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2024 | Book

Smart Transportation and Green Mobility Safety

Green Mobility

Editors: Wuhong Wang, Lisheng Jin, Haiqiu Tan

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering

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About this book

This book gathers selected papers from the 13th International Conference on Green Intelligent Transportation Systems and Safety, held in Qinghuadao, China, on September 16-18, 2022. It presents cutting-edge studies on Green Intelligent Mobility Systems, with the guiding motto being to achieve "green, intelligent, and safe transportation systems". The book presented here helps promote the development of green mobility and intelligent transportation technologies to improve interconnectivity, resource sharing, flexibility, and efficiency. Given its scope, the book benefits researchers and engineers in the fields of Transportation Technology and Traffic Engineering, Automotive and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial and System Engineering, and Electrical Engineering alike. Readers will be able to learn about the advances in green intelligent transportation systems and safety.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Study on the Influence of Different Inlet Humidification Temperatures on the PEMFC of Tri-Serpentine Channel

A three-dimensional single-phase, isothermal tri-serpentine flow channel model of PEMFC was established in this paper,. Through the research method of numerical simulation, the influence of the inlet humidification temperature of 18 °C, 28 °C, 38 °C, 48 °C on PEMFC was analyzed. It is found that the overall performance of PEMFC is better at lower inlet humidification temperatures. With the increase of inlet humidification temperature, the oxygen concentration and water concentration in the flow channel will decrease, the partial pressure of oxygen in the flow channel will decrease, the relative humidity of oxygen will increase, and the current density of GDL and CL middle surface will decrease, which will reduce the performance of PEMFC.

Wanteng Wang, Nan Li, Hongpeng Xu, Jinhui Zhang, Ruiyang Xu
Timetable Optimization of a Hierarchical Feeder Bus System in Consideration of User Cost Composition

The performance of the integrated bus-rail system is directly affected by the service level of the feeder bus system. In China, there are many different types of feeder bus lines such as express feeder bus lines and regular feeder bus lines. Compared to regular bus lines, express bus lines have higher fares but shorter riding times. Optimizing the hierarchical feeder bus system with multiple line modes is not only more practical but also of great importance in improving the service level of the feeder bus system. In this study, a hierarchical feeder bus system timetable optimization model is proposed to minimize user cost. We take into account the particular composition of user cost, which includes transfer time cost, riding time cost, and fare cost. A solution algorithm with Genetic Algorithm is proposed to solve the developed optimization model. A numerical example is used to verify the effectiveness and optimality of the proposed approach. The results show that improving the supply of express feeder bus lines increases the fare cost, but effectively reduces the user cost. In practice, it is necessary to balance the supply allocation between express feeder bus lines and regular feeder bus lines to achieve the optimal effect.

Yang Sun, Renhong Liang, Wei Zhang, Baoqing Li, Xingcai Liu
Heat Transfer Temperature Correction for Vehicle Mounted and Grounded Mounted PV System: Determination of Heat Map of Power Generated and Efficiency by Means of Computational Fluid Dynamics

The STC of the PV module is: 1000 $${\text{W}}/{{\text{m}}}^{2}$$ W / m 2 , 25 $$\mathrm{^\circ{\rm C} }$$ ∘ C , 1.5AM, but the temperature of the module during the actual operation of the system is: the temperature of the backsheet in summer can be more than 65 $$\mathrm{^\circ{\rm C} }$$ ∘ C , and the working temperature of the junction area can be more than 85 $$\mathrm{^\circ{\rm C} }$$ ∘ C at this time. The increase of temperature deteriorates the working environment of the cell, leading to the reduction of module output power, which also accelerates the aging of the encapsulation material. The aim of this work is to apply the heat transfer method to the temperature correction of vehicle-mounted and ground-mounted photovoltaic systems in order to improve the performance parameters of the system and to provide a stable output during operation. It was possible to determine the correction parameters of the photovoltaic modules being considered. The comparison between performance parameter measured on site and performance parameter declared by manufacture allows to detect decrease of performance and control the degradation of photovoltaic modules and strings. In the lab. PV modules typically convert only 4–17% of incoming solar radiation into electricity. As a result, more than half of the incident solar energy is converted to heat, raising the temperature of the PV module. The increase in module temperature reduces the electrical yield and efficiency of the module, as well as causing permanent structural damage to the module as a result of prolonged thermal stress (also known as thermal degradation of the module). Lowering the operating temperature of a PV module is an effective way of improving efficiency and slowing the rate of thermal degradation. As a result, in the current work, the vehicle-mounted photovoltaic is able to generate a significant increase in power generation and efficiency due to the airflow generated by the vehicle taking away heat and thus reducing the temperature of the modules during operation.

Li Jun, Luo Tian
A Numerical Investigation on the Comprehensive Performance of Common Plate Heat Exchangers for Commercial Electric Vehicle

Plate heat exchangers (PHEs) have become a necessity for battery thermal management systems (BTMSs) on hybrid electric vehicle and electric vehicle, and served the ideal discharge performance of power battery with a proper operating temperature. It is essential to investigate the unambiguous effects of common structures on comprehensive performance of PHEs. In this study, Schemes a-d were assigned to Double chevron, Single chevron, Spherical corrugated and Flat corrugated PHEs, respectively. For a start, considering the periodicity of the PHE, a simplified model of elementary unit between two adjacent plates out of Double chevron PHE was established, and the numerical analysis was employed to examine the comprehensive performance of Scheme a with an experimental validation. Following that, four PHEs were analyzed under the same configuration, and their heat transfer coefficients and pressure losses were compared. Finally, by the JF factor, comprehensive performance was examined among those PHEs. It is found that, among the four types of PHEs, the highest heat transfer coefficient and pressure loss stays on Scheme a, while the pressure loss of Scheme c is far less than others. The outcome of JF factor indicates that the relatively better comprehensive performance prefers Scheme c, whose JF factor is 1,11 times of Scheme a, 1.27 times of Scheme b and 1.10 times of Scheme d, respectively. The work holds a high expectation for the following research as a fundamental basis.

Jiaming Bi, Jiaxin Liu, Mingde Gong, Weimin Liu
Travel Characteristic of New Energy Vehicles on Expressway in Zhejiang Province

New energy vehicles have the advantages of Low energy consumption and low emissions, which are the current focus of the development of motor vehicles. Based on the expressway toll data in Zhejiang Province, the travel characteristics of new energy vehicles on expressway are studied. First, the cars with Zhejiang license are divided into three types: fuel vehicles, electric vehicles, and hybrid vehicles. And then, the comparison with mileage, travel time, and driving speed and the analysis of travel distribution of each type are performed. Finally, the conclusions are drawn, which are (1) the proportion of electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles in their respective types is generally higher than that of fuel vehicles within short-distance travels. (2) the new energy vehicle commuting mainly occurs in cities and between neighboring districts. This study is significant for optimizing the travel experience of expressway and promoting the development of new energy vehicles.

Lixian Lin, Yu Wang, Ling Shi, Liang Ge
Operation Optimization on Bus and ART by Evolutionary Game Theory

Autonomous rail Rapid Transit (ART) is a new type of medium volume public transport, with short construction cycle, low economic cost and zero emissions and other significant advantages, which is a supplement to the current public transport. However, the research on its operation mode is relatively insufficient, especially the cooperative operation mode between ART and conventional public transport system (bus) has not been studied. Therefore, starting from the problem of whether bus and ART choose to participate in this mode, and aiming at the characteristics of bounded rationality of their strategic choice, an evolutionary game model based on the selection process of these two passenger transportation modes was established by using evolutionary game method. The stability analysis and simulation analysis were carried out by using relevant data. The results showed that the final stable state is both cooperative and neither cooperative. The greater the initial participation will promote the final cooperation, and the initial participation intention of bus has a greater influence on the final result; government agencies should encourage bus service providers to participate in cooperative operation and improve the level of public transport services.

Hongbo Lu, Yong Liu, Xiaowei Hu, Zhanguo Xu, Zhuo Wang
SM-YOLO: A Novel Small Components Detection Algorithm for Power Delivery Infrastructure

Power line components detection is an important and challenging task in intelligent transportation system and smart grid operation. However, the contradiction between huge number of maintenance components and few number of workers makes unmanned aerial vehicles based untouchable inspection strategy become increasingly popular. In this paper, we proposed a novel YOLO based visual inspection method, which can improve small object detection problem. To use YOLO-v5 as backbone, then a core query mechanism constructs a high-resolution feature-pyramid based object detector. To verify the performance of proposed method, we carry on experiment based on a novel self-collected dataset. It is demonstrated experimentally that this method can accurately locate small object on UAV based real-time image data.

Xiaohu Qu, Hongzhi Zhang, Guofeng Gu, Xiaoming Zhou, Pianzhang Duan, Bo Liu
Optimization of Pipeline Topology for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hydrothermal Management System

Based on the hydrothermal management system pipeline of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, reducing the flow resistance of the pipeline was accomplished. The flow resistance was calculated by using Star-CCM+ and Tosca for topology optimization and system modeling in one-dimensional simulation software GT-Suite. The results show that this method can effectively reduce the flow resistance of pipeline. The pipeline flow resistance was reduced by 24.4% by topology optimization.

Min Lin, Jianbiao Shen, Wei Zhou, Qidi Chen, Xiaoxia Sun, Tao Zhang
Research and Exploration on Cross-Border Transportation Support Development in Metropolitan Areas

China's new urbanization has made significant progress, and the level and quality of urbanization have been greatly improved. Urbanization has become a strong support to promote regional coordinated development. The status and role of metropolitan area as an important carrier of space in China have been continuously improved, and it has gradually become the key to implement the new urbanization strategy and promote regional coordinated development. However, in the process of development and evolution of the trans administrative metropolitan area, due to the shortcomings of the cross-border traffic connection, it is urgent to form an effective coordination mechanism, promote the cross-border traffic to take the lead in unblocking, gradually establish the metropolitan area cross-border traffic system, and give full play to the pioneering role of Chinese path to modernization.

Yuejun Liu, Chunyi Yuan, Junjun Liu, Hongxi Xin, Rongjie Lin
A Guided Path Planning Model for Urban Tourist Attractions Considering Multiple Objectives

With the gradual disappearance of COVID-19, tourism has started to heat up again, more and more people are choosing self-drive tours. In order to guide people to reach tourist attractions quickly and conveniently, a guided path planning model for urban tourist attractions considering multiple objectives is proposed. The model is based on the traffic topology network, and considers length of the guided path, number of guide signs and traffic saturation as the objectives, and defines the guided path with the lowest combined value as the optimal guided path. Then, starting from a given entrance, the initial path to the tourist attractions is coded by genetic algorithm, and the optimal guided path is dynamically updated through selection, crossover and variation operations until the iteration is completed. And then, guide signs are deployed along the optimal guided path. Finally, taking Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center as the test area, the optimal guided path for deployment of guide signs from Nansha Port Expressway exit to Lingnan Impression Park is obtained using the aforementioned model, and compare it with the shortest distance path displayed by the navigation. The comparative results show that the model is effective and feasible, and can provide technical support for construction of guide signs in actual engineering projects.

Min Li, Min Huang, Shaofei Wang, Qing Ye, Zhongbin Luo
PV-Assisted Energy Replenishment System and Its Human Machine Interface Solution for Electric Vehicle Mileage Anxiety

“Mileage anxiety” is the mental anxiety and psychological stress caused by users worrying that the energy reserves of the current vehicle are not enough to support them to reach their destination or complete their expected journey. This term mainly refers to electric vehicles (EVs). “Mileage anxiety” is also considered to be one of the main obstacles to the large-scale development of electric vehicles. Having fast and simple replenishment facility is a key factor in reducing mileage anxiety. Photovoltaic (PV) assisted energy replenishment systems can provide clean, convenient electricity for electric vehicles. In this research, an energy replenishment system with photovoltaic support was installed on the roof of a XPENG P7, and the energy replenishment status of the vehicle was measured while it was being driven in Beijing in 2020. In November 2020, when solar irradiation was at its weakest, monthly power generation was 26.456 kWh, increasing cruising range by 230.961 km. In April 2020, when solar irradiation was at its strongest, monthly power generation was 40.847 kWh, increasing cruising range by 356.594 km. The annual power generation in 2020 was 379.841 kWh, increasing cruising range by 3316.012 km. Even though the performance of the PV system decreases over time, the electricity generation in 10 years will be 363.232 kWh/year and the cruising range will extend 3171.015 km farther per year. Additionally, the dashboard interface is designed around the interaction process and interface of information such as EV battery state of charge, cruising range, vehicle–road coordination and PV-assisted energy replenishment system, which makes the information related to the EV's power management perceptible and controllable, thus effectively relieving the user's anxiety.

Jun Li, Xiaobin Liu
Control Strategy and Simulation Result Analysis of Hybrid Tractor Powertrain

The control strategy for series hybrid tractor is formulated in this paper. The driving mode and target vehicle speed are based on the accelerator pedal signal and the driver’s response to the control panel switches, then the drive demand power could be calculated. The charging power of the battery is based on the battery SOC, and the engine operating point could be determined by both. By controlling the generator, the ECU is assisted to effectively control the engine operating point. The physical model is established by MATLAB/Simulink, and the normal sea state and extreme sea state are simulated. Through the simulation results analysis, the total fuel consumption of the engine under normal and extreme sea conditions is 1.012L and 1.973L respectively, and the efficiency of the engine under extreme sea conditions can be maintained above 40% for a long time.

Xuewen Liu, Xinlei Liu, Xueliang Li, Tian Tian
Scheduling Optimization for Demand-Responsive Feeder Buses Considering the Impact of Non-punctual Trunk Line Transit

In low-density urban travel areas, demand-responsive feeder buses (DRFBs) can innovatively improve the accessibility of high-capacity trunk transit, thereby significantly improving the competitiveness of transit service. However, when the arrival time of trunk transit is non-punctual, it will increase the cost of the bus transfer. To this end, this paper proposes a demand-responsive feeder bus scheduling optimization scheme that considers the impact of the non-punctuality of trunk buses. A multi-objective linear programming model considering multiple vehicle types and multiple operation modes is constructed with the dual decision variables of vehicle type and route and the dual objectives of enterprise cost and passenger cost. At the same time, the vehicle dispatching is re-performed by critical point identification for the delay situation of trunk buses received in real-time during the operation of the feeder vehicles to maximize the mutual benefits between the enterprise and the passengers. Moreover, we use the non-dominated ranking genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) to solve the proposed problem. Finally, a case analysis shows that adjusting the DRFB dispatching scheme in the non-punctual scenario of the trunk bus can improve the total economic efficiency by 21.7 and 23.8%. The study can provide a basis for the rational dispatching of feeder buses by transit authorities.

Jinxing Shen, Zi Ye, Hongyan Gu
Optimization Model for Bus Bay Stop Design Parameters Based on Trajectory Data

To improve the quality of bus service, this study investigates the process of lane change for bus bay entrances and exits. First, using aerial photography technology and video data analysis technology, we extract 69 bus entry and exit trajectories at a typical Guangzhou bus stop. Then, based on the Logistic function, we constructed a trajectory model of buses entering and exiting at bus bay stops. Then, a comparison with the traditional lane change model using Trucksim software confirmed that the model accurately reflects the trajectory characteristics of buses entering and exiting the stop. Finally, based on the trajectory model and vehicle dynamics, the optimization measures for bus bay stop design parameters, such as the width of the docking area, the length of the transition section, and the length of the bus platform, are proposed from the perspective of the comfort of the passenger. The study results can support the optimal design of bus bay stops and provide some theoretical support for the optimization of relevant specifications, which has significant theoretical and practical implications.

Weiwei Qi, Huapeng Wang, Lianjie Ruan, Bin Shen
Research on the Tripartite Evolutionary Game of Government-Enterprises-Travelers in Carbon Trading for Highway Transport

To promote the evolution of low-carbon operating mode, this paper uses evolutionary game theory to explore the decision-making behavior of carbon trading for highway transport. This paper establishes an evolutionary game model among government, fuel supply enterprises, and travelers, as well as simulates the evolution path and laws of the model. The Research has found that the behavioral characteristics, subject responsibilities, and interest orientation of the tripartite game in the process of carbon trading for highway transport are evident; The government's introduction of carbon trading for highway transport reward and punishment policies can promote the other two to choose low-carbon strategies; Lowering carbon trading prices has accelerated the evolution of fuel supply companies and travelers towards their respective low-carbon strategy.

Ying Jiang
Evaluation Method of Emergency Drill Effect for Major Traffic Infrastructure Based on Cloud Model

To address issues and shortcomings in the evaluation of emergency drill effectiveness, a comprehensive method based on cloud models has been proposed for major transportation infrastructure. First, an evaluation index system for emergency drills is established for major traffic infrastructure, encompassing emergency drill planning and preparation, emergency drill deployment and implementation, and post-drill summary and improvement. Second, the AHP method and the coefficient of variation method are utilized to determine the subjective and objective weights of the evaluation indexes. Game theory is then used to calculate the optimal combination weight. Final, by referring to relevant standards both at home and abroad, the evaluation grade of emergency drill effectiveness is divided, and forward and reverse cloud generators are employed to determine the standard cloud and comprehensive evaluation cloud for each evaluation grade. An emergency drill evaluation method is then proposed. The effectiveness of this method is validated through a case study which evaluated a comprehensive traffic accident drill on the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge. This research provides a valuable reference for the evaluation of emergency drill effectiveness for major transportation infrastructure.

Kun Liu, Ying Wang, Lin Chang
Energy, Exergy and Economic Evaluation and Analysis of Different Temperatures Geothermal Energy Coupled with Biomass-Fired CHP Plant

New geothermal power generation systems for integrated coupling of medium and low temperature geothermal energy at different temperatures and biomass-fired CHP plant is designed and put forward. The system integrates geothermal energy into the biomass-fired CHP plant, replacing part of the steam extraction from the turbine to increase power generation. Under the 110 °C medium-temperature geothermal water coupling scheme, the high-temperature part of the geothermal water drives the absorption heat pump, which further saves steam. By coupling with a 35 MW biomass-fired CHP plant, the system performance of the new integrated system is investigated. According to thermodynamic analysis, the reasons for the increase in power generation are divided into three categories: the transformation of the plant itself, the high-grade steam saved by the ejector, and geothermal assistance. The geothermal-electricity conversion rate of the three coupling schemes is at a high level. After the optimization, the total exergy efficiency of the new system has been greatly improved. The reason is that the absorption heat pump absorbs low-grade geothermal energy, saving some high-grade steam, and the addition of geothermal energy changes the equipment operating conditions reduce exergy loss. Moreover, the economic analysis shows that the new coupled system has significant economic advantages.

Wu Yunyun, Yihan Wang, Heng Chen, Liu Guohua
A Study on Leisure Tourists’ Travel Choice Behavior of Shared Autonomous Vehicles

The travel of leisure tourists is free in time, place and mode of transportation, and usually has personalized characteristics. With the development of the tourism industry, it is necessary to incorporate tourism transportation into the overall planning of urban transportation. This study proposes a demand-responsive transportation service mode using shared autonomous vehicles (SAVs). By combining RP and SP questionnaires survey method, this paper studies leisure tourists’ travel choice behavior and the willingness to use SAVs. Considering tourists’ perceived value and perceived risk of SAVs, a structural equation model (SEM) and an integrated choice and latent variable (ICLV) model are established to analyze the travel behavior characteristics of tourists.

Siying Wang, Minhua Shao
Research on Capacity Matching Degree Calculation and Bottleneck Identification of Aviation Leading Integrated Passenger Transport Hub

The aviation leading integrated passenger transport hub is an important place for passenger flow collection and distribution, as well as an important node of various transportation networks. However, there are some problems such as the mismatch between the capacity of some hubs and connecting lines, and the disharmony between various transportation systems. Starting from the calculation of passenger arrival capacity of air transport, passenger transport capacity of railway, connecting capacity of other transportation modes in the city, matching degree calculation and bottleneck identification, this study aims to grasp the variation rule of transport capacity of various transportation modes in the hub and provide decision-making basis for reasonable allocation of transport capacity resources in the subsequent hub. In terms of empirical analysis, this study chooses Shijiazhuang Zhengding International Airport as an example. The research results show that the matching degree of some transportation modes at Shijiazhuang Zhengding International Airport reaches the bottleneck standard (≥0.90) in some time periods, especially during 22:00–24:00, presenting a serious capacity bottleneck. Based on this result, some optimization suggestions are given to improve the hub transport capacity matching degree.

Hangqi Hu, Jun Chen, Feng Xue
Comprehensive Evaluation Approach for the Coordinated Development of Urban Bus and Metro Based on Entropy-TOPSIS Method

In order to further implement the priority development strategy of urban public transportation, enhance the coordinated development level of urban public transportation and the convenience of residents’ travel, it is necessary to establish an index system to evaluate the coordinated development of urban bus and metro. This paper employs the entropy-TOPSIS method to evaluate the coordinated development level of urban bus and metro based on the proposed index system from the perspectives of infrastructure coordination, travel network coordination and operation service coordination. Finally, we take metro Lines 1 and 2 and urban bus in Xi'an as an example to verify the validity of our proposed method framework. The problems of the coordinated development of urban bus and metro are analyzed based on the evaluation results. Then we put forward some countermeasures to improve the future coordinated development of urban bus and metro. The results show that the method can provide theoretical support and practical basis for urban bus line planning and rational allocation of transportation resources, and provide reference for the optimization and adjustment of the connection between newly built metro lines and urban bus system.

Jinrui Zhu, Jiannan Zhao, Shengxuan Ding, Lu Sun, Yang Yang, Zhen Li
Research on Carbon Emission Characteristics of Large Vehicles and Vertical Slope Optimization Design

Road alignment is closely related to carbon emission of the freeway. The research on the carbon emission of the vertical slope is mostly focused on the one of vertical alignment parameters. However, the comprehensive influence of the combination of the vertical section alignment and the driving state of the vehicle on the carbon emission is rarely published. In addition, research from this perspective has not considered the important premise of road safety. Thus, based on road safety, this research aims to reveal the validate and calibrate the relationship between freeway vertical parameters and the carbon emission of large vehicles. As a result, the carbon emission characteristic model of large vehicles on the vertical slope of freeway based on the Gradient Boosting Regression Tree algorithm has been built. Based on the model, the influence of traffic factors on carbon emission was studied and the analysis of the carbon emission of large vehicles on the vertical slope of the freeway was also revealed, with the variation law of carbon emission of large vehicles in various vertical slope alignment of freeway was mainly studied and analyzed.

Xiaofei Wang, Jiaxi Chen, Siyu Li, Guangyu Liu, Shaohua Wang
Exploring Effects of Using Different Forms of Travel Time in Mode Choice Behaviour Modelling for Peak Hours in Workdays: A Case Study of xi'an, China

Travel time has always been an important factor in modelling travel mode choice behaviour. Different forms of travel time can be used in the modelling, such as the exact travel time of each mode, travel time difference (TTD) between two modes, and the ratio of one mode’s travel time to the benchmark mode. Different forms of travel time may have different effects in mode choice behaviour modelling. Using 2015 household travel survey data from Xi’an in China, This study developed multinomial logit (MNL) models and nested logit (NL) models to investigate the effects of different forms of travel time in mode choice behaviour modelling for peak hours in workdays. The results indicated that time difference is the most important time indictors in mode choice decision. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate TTD into the evaluation criteria to assess the quality of public transit service. Even though the result was derived from the data in Xi’an, it can also be useful for other fast-developing cities in policy-making to encourage the use of public transport thus to make the entire transport system more sustainable.

Zhiman Xu
Urban Renewal Area Road Network Capacity Analysis and Traffic Status Evaluation Based on Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram Model

With the advancement of urban renewal, the supply of existing road resources is no longer balanced with new traffic demand, leading to severe traffic congestion and safety issues in urban renewal areas. This article firstly analyzes the traffic load capacity of the road network in urban renewal areas by using the macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) theory, a traffic status and volume correlation model is constructed to identify the optimal traffic volume for the road network. Secondly, a VISSIM traffic simulation model is constructed to evaluated the traffic status of the intersections at the regional boundary by using average delay, average queue length, average number of stops and service level four indexes. Finally, a field study in Xiaozhai District Xi’an is carried out to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed method. Results show that the MFD method can effectively describe traffic status and volume relationship of urban renewal areas, under the optimal traffic flow load, the intersections and road links at the study area are able to reach a good system performance. This study can provide technical support for traffic management in urban renewal areas.

Liang Wang, Zhenhai Yang, Keting Wang, Zhong Jiang, Zhenxing Yao
Harmonizing Solar Energy and Public Transit: A Data-Driven Analysis of Integrating Photovoltaic Systems with Electric Bus Charging Infrastructure

As an energy-intensive sector, transportation is accountable for nearly 29% of global energy usage and 20% of worldwide carbon emissions. To identify viable avenues toward eco-friendly and sustainable transportation, this study examines the integration of distributed photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems within public transit infrastructure. In this paper, a sophisticated, data-driven framework is introduced for assessing the feasibility of harmonizing bus charging depots with PV power generation. The framework amalgamates diverse datasets, including solar angles, irradiance, meteorological temperature readings, public transport infrastructure characteristics, and bus GPS trajectories, collected in Beijing during 2020. The correlation between PV energy generation and the electrical demand of bus charging depots is analyzed and quantified. To optimize the adoption of PV energy, energy storage solutions are strategically deployed at bus charging depots. A case study, employing GPS data from 20,992 buses and geospatial data from 678 bus depots, serves to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed model. The empirical results reveal a substantial reduction in charging costs by approximately 3.16 billion yuan, coupled with a decrease in carbon emissions by 231,800 tons. Additionally, over a 25-year lifecycle, the PV systems supply an estimated 4.92 billion kWh of energy to electric buses.

Wenxin Ma, Long Wen, Wenjun Jia, Xiaolei Ma, Xiaohan Liu
Methodology of Feeder Bus Timetable Optimization Based on Bike-Sharing and Express Bus Line

The optimization of the feeder bus timetable is crucial for improving the service level of the rail transit feeder system. It is considered that residents have three feeder travel modes to choose from in the rail transit feeder service, which are feeder regular bus line, feeder express bus line and bike-sharing. With the objective of minimizing the feeder user cost of the three feeder modes, a feeder bus timetable optimization model is proposed. This model takes into account the constraints of bus line headway, bus line frequency and bus vehicle capacity. A GA-VNS algorithm with a variable neighborhood search strategy is proposed to solve the developed model. The algorithm coding design and the design of the variable neighborhood search operator are provided. The proposed approach is analyzed from the perspectives of efficiency and optimality using a numerical example. The sensitivity analysis results show that the maximum supply of feeder express bus lines should be set appropriately.

Yang Sun, Yiming Zhou, Renhong Liang, Baoqing Li
Research on Pricing Model of Car-Hailing Platform Based on Rational Inattention

At present, there are many literature on the pricing of car-hailing platforms under the two-sided markets, but few apply the theory of rational inattention to the pricing strategy of car-hailing platforms. Considering the randomness of the status of car-hailing services and the limited ability for passengers to acquire and process information, we constructs a bi-level optimization model for car-hailing pricing based on the theory of rational inattention. The upper level aims to maximize the platform’s profits, and takes the price of car-hailing services as the independent variable. The lower level aims at optimizing the information processing strategy of rationally inattentive passengers, and establishes a conditional choice probability model in the form of standard MNL. A hybrid heuristic algorithm based on particle swarm algorithm and successive average method is used. The upper level uses PSO to acquire the platform pricing strategy in the price range and is transmitted to the lower level. According to the results of the upper level, the lower level uses MSA to acquire the passengers’ choice probability and then feedback it to the upper level. An example is built to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm. We find that optimal pricing and profit are affected by information cost and prior belief. There is a threshold for information cost and prior belief are not as high as possible. Our findings provide a reference for the formulation of pricing strategies for car-hailing platforms.

Chuan-Lin Zhao, Yang-Qi Sun
The Systematic Processing Method and Application of Big Data of Bus System in Small and Medium-Sized Cities Based on One Ticket System

In order to analyze the travel characteristics of bus passengers, this paper uses the IC card data, the bus GPS data, the on-board machine data and the one-way station relationship table, and puts forward a systematic processing method for the big data of the one-ticket bus system through the association and fusion of various data. The analysis database was built based on Oracle, and the code was written in Python language. Four kinds of station inference algorithms, namely passenger boarding station inference algorithm, passenger alighting station inference algorithm based on travel chain, passenger alighting station inference algorithm based on probability and passenger transfer station identification algorithm, were constructed. Based on this, Jiaozuo’s bus big data is used to identify passenger flow distribution points and passenger flow corridors, so as to obtain the distribution of passenger flow on and off bus stops, passenger flow on bus lines and transfer passenger flow at bus stops. It effectively improves the accuracy of time matching, and can completely identify a day’s bus travel information of passengers. It is universal to calculate bus passenger loading and unloading stations in small and medium-sized cities with sparse GPS data.

Xufei Fang, Xianghong Li
Innovative Applications of Digital RMB in Public Transportation Payment Field

In recent years, there has been a global trend in exploring central bank digital currencies (CBDCs). According to a 2022 report by the Bank for International Settlements, 90% of central banks worldwide are currently involved in CBDC exploration. Notably, the People’s Bank of China has taken the lead in CBDC research and was the first to announce the launch of an official CBDC. The introduction of the digital RMB has several significant implications, including strengthening domestic financial regulation, combating corruption, tax evasion, and money laundering, as well as facilitating the implementation of public welfare policies like fiscal subsidies for specific consumption areas. This paper provides a summary of the global origins, development, and performance of digital currencies, focusing on the integration of digital RMB in the public transportation sector in pilot cities. By examining the case of ShenzhenTong Company and its use of soft and hard wallets for public transportation payments, this paper also discusses potential future applications of digital RMB in conjunction with smart contract technology. Overall, this paper aims to provide recommendations for incorporating innovative digital payment methods into Chinese public transportation, expanding payment options for rail transit, promoting industry diversification, and offering insights for the application, promotion, and integration of digital RMB with emerging technologies such as smart contracts.

Dawei Ruan, Xiangmin Yang, Jing Liang, Zhongxin Guo, Wenjie Yang, Xuan Deng, Shiwen Huang, Mingwei Hu
A Path-Based Day-To-Day Traffic Dynamics Model with One-Step Forward-Thinking

This paper establishes a path-based day-to-day traffic dynamics model to capture travelers’ one-step forward-thinking behavior in rerouting process. The model is termed as the forward-thinking nonlinear pairwise swapping process (FT-NPSP) model. We theoretically prove that FT-NPSP does not necessarily lead to the known UE state when reaching stability. Numerical experiments are also conducted on the classical Braess network to characterize the model. The numerical results suggest that travelers’ one-step forward-thinking behavior shows complex impact on day-to-day network traffic evolution, making the flow evolution much more unpredictable than the model without forward-thinking. This might in some degree break our intuitive cognition on forward-thinking travel behavior that it more perhaps promotes the stability of network traffic evolution. This study may deepen our understanding on the complex network traffic evolution, and then contribute to the development of more useful managements.

Zhangwei Chen, Xiaolin Li, Wenyi Zhang
Importance and Prunability Analysis of Basic Features in Machine-Learned Aircraft Taxi-Out Time Prediction

An earlier study of the author combined the actual data of Beijing Capital International Airport (BCIA) to compare and analyze the effects of 10 machine learning methods on the flight taxi-out time prediction. The results showed that GBRT had the best prediction effect. This paper applies the GBRT method and dataset in the previous study to further discuss and analyze the importance and prunability of 16 basic features. We found that the surface co-taxiing pattern and the runway operation mode are the key factors affecting the taxi-out time of flights at BCIA, while flight attributes, air traffic flow control, and the number of flights leaving the departure apron before the target flight have little influence on the prediction results. This study can provide a scientific method for the compression of feature set, which in turn helps machine learning techniques to better integrate into flight push-back optimization.

Jianze Song, Yulaer Tang, Jiawei He, Wenyi Zhang
Research on Bridge Deck Pavement Monitoring Data Management System Based on BIM

For the purpose of intelligent quality control of pavement construction on bridge deck, this study was carried out to investigate the visualization of monitoring information during pavement construction. Based on the Dynamo platform, the monitoring data management system containing of information integration module, data analysis module, and visualization warning module was developed for achieving intelligent quality control of the construction. The involved information integration module has an ability of directly retrieving the construction monitoring data in the visualization interface for improving the efficiency of multi-layer structure information query. The data analysis module is used to show the volatility of construction quality in various ways. Meanwhile, the visualization warning module is employed to generate early warning when the quality is out of control. Therefore, combining with the bridge structure health monitoring system, the developed monitoring data management system for pavement construction can be utilized to realize the integration of monitoring systems for bridge deck pavements, and to provide data support for distress analysis and subsequent preventive maintenance.

Xiaoying Liu, Guilian Zou, Yuan Zhang
Research on Traffic Efficiency of Freeway On-Ramp Based on the Operational Characteristics of Vehicular Flow

In order to research the operation law of the expressway on-ramp, this paper analyzed its traffic efficiency. Firstly, this paper analyzed the traffic operational characteristics of the mainline traffic and ramp traffic of the freeway on-ramp. It can be known that the distribution law of time headway of the traffic flow outside the mainline obeys the 3rd order Erlang distribution. On this basis, the traffic efficiency model of the on-ramp confluence area is established based on the acceptable gap theory. This paper verified and analyzed the established model based on the actual survey data. The results showed that the average error of the model is 11.74%, which is within an acceptable range. Finally, this paper analyzed the influence of different critical gap and car following time on traffic efficiency. It validated the viability of the model.

Yan Xing, Xinxin Wang, Yuqing Hao, Hang Shang, Gangyuan Yao
Research on the Fusion Model of Floating Bus Speed and Taxi Speed for Arrival Time Prediction

With the proposal of the theory of “smart city”, the public transportation travel information service is facing the requirement of higher quality, and the optimization of the traffic data used to support the travel information service in the process of collection and processing is the key and difficult point. In view of the current data source used to support the public transportation information service calculation to the calculation only based on bus GPS data, and the data source data less, long sampling interval, road calculation accuracy is low, combined with the current traffic information fill and data fusion technology research and development, in the analysis of bus data and taxi data commonness and characteristics, the rule of historical data and the connection between real-time data, puts forward a set of based on traffic information to fill and data fusion algorithm for bus arrival time provide data support prediction. Through the actual operation data test, the data fusion algorithm proposed in this paper reduced the average relative error of bus travel time by 8%, introduced the traffic information filling model and data fusion model into the specific bus arrival system for actual test, and the final prediction accuracy reached 86.27 and 7. 09%. The above experimental data show that the proposed method has significant advantages and good applicability over the existing methods.

Ying Lang, Xiao-Guang Wang, Jin-Hui Qie, Hai-Hua Han, Ning Zhang, Si-Yang Li
Urban Passenger Transport Carbon Emission Analysis Based on LEAP Model, a Case of Guangzhou, China

The transportation industry is a major energy consumer, and whether it can successfully complete the set tasks is directly related to the implementation of the country's overall strategic deployment. This paper constructs the LEAP model framework system from a macro perspective. The established model was used to predict the carbon emission trend of urban passenger transport in Guangzhou from 2020 to 2035, and the scenario simulation method was used to compare and analyze the impact of different scenario models on the total carbon emissions of Guangzhou's transportation sector. Improving the fuel economy of transportation vehicles, promoting new energy vehicles, and optimizing the travel structure of residents are three scenarios: carbon emissions will be reduced by 12.0%, 9.2%, and 9.6% respectively in 2035 compared with the basic scenario, and carbon emissions will peak around 2030–2032, reducing emissions by 17.1% compared with the basic scenario. It is recommended to continuously optimize the urban transportation travel structure, adjust the urban transportation energy consumption structure, continuously improve the governance level of green transportation, and deeply integrate big data applications with urban transportation carbon emission reduction.

Wang Qingyuan, Hu Xiaowei, Chen Fucun
A Novel Flue Gas Utilization and White Smoke Elimination System Based on Afluidized Bed Boiler Power Plant for Improving City Appearance and Clean and Intelligent Production

White smoke is often considered to be an unclean phenomenon, which seriously affects the appearance of the city and causes public opposition. And the residual SO2 in the white smoke will also generate H2SO4 under the action of water and oxygen, which will corrode especially the exposed metal equipment such as rails, traffic power grid. Therefore, it is very important to prevent white smoke and cleaner production from being seen in cities. And a system for condensing and reheating to eliminate white smoke to protect urban traffic facilities is proposed and analyzed based on a fluidized bed boiler power plant. Studies have shown that the lower the exhaust gas temperature, the lower the slurry cooling water flow. The wet flue gas at the tail is first condensed to remove water, and then heated with part of the waste heat to prevent the generation of white smoke. It can reduce the final heat consumption rate by 31.40 kJ/kWh, increase the power generation power by 4.30 MW, increase the thermal efficiency of power generation. While it reduce the standard coal consumption rate of power generation by 1.18 g/kWh. While the smoke is heated to 73 °C to be eliminated at a lower temperature. Therefore, not only the negative impact of white smoke on urban traffic is eliminated, but also clean production that protects the urban environment is realized.

Dechang Xu, Guoquan Luo, Muzhao Ran, Qing Wan
Study on Operation Optimization Strategy of Charging Plant and Station Based on Dual Network Synergy

As the penetration rate of EVs (electric vehicles) increases, the demand for EVCS (electric vehicle charging stations) increases gradually, and there may be a situation that charging stations are difficult to operate due to a single profit model. In this paper, we propose a strategy to optimize the operation of charging stations under the synergy of road network and grid, with dynamic tariff adjustment as the mainly focus. First, a dynamic road network model is constructed and combined with Floyd’s algorithm to accurately simulate the driving path of EVs. Secondly, the EV users’ charging demand generation and charging selection model are combined to simulate the users’ decision psychology of charging selection, charging station operation and grid load distribution in time and space. Then, a dynamic tariff adjustment optimization model with user satisfaction as the influencing factor for charging station selection, grid quality as the constraint, and charging station revenue maximization as the goal is proposed. Finally, the effect of dynamic tariff on EV charging decision behavior, grid load level and charging station revenue is analyzed with actual traffic data as an example to verify the effectiveness of this paper’s model.

Weiwei Guo, Jing Wei, Yilong Ren, Fuyu Liu, Jiyuan Tan
Unswervingly Implementing the New Development Concept to Promote High-Quality Development of the National Highway Network

In order to promote the high-quality development of the national highway network, the new development concept of “innovation, coordination, green, open and shared” is focused on, and the core tenets of high-quality development of the national highway network is deeply analyzed. From five aspects of transportation technology innovation, the integration of all modes and industries, intensive economy, emergency support capabilities, and connectivity, the effective path and supporting specific safeguard measures for high-quality development of the national highway network are proposed.

Lixian Lin, Ling Shi, Liang Ge
Research on the Architecture of National Highway Toll Clearing and Settlement System Under the Background of “VAT Reform”

In accordance with the policies of the State Administration of Taxation regarding the “VAT Reform” for toll highways, this paper employs enterprise architecture analysis methods to systematically outline the approach for constructing the national highway toll clearing and settlement system. It specifies the system's business architecture, application architecture, data architecture, and technological architecture. The research outcomes fulfill the demand for issuing value-added tax invoices for highway tolls under the context of “VAT Reform” and effectively guide the construction of toll highway clearing and settlement systems at the ministerial level, enhancing the systematic and stable development of these systems.

Rongjie Lin, Yingping Wang
Design and Research of Traffic-Tourism Integration Service System Based on Scenario Theory

Adapting to the trend of integration between the transportation and tourism industries, this study reviews the current status and existing issues of traffic-tourism integration in China. Based on scenario theory, it proposes the main application scenarios, construction ideas, and system framework of the traffic-tourism integration service system, and elaborates on the design schemes for application systems and data resources. The research results provide new design ideas for the construction of the traffic-tourism integration service system, facilitating better alignment between the demands of transportation and tourism businesses and technological applications. It holds certain reference value for the development of relevant system construction.

Rongjie Lin, Kun Chen
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Smart Transportation and Green Mobility Safety
Editors
Wuhong Wang
Lisheng Jin
Haiqiu Tan
Copyright Year
2024
Publisher
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-9724-43-7
Print ISBN
978-981-9724-42-0
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-97-2443-7

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