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2019 | Book

Social Innovation and Social Entrepreneurship

Fundamentals, Concepts, and Tools

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About this book

Social entrepreneurship and social innovation both seek to improve the world through social change. Whereas social entrepreneurship revolves around the business side of change, social innovation focuses on the processes through which that change is generated. This textbook provides a comprehensive analysis of both topics, covering all the characteristics and elements of social innovation and social entrepreneurship, from a conceptual and practical perspective.

The book has four sections: 1) Basics and concepts of Social Innovation and Social Entrepreneurship; 2) Business models and generation of value in social enterprises; 3) Social innovation within traditional companies, and 4) Definition and alignment of the impact of social innovation and entrepreneurship.

Students and any practitioners that want to know about social innovation or social entrepreneurship will be exposed to contemporary topics in the field as well as a variety of cases and tools for its development. With its learning objectives, reflective questions, the definition of key concepts, and exercises, this book is the definitive text for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in social innovation and social entrepreneurship.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. Social Innovation: Origins, Definitions, and Main Elements
Abstract
Social innovation positions itself in the last decades within the agendas and programs of actors from different sectors of society (public, private, social, educational, among others). This positioning obeys to the capacity that this type of innovations must solve social, economic, environmental, and institutional problems through a transformation of society. The concept of social innovation emerges as part of the search to find new ways of coordinating and mobilizing global and local problems. This chapter aims to present an analysis of the concept of social innovation, the different aspects that integrate it and some of its main elements. The chapter offers a definition and understanding of social innovation, its sources of social innovation that exist and a differentiation between this innovation and innovations or initiatives that have social elements or attention to social problems.
Luis Portales
Chapter 2. Characteristics, Types, and Processes for the Construction of Social Innovations
Abstract
Social innovation seeks the transformation of society through the implementation of innovative actions (solutions) that satisfy needs more efficiently, while create and generate capabilities and relations within society, allowing it to act and filled its future needs. Social innovations can come from many sectors of society and any actor, opening the door to the participation of social entrepreneurs, both from the private sector and the third sector, intrapreneurs from the private and public sector, and groups of citizens who, through collective actions, generate processes of social change. The inclusion of actors from different sectors gives social innovation multiple forms and faces, resulting in several types of social innovations. This chapter aims to recognize what are the core elements of social innovation, its main characteristics during its execution process and the relations between sectors during a social innovation, and the means of creating this type of innovations.
Luis Portales
Chapter 3. Generation of Values by Social Innovations
Abstract
Social innovations have as a primary result social change in a new and intentional way. The achievement of this result is the creation of social value, characterized by reducing or eradicating the barriers of exclusion of a group of society. Given the complexity of the problem they serve and the context, it is necessary that they generate another type of additional value, be it economic or environmental. This chapter exposes what is value creation, as well as to establish the main types of value that exist and what motivate its creation and implementation through social innovations by organizations, institutions, and companies that come from all sectors.
Luis Portales
Chapter 4. Basics, Characteristics, and Differences of Social Entrepreneurship
Abstract
Entrepreneurship is a concept from the seventeenth century. Although the concept of not being exclusively related to an economic sphere, its study and operationalization led it to consider it as an essential part of the capitalist system, especially in the framework of neoliberalism. Over time, there have been different meanings to entrepreneurship, among which social entrepreneurship has stood out in recent decades. The concept emerged in the eighties and had become more relevant. This concept breaks with the dichotomous model where the generation of wealth or economic value of a company contrasted with the generation of social value. This capacity has been promoted from the public, private, and social sphere, considering social entrepreneurship as an alternative solution to the main problems facing the world. This chapter explores the nature of the concept of entrepreneurship, its characteristics, and the particularities of this type of entrepreneurship.
Luis Portales
Chapter 5. Similarities and Differences Among Schools of Social Entrepreneurship
Abstract
Social entrepreneurship is a phenomenon that has gained strength in recent years. Its rapid positioning has led organizations from different sectors to promote its implementation and development with the intention that it can address the main social and environmental problems facing the world. Given its nature, it shares characteristics like those of any enterprise, among which its practicality stands out, that is, the only way to undertake is to carry out a concrete action that seeks to satisfy a need. This functional characteristic has resulted in the emergence of different perspectives in its implementation, which are related to the economic, social, and institutional context in which these ventures operate. This chapter aims to explain the nature of each of them, as well as their main characteristics, institutional contexts that have pushed and advantages and disadvantages when being carried out by part of social entrepreneurs.
Luis Portales
Chapter 6. Characteristics of the Social Entrepreneur
Abstract
Social entrepreneurship is the process by which social enterprises seek to address a social problem innovatively and sustainably changing the social and economic structures that gave rise to it. However, to achieve it is necessary to have an agent of change, aware of this problem and with the interest of carrying out an action that transforms the context or the conditions that make them arise or prevail. This agent of change is known as a social entrepreneur. The nature of entrepreneurship and motivations make them have particularities that are important to take into consideration. This chapter presents the profile of social entrepreneurs, as well as the skills and competencies they develop to have a social enterprise considered to be successful. It also exposes the different types of social entrepreneurs that exist and the roles that each of them plays according to the life cycle of the social enterprise.
Luis Portales
Chapter 7. Business Models of Social Enterprises
Abstract
The raison d’etre of any social enterprise is the attention of some social problem through the implementation of an initiative that seeks to address it. They differ from other types of social innovations in the fact that the attention of the social problem is through a business model. This nature makes the definition and implementation of their operating models more complex since it must include the way in which they will generate an impact on society and the strategy of sustainability or simultaneous wealth generation, which makes it necessary to talk about models of social businesses. Throughout this chapter, different types of social business models will be presented, as well as their main characteristics and the aspects considered when conceptualizing them. It will also show a typology of the different social business models that exist, as well to map or design the business model from a graphics perspective.
Luis Portales
Chapter 8. From Corporate Social Responsibility to Corporate Social Innovation
Abstract
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a concept that has evolved in its understanding, leading to a not consensual definition. Despite this lack of consensus, in general terms, CSR can be understood as the way in which the company establishes a link with the society, beyond its commercial interests. The implementation of CSR programs has two components. The first is the interest in creating a tangible benefit in society. The second is the interest to strengths the relationship with the different stakeholders, either instrumentally or strategically oriented to generate capacities in them to attend to their needs. These two components open the opportunity for CSR to become a source of social innovation. This chapter aims to present the different perspectives that exist on the way in which companies understand their relationship with society through social responsibility, as well as identify which of them generates processes of Corporate Social Innovation (CSI).
Luis Portales
Chapter 9. Social Innovation from Companies: Social Purpose Business Models
Abstract
Companies integrate social innovation as part of their management models to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in recent times. This integration arises from the interest to attend in one way or another to the problems or interests that society faces, as well as to manage the relationships they have with their stakeholders. As a result of these efforts, companies implementing initiatives, named Social Purpose Business Models, aimed at addressing some social problem aligned with their business model. These initiatives have the characteristic of seeking the integration of the business model of the company with the generation of social value, reflected in the contribution to respond to a specific social problem. This chapter intends to expose the characteristics and motivations of the principal Social Purpose Business Models that currently exist, as well as to present the social problems to attend which each one of them.
Luis Portales
Chapter 10. Social Intrapreneurship, the Main Factor of Social Innovations Within Traditional Companies
Abstract
Social innovation within traditional companies and public entities is a phenomenon that occurs more and more frequently. Individuals within companies or organizations usually drive these social innovations, using the structures and resources of the organizations where they work to meet the needs of the society. These individuals, known as social intrapreneurs, have characteristics similar to social entrepreneur. Through them, companies and organizations start their internal transformation and generate actions that positively affect the attention to social problems before they even considered. They are a crucial element in the articulation of the ecosystem of transformation and social innovation. This chapter raises awareness of what is a social intrapreneur, what is the role they play in the processes of social innovation, and what are the conditions or factors that contribute to its positioning inside and outside companies or organizations.
Luis Portales
Chapter 11. Social Impact in Social Innovations: Definition, Design, and Evaluation
Abstract
Social innovations seek the transformation of society through innovative solutions. These solutions not only pursue the generation of social value but also operate under criteria of economic sustainability, making a tension in their management models and resulting in the creation of social enterprises, hybrid organizations, Social Purpose Business Models, among others. One of the main challenges facing a social innovation is to show the impact it is having and how it is positively transforming society. Despite its relevance, the impact is an issue rarely addressed in the study of social innovations and social entrepreneurship. The present chapter has the interest to expose what is the social impact, what are the different levels of impact that exist, the relevance that it has for social innovations and as far as possible design evaluations that allow them to increase their legitimacy and demonstrate the value that they are generating in society.
Luis Portales
Chapter 12. Impact Investment, a Key Element in the Promotion of Social Innovation
Abstract
Social innovation has the challenge of transforming society through the implementation of innovative solutions to some of the problems facing the world. The complexity of some of these solutions usually requires a high economic investment for their implementation. Due to their capacity to transform and reach markets or populations that traditionally excluded, they also promote social and financial returns that may be attractive for some investors. In this way, impact investment appears as an option that responds to current challenges, guiding the power of public and private capital toward the development of disruptive solutions that ensure better results concerning social and environmental impacts. The purpose of this chapter is to present what impact investing is, what are its differences between other types of investments, and what are the mechanisms or forms it adopted in different contexts.
Luis Portales
Chapter 13. Alignment of Social Innovation with Sustainable Development Goals
Abstract
The State traditionally addressed social problems through programs to combat poverty, strategies for redistributing benefits or regulations, and institutions that sought to balance the disparities. Given the inability of the State to address these problems, nonprofit organizations implemented programs and initiatives that provided social assistance to vulnerable populations and groups excluded from the development process. It was until 2000 that a common agenda emerged with the creation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which would eventually become the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These objectives include actors from all sectors of society. With the inclusion of any actor to address social issues, social innovation emerges to achieve these goals and offers a framework for its promotion from any sector of society. This chapter aims to present the alignment of the SDGs with social innovation through the construction of a post-2015 architecture, which includes the participation of various sectors of society.
Luis Portales
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Social Innovation and Social Entrepreneurship
Author
Luis Portales
Copyright Year
2019
Electronic ISBN
978-3-030-13456-3
Print ISBN
978-3-030-13455-6
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-13456-3

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