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2019 | Book

Social Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications


About this book

This book introduces social manufacturing, the next generation manufacturing paradigm that covers product life cycle activities that deal with Internet-based organizational and interactive mechanisms under the context of socio-technical systems in the fields of industrial and production engineering. Like its subject, the book's approach is multi-disciplinary, including manufacturing systems, operations management, computational social sciences and information systems applications. It reports on the latest research findings regarding the social manufacturing paradigm, the architecture, configuration and execution of social manufacturing systems and more. Further, it describes the individual technologies enabled by social manufacturing for each topic, supported by case studies. The technologies discussed include manufacturing resource minimalization and their socialized reorganizations, blockchain models in cybersecurity, computing and decision-making, social business relationships and organizational networks, open product design, social sensors and extended cyber-physical systems, and social factory and inter-connections.

This book helps engineers and managers in industry to practice social manufacturing, as well as offering a systematic reference resource for researchers in manufacturing. Students also benefit from the detailed discussions of the latest research and technologies that will have been put into practice by the time they graduate.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction
Following up a background introduction of Internet-based enterprises, in this chapter, value-added activities and factors related to constructing a new manufacturing paradigm are discussed in depth. Furthermore, we put forward a kind of social manufacturing paradigm referring to analyzing the characteristics of socialization, digitalization, servitization, and intelligentization in manufacturing.
Pingyu Jiang
Chapter 2. Social Manufacturing Paradigm: Concepts, Architecture and Key Enabled Technologies
Following up the analysis based on the connecting and communicating behaviors of human beings in business mentioned in chapter 1, we firstly give a series of definitions to outline the concepts of social manufacturing in this chapter, which describe a kind of new generation manufacturing paradigm. And then, the characteristics, basic architecture and runtime logic, key enabled technologies, computing methods to support the implementation of the manufacturing paradigm are discussed in detail. The comparison among different manufacturing paradigms indicates that the social manufacturing paradigm matches with the development trends of Internet-based connecting and communicating behaviors of human beings in business and opens up a new road to guide us how to enable Internet-based enterprises today and in the near future.
Pingyu Jiang
Chapter 3. Socialized Manufacturing Resources and Interconnections
Driven by the increasing product individualization and servitization in manufacturing industry, the massive demands of specialized manufacturing services promote more decentralized and socialized manufacturing resources (SMRs) to spring up. Many SMRs possessing the characteristics of decentralized, self-adaptive, and self-organization begin to cluster as community to provide specialized manufacturing services for prosumers. Based on the established connections via social media and decentralized platform, various communities of SMRs are formed as complex, dynamic autonomous systems to co-create mass individualized products and services. Since a disorganization of these decentralized SMRs will hinder the coordinative decision-making and result in an inferior position to prosumers when bargaining with the core manufacturer, it should be coordinated at better shaping of SMRs network. The concept, organizational and running shapes, management of SMRs are discussed. Further a social manufacturing resource network (SMRN) is presented to organize massive distributed SMRs. It addresses group intelligence in decision making so as to organize SMRs and prosumers in the whole stages of a product lifecycle.
Jiewu Leng, Pingyu Jiang
Chapter 4. Social Business Relationship and Organizational Network
Since manufacturing industry has become  specialized, socialized, service-oriented and collaborative, mass individualized demands on products and manufacturing services have driven prosumers clustering into various communities. Lots of professional and socialized small and medium-sized prosumers spring up to provide product-service for satisfying customers’ requirements. Under this trend, a new social business relationship organizational network has been proposed to aggregate these prosumers into communities for mass individualization manufacturing. Communities are established by two steps. First, the similar prosumers are clustered into one community by growing hierarchical self-organizing map (GHSOM) algorithm. Suitable communities are selected, and then the resources are mapped to the prosumers. Second, the order is allocated to the prosumers, and thereby different order allocation strategies lead to different forms of communities. Product cost and delivery time serve as the indicators for selecting the best community. A multi-objective algorithm is proposed to tackle the order allocation problem. A case from a machinery firm is analyzed to validate the proposed model. Several rules are revealed and used for guiding practical production.
Jiewu Leng, Wei Guo, Pingyu Jiang
Chapter 5. Open Product Design for Social Manufacturing
In this chapter, open product design is introduced as a kind of service-driven product design methodology which meets closely with the needs of social manufacturing paradigm. It is quite different from traditional product design approach in many aspects, including idea creations, designers operations, design activities, design workflow, design result evaluations, etc. In order to understand the basis of this novel product design methodology, we first discuss the designer role changing in social manufacturing and qualitatively demonstrate how to self-organize the tremendous socialized designers into designer communities to carry out design tasks. And then, basic architecture and operation mode of crowdsourcing driven open product design services are introduced to provide a full view of this design mode. To support the implementation of open product design mode, key enabled technologies and their corresponding computing methods are illustrated, which are customer requirements analysis, design community shaping and analyzing, and design evaluation. All these researches gain a deeper understanding of open product design and provide initial theoretical support for its further development and applications.
Maolin Yang, Pingyu Jiang
Chapter 6. RFID, Social Sensors and Extended Cyber-Physical System
In this chapter, the roles of RFID, social sensors, and cyber-physical system (CPS) at both inter-enterprise level and intra-enterprise level under the context of social manufacturing are elaborated. Advanced IoT solutions, human-machine interaction technologies and manufacturing data analysis enable humans, machines, sensors, smart workpieces and software systems to interact and cooperate with each other simultaneously for production operations. Firstly, an RFID-based graphical deduction model is constructed for tracing and monitoring material flows. Then, the concept, operational logic and implementation methods of social sensors are discussed in detail. Finally, an extended CPS framework integrating with RFID and social sensors is proposed to power social manufacturing nodes, communities, and network for production tasks. Potential application prospects of social manufacturing are also introduced from technical integration and application perspectives.
Chao Liu, Pingyu Jiang
Chapter 7. Social Factory and Interconnections
The concept of social factory under the context of social manufacturing (SM) is presented in this chapter. Social factory can be considered as a production node which aims to finish either part machining or product assembling tasks. It collaborates with customers and suppliers in the inter-enterprise level, and allocates factory objects such as human operators, machines, workpieces, and information systems in the intra-enterprise level to collaboratively fulfill production orders. It reveals the configuration mechanism and runtime logic of SM from network nodes perspective, and provides a novel blueprint for factory building in the future. To realize the vision of social factory, a decentralized production control framework is proposed, the core concept of smart workpiece, extended cyber-physical-social node (ECPSN), system framework, and runtime logic are clarified, and the decentralized production control architecture of social factory, including node control model, functional modules of ECPSN, and production interactions and cooperation are presented. On this basis, the research challenges and opportunities are discussed. Finally, a social factory prototype is implemented to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed factory framework.
Chao Liu, Pingyu Jiang
Chapter 8. Product Service Systems for Social Manufacturing
Product-Service System (PSS) business model drives the outputs of the enterprises from products to product-services, in which they can get considerable and stable revenues and totally satisfy the requirements of their customers at the same time. However, due to the increasing service complexity and labor cost, an individual enterprise may not be able to provide the life cycle PSS for the customers. In order to solve this problem, we introduce the idea of social manufacturing (SocialM), which strengthens the socialized manufacturing resources to collaborate for covering the whole stages of product life cycle with aggregated resource capabilities. To integrate the idea with PSS, a novel service mode called PSS for SccialM is proposed to realize collaborative services. In this chapter, the concepts and definitions of PSS for SocialM are demonstrated. And then four key enabled technologies are discussed from the perspectives of service capability modeling, service flow modeling, service planning, scheduling and monitoring, and service quality evaluation. Finally, two practical cases are analyzed to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of PSS for SocialM.
Wei Guo, Pingyu Jiang
Chapter 9. Blockchain Models for Cyber-Credits of Social Manufacturing
The increasing of personalized demands requires manufacturing industry to own high flexibility and rapid response to market. In this situation, a social manufacturing network (SMN) is formed with distributed socialized manufacturing resources (SMRs) to provide more precise and professional service for customers. SMN is a decentralized network in which the credibility and responsibility of cross-enterprise production activities are difficult to ensure, because there are no trusted third parties to supervise them. For solving this problem, a manufacturing cyber-credits for SMN that applies the decentralized blockchain technology is put forward to regulate production activities of SMRs. The concept and framework of the proposed mechanism are firstly given. Then, several key enabling technologies are discussed to support the implementation of the mechanism. It is expected that the manufacturing cyber-credits could provide a possible way to normalize and regulate cross-enterprise production activities under social manufacturing paradigm.
Jiewu Leng, Jiajun Liu, Pingyu Jiang
Chapter 10. Configuration of Social Manufacturing System
Social manufacturing is a novel paradigm with a cyber-physical-social space that allows massive decentralized prosumers to co-create fully individualized and personalized products through improved sharing of processes, decision-making, workflow, and data with each other. It is a sustainable paradigm of mass individualization, by applying the crowdsourcing approach of ‘obtaining individualized services or products by soliciting decentralized contributions from crowd of prosumers’ into the manufacturing area. Via combining the social manufacturing paradigm with the concept of individualized configuration space, a social manufacturing system based on customized community space configuration is proposed. An implementing framework of the communities configuration in social manufacturing system is put forward and discussed. Two key enabling technologies including coordination decision-making of social manufacturing service and generation of order-driven dynamic community of mass individualization are discussed in detail.
Jiewu Leng, Pingyu Jiang
Chapter 11. Execution of Social Manufacturing
This chapter elaborates the execution of social manufacturing, which is divided into three phases. Firstly, six key issues on shaping an order-driven manufacturing system or network are discussed, including extended cyber-physical system (CPS) enabled interconnection inside a social manufacturing node (SMN), social sensors enabled interactions among SMNs, blockchain shell construction, product order decomposition and task tree construction, order-driven manufacturing community formation and performance evaluation. And then, the task planning strategies both inside an SMN and among SMNs are introduced. With the help of blockchain technology, data sampling and cyber-credit recording strategies both inside an SMN and among SMNs are deployed, which support the realization for the real-time scheduling of manufacturing services. Finally, manufacturing service evaluation is carried out from SMNs, communities, and social manufacturing system perspectives based on the original social context and production data.
Pulin Li, Jiajun Liu, Pingyu Jiang
Chapter 12. Industrial Cases Concerning Social Manufacturing
In the chapter, three industrial cases from Haier, RepRap open-source 3D printers manufacturer network, X-part manufacturers are analyzed, which deal with three types of preliminarily distributive implementations of using partially-centralized control, centerless-self-control or completely-centralized-control mechanisms for the social manufacturing paradigm. The analysis roadmap focuses mainly on how to use socialized manufacturing resources (SMRs), how to shape an organizational structure and how to realize a runtime logic. Following a specific running example, furthermore, some details related to correspondent paradigm analysis, usable enabled technologies, improvable suggestions and trends in the future are discussed in depth.
Pingyu Jiang
Social Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications
Prof. Pingyu Jiang
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