adaptive relaying algorithm is implemented and power swing characteristics are observed. By using an adaptive distance protection, dependability is minimized and security is increased as compared to traditional distance relaying.

Pankaj Ramtekkar, Suraj Dudhe, Ankur Gupta, Munishwar Meshram
Modeling and Simulation of FPGA-Based Vector-Controlled Induction Motor Drive Using Simulink

This paper presents an approach for the modeling and simulation of variable-speed drives when the control algorithm is to be implemented in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Today’s FPGAs contain look-up tables, registers, multiplexers, distributed and blocks memory, dedicated circuit for fast arithmetic operation, and input–output processing. The memory bandwidth of a modern FPGA is much more to that of DSP processor or microprocessor running at clock rates two to ten times that of the FPGA. The objective is to design a system in Simulink integrated with Xilinx System Generator environment, starting from choosing the control strategy, to build the floating-point system, and to build the fixed-point system. An application example of vector control which is widely used for induction motor drive control is presented.

Sumit Kumar Gupta
Design of Sine Filter for GTO-Based Auxiliary Converter for Electric Locomotive Using MATLAB Simulink

This paper presents the converter topology for one-phase to three-phase auxiliary converter for three-phase electric locomotive. GTO-based auxiliary converter has no sine filter and due to this most of the auxiliary machines are being operated on non-sinusoidal power supply, which results in poor machine performance. Hence, we made efforts to design a circuit of sine filter by MATLAB Simulink technique which results in desired sinusoidal output waveform which increases the life of a machine and decreases the human efforts required per machine and maintenance cost of a machine. So, this is a solution to achieve the desired parameters and waveforms using sine filter for auxiliary machines in three-phase electric locomotive.

Rutuja S. Hiware, Shradha K. Umathe, Shridhika Bire
Analysis of Control Techniques and Filter Design of Multilevel Inverter

Inverters are the power electronic devices which convert DC voltage to required AC. A simple conventional voltage source inverter has three levels of output, i.e., positive, negative, and zero while a multilevel inverter which is an advanced inverter generates a near-sinusoidal desired output voltage from several levels of DC voltages. From various conventional topologies, Cascaded H-Bridge topology (CHB) is chosen owing to its various advantages compared to the other topologies. Using CHB topology, various level (3, 5, and 7 levels) inverters are compared with each other. Different types of Sine Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) control techniques of multilevel inverters have been examined and out of them Phase Opposition Disposition (POD) technique is put in use till the end of this work as it gives best results based on values of % Total harmonic Distortion (%THD). By varying the switching frequency and modulation index (Ma), changes in %THD values are observed. Further to reduce the harmonics and to improve %THD, various passive filters are used. These filters are designed accordingly with optimal values of inductance and capacitance.

Vaidehi Korde, Neha Sute, V. B. Borghate, V. M. Korde
Increasing the Accuracy and Reducing the Installation Cost of Automatic Power Factor Correction System Using TRIAC

The existing manual and automatic methods of power factor correction (PFC) require reservation of various capacitors of different values with re- lay as the load varies which is costly. Further, sometimes the desired power fac- tor can’t be found because the value of the capacitor becomes high or less than the desired value and as a result desired capacitive current (Ic) can’t be found. In the proposed system in this paper, these problems are recovered by using only one capacitor which is connected with a TRIAC instant of several number of relay-connected capacitors. The firing angle of TRIAC is controlled by microcontroller which enables the system to control the capacitive current (Ic) to achieve the desired value of (Ic). The whole system is atomized by using a microcontroller and a current sensor. Therefore, reduction of cost for capacitor installation and perfect power factor have been achieved. Power factor one has been taken as desired value in this work. Any other value of power factor can be set as the de- sired value by a small modification of the microcontroller program.

Mohammad Khalid Saifullah, Md. Sajedul Rahman, Md. Masum Miah, Md. Rubaiyat Rahman Shibly, Nasim Mia, Md. Salman Rahman, Saikat Das, K. M. Ahsan-uz-Zaman
Testing Topologies to Overcome Fault in Micro-Grid Connected System

Major concern of this study is to reduce the production of power supply and also reduce the overheating of servo stabilizer. Mainly this report addressed opportunities to make continuity of power supply to any industrial load through servo stabilizer in which bypass gets modified by automatic phase angle detection machine which alternatively introduces the PMU units. Analysis was conducted to identify the reasons for occurrence of fault in the power supply and recommendations and suggestions were also given to make continuity of power supply. As per current scenario of power plant, the most important is making the continuity of power supply through our project paperwork. We conducted different types of case studies for detecting power cut while calculating how power is used and in what percentage it becomes wasted.Therefore, to protect such cases we have designed a system which is fully automated.

Ankur Kumar Gupta, Rishi Kumar Singh, Shradha Umathe
Improving Reactive Power Compensation by Using Hybrid-STATCOM

In this paper, a three-phase Power system with a static load having STATCOM in Hybrid form with a filter is proposed to improve the compensation range and reduce the rating on inverter used in STATCOM. The Hybrid-STATCOM and its circuit configuration are presented first in the paper. It further analyses, explores and correlates its V-I characteristics with conventional STATCOM and Capacitive Couples STATCOM(C-STATCOM). For the proposed system, a new control strategy is designed and tested on different abnormal conditions like low inductive load and high inductive load, it is also tested on capacitive load conditions. At the last, the above tested result is simulated on MATLAB and validated with different types of load and it has been found that the proposed system required low dc-link voltage and gave a wide compensation range. Due to these important features and tools used, the expenses of the system can be significantly reduced.

Ramchandra Adware, V. K. Chandrakar
Electric Vehicle Technology: Trends and Challenges

The main cause of greenhouse gas emission now a days is emission of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) based vehicles. This greenhouse gas emission has severe impacts on climatic conditions. The electric vehicles (EV) are an alternate solutions to avoid the rise in global warming effects. It is projected that the use of 125 million EVs on road by 2030 would keep the temperature below two degrees. The deployment of EV on road has many challenges for 100% adoption in society. The adoptions of EVs suffer with many challenges that includes social and technical challenges. This paper addresses the numerous socio-economics challenges faced by the EVs in country. The government framing policies for EVs play a crucial role for EV adoption in society. The safety of driver and passengers should be the first priority during design consideration of EVs.

Nadeem Akhtar, Vijay Patil
Solar Micro-Inverter with Phase Shift Power Modulation and Half Wave Cyclo-Converter

Generally, a single high power converter is used as an interface between the multiple modules and grid in a typical solar power infrastructure. However, a direct connection of each solar module to grid through the micro inverter is another simpler approach. Main components here are a series resonant inverter with full-bridge, a high-frequency transformer, and a half-wave cyclo-converter. A micro inverter configuration presented in this paper incorporates reduced number of stages and makes use of passive components. In this topology, change in phase shift method is implemented in order to control the inverter output. This paper involves the simulation and development of next generation micro-inverter architecture.

Amit L. Nehete, Gururaj Talewad, Chetan B. Khadse
Load Flow Analysis of 5 Bus Power System for Three Phase Symmetrical Fault Using MATLAB

Load flow analysis is a very important aspect for the power system since it determines the steady-state operating characteristic. It is necessary for continuous evaluation of performance of the power system which further helps in taking suitable control measures. The objective of this paper is to obtain the load flow solution for both pre-fault and post fault conditions. A five bus power system is considered for the load flow and fault analysis programs. Load flow solution is obtained with the help of Gauss–Seidel method implemented through MATLAB. Fault analysis is done for three phase symmetrical fault. All the results are tabulated for the voltage, phase angle, real, and reactive power. Obtained results are compared with normal operating conditions that determine the behavior of system for transient operating conditions.

Prajakta Vikas Dhole, Sahebrao Narsingrao Patil
MIL, SIL, and PIL Simulations of a Grid-Tied Inverter

This paper presents the control scheme for the grid-tied inverter used to feed the grid from a DG source at unity power factor. The control has been tested using model-in-the-loop (MIL), software-in-the-loop (SIL), and processor-in-the-loop (PIL) simulation techniques. The system has been designed and simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment to perform the MIL simulations. The C-code of the controller block has been generated using the embedded coder to perform SIL simulation by way of replacing the controller block by the generated C-code. The outer loop of the controller has been considered for PIL simulation test making use of an Arduino Uno microcontroller board.

Piyush Pandey, Saurabh Mani Tripathi, Utkrisht Goswami, Hemant Kumar Verma, Aman Kumar Sriwastava
Performance Investigation on Vector Controlled IPMSM Drive Using MIL, SIL, and PIL Simulations

This paper presents the vector control scheme for an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) drive. In the proposed scheme, the current control loop has been implemented using a hysteresis controller; whereas, the speed control loop has been implemented using a PI controller. The control scheme for IPMSM drive has been implemented in MATLAB/Simulink environment, and the transient performances of the drive have been scrutinized for different speed and load torque variations in order to demonstrate the efficacy of the drive control by way of model-in-the-loop (MIL), software-in-the-loop (SIL), and processor-in-the-loop (PIL) simulation techniques. A satisfactory control performance has been observed for all transient conditions.

Utkrisht Goswami, Saurabh Mani Tripathi, Piyush Pandey, Saumya Jain, Govind Saroj
Artificial Intelligence Based State of Charge Estimation of Electric Vehicle Battery

Artificial intelligence and machine learning are the most recent focal point of innovative research. Core technologies are making effective use of such techniques to understand the trend of data measured and observed by utilities. One such core technology is high voltage electrical system which is basically different from usual concepts of electrical engineering. Breakdown studies of different types of insulation requires mathematical and electrical understanding along with concepts of material physics. But Artificial Intelligence finds application for such fields as well. This paper discusses the same and explores various possibilities of applying machine learning concepts so as to forecast failures a priori. Integration of two diverse technologies of which one is most recent and other is classical and conventional is handled in different sections of paper. Machines will be equipped with better predictors of futuristic behavior. Several aspects of recent topics and their mapping to understand behavior of insulation are dealt in the paper.

S. P. Nangrani, Ishaan S. Nangrani
Accelerometer-Based Hand Gesture Control Robot Using Arduino and 3-Axis Accelerometer

The past decades have seen the rapid development of robotics in many fields. Gestures are an important part of human communication in conveying emotions and feelings. So, the diminutive technology of gesture-controlled robot should be lightened in today’s world. This paper will review the design and implementation of an accelerometer-based hand gesture control robot using Arduino and 3-axis accelerometer. The system can be broadly divided into two parts. The transmitting part consists of an Arduino board, RF transmitting module and ADXL335 accelerometer sensor. The second part is the receiver part that contains an Actual robot with Arduino board, L233D motor Driver Shield, RF module, BO motors, batteries and tires.

Ankit, Shweta Agarwal
Artificial Intelligence-Based State of Charge Estimation of Electric Vehicle Battery

Advanced battery management systems and recent battery technologies are prominent research areas in the automobile sector. Estimation of State of Charge (SoC) of lithium-ion battery used in Electric Vehicle (EV) is done through direct measurement and artificial intelligence-based models such as Artificial Neutral Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). The stated models require current, voltage and temperature as input. This paper shows how Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods are more effective and near to accurate than traditional methods since the ANN-based model is trained using realistic test results of battery.

Samruddhi Dewalkar, S. P. Nangrani
Wattages Optimization of Small Hydro Power Station to Build up Energy

Hydro power is the main ingredient of the power plant in energy. The energy demand is increasing day by day and the growing increase in price results in emerging trends in micro, mini and pico hydro power plant that is small hydro power plant. The hydro power plant can be modelled by various ways of advanced tools to increase the output. The small hydro power plant gives an optimization of the parameters and a optimize model is obtained. The optimization can be done on all parameters of hydro power plant. This forms the study of wattages optimization of hydro power plant. In this paper, the theory of hydro basics is evaluated in which the control of the water head leads to maximize power generation.

Prachi Dashrath Mohite, Shweta Abhay Khalatlkar, Abhay M. Khalatkar
A Review on the Development of Solar Power Automatic Biodegradable Waste Sorter and Composter

The paper deals with a study on various aspects of waste materials that are polluting the environment and how we can reduce human efforts which are employed to separate degradable waste from the non-degradable waste. This study focuses on the various techniques and works going around on this task. Many industries and researchers are working on this as this is becoming a global issue as if both categories are not sorted very well, then it can be a loss of good fertilizer or it will degrade the quality of earth soil. This paper has a comparative approach on various works going on in this area. Also, the conclusions are made on the basis of the expected output of the system. The physical model is also analyzed on the imaginary ground so that one can focus on the work in the forward direction. This paper mainly focuses on the actual work started to develop the model based on the comparative analysis made. It consists of an image processing technique and a few sensors which are helpful to sort the biodegradable waste which is then provided to the composter. This system will be designed for residential purposes and will handle 5 kg waste at a time. Complete action of the model will be automated and powered by solar energy. This system will surely enhance respected Prime Ministers CLEAN INDIA project.

Amit S. Borole, A. R. Phadke
Correction to: Spiritual Elixir: Application of Ganga Water in Treatment of Wastewater

Correction to: Chapter “Spiritual Elixir: Application of Ganga Water in Treatment of Wastewater” in: M. L. Kolhe et al. (eds.), Smart Technologies for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, Vol 2, Springer Proceedings in Energy,

Monika Negi, Ayushi Maithani, Sakshi Gupta
Smart Technologies for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, Vol 2
Mohan Lal Kolhe
S. B. Jaju
P. M. Diagavane
Copyright Year
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN