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About this book

This book opens with a brief introduction to renewable energy and the advantages of solar energy systems, an overview of concentrated solar power (CSP) system technologies and modeling, and the application of artificial neural network (ANN) technologies in various solar field systems. Later chapters cover data and operation methods of central tower receiver power plants (CTRPP), important models of ANN techniques used in solar energy fields, accurate methods for modeling CTRPP, the economics of solar energy systems, the CSP impacts on the penetration level of photovoltaic (PV) systems, and a look at the reliability of systems using case studies on PV systems and hybrid PV and CSP systems.
Provides an introduction to renewable energy and the advantages of solar energy systemsOutlines methods for modeling central tower receiver power plantsIncludes case studies on photovoltaic (PV) and hybrid PV and concentrated solar power systems

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction and Literature Review

Abstract
As the world’s supply of fossil fuels shrinks, there is a great need for clean and affordable renewable energy sources (RES) in order to meet growing energy demands. Furthermore, the conventional plants based on fossil fuel have serious environmental and financial problems, and therefore, the dependency of the distribution networks on the RES such as solar power systems for generating electrical power is significantly promoted. In the past few decades, solar energy systems have been received great attention as an important type of RES. Nowadays, solar energy sources constitute appropriate commercial options for small and large power plants. The two mainstream categories of solar energy systems utilized for this purpose are concentrated solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV). This chapter presents a brief introduction about the role, important need, and advantages of renewable energies for today and the future, especially solar energy such as PV and CSP systems. In addition, it introduces a survey for all types of CSP technologies. As well as, it presents a literature review for the LCOE and cost reduction of CSP and PV systems, CSP modeling, and the application of ANN technologies in various SF systems. Further, it presents the problem definition, objectives, and outlines of this thesis.
Ibrahim Moukhtar, Adel Z. El Dein, Adel A. Elbaset, Yasunori Mitani

Chapter 2. Solar Power Plants Design

Abstract
There are many fundamental differences between CTR technology and other CSP technologies. For example, in the case of PT, solar energy collected by the receiver is directly proportional to the land area of the SF. However, in the case of CTR, solar energy collected by the SF is a complex function of the SF layout respect to the tower. Therefore, for developing a methodology to achieve the optimal design for solar CTR system, it should obtain a method for determining the boundary of the SF around the tower. Hence, this chapter introduces a proposed computer program for optimal design of a CTR system to be interconnected with electric grid. The proposed computer program has been designed to determine an optimum number of heliostats field, land area, and mirror area. The computer program can completely design the CTRPP system interconnected with electric grid and determines the optimum operation hour by hour through the year. Then, it estimates the monthly energy excess and monthly energy shortage. In addition, this chapter introduces also a proposed program for optimal design of a PV system. The program has been designed to determine an optimum number of PV modules, number of inverters, and land area for the system under study. It estimates the monthly surplus energy and monthly deficit energy. Finally, it presents an optimal design for CTR/PV hybrid solar systems.
Ibrahim Moukhtar, Adel Z. El Dein, Adel A. Elbaset, Yasunori Mitani

Chapter 3. Modelling of a Central Tower Receiver Power Plant

Abstract
To evaluate the performance of a central tower receiver power plant (CTRPP), a model is required to predict its energy output. Normally, the CTRPP performance depends on many physical parameters like site location, typical weather conditions, solar radiation incident angle, block factor, cosine factor, and shadow factor. Several models and software programs have been used to analyze the performance of CSP technologies. However, these models may be inappropriate to evaluate the power system reliability. This chapter describes the data and operation method of CTRPP. In addition, it presents a simplified mathematical model for all components of CTR plant to predict the performance and characteristics of the CTR system. The mathematical modelling for CTRPP is addressed from a reasonably simplified model perspective.
Ibrahim Moukhtar, Adel Z. El Dein, Adel A. Elbaset, Yasunori Mitani

Chapter 4. ANN-Based CTR Modelling and Validation Results

Abstract
Artificial neural network(ANN) is an efficient computing algorithm in MATLAB that emulates the biological neurons performance for the basic functions such as the human brain. Compared to other traditional methods, the ANN soft computing technique provides wide information in multi-dimensional information domains, accurate to solve complex and nonlinear problems, and less time consumed. Presently, ANN technique has been widely used in several applications of renewable energy technologies, particularly solar energy systems. It is used to effectively model, simulate, control, optimize and analyze solar energy systems. Consequently, this chapter presents the most important models of ANN technique that used in the solar energy fields and the criteria for selecting the optimal model. Also, it offers a new, simple, and accurate method for modeling CTRPP. This technique can control the flow rate of HTF from CST to the tower receiver. Thus, the receiver outlet temperature can be controlled at the required value regardless of the change in solar radiation or the receiver inlet temperature. Additionally, it contains a detailed explanation of the creation steps of the neural network model. Additionally, it presents the results of the proposed model described in Chaps. 3 and 4. Comparisons between ANN models to select the optimal model are discussed in this chapter. It was found that the MLP model the optimal model for controlling the receiver outlet temperature by adjusting the flow rate of the HTF. The proposed model results were compared with the results of SAM simulation program. The results showed full compatibility between them.
Ibrahim Moukhtar, Adel Z. El Dein, Adel A. Elbaset, Yasunori Mitani

Chapter 5. Penetration Characteristics of Hybrid CSP and PV Solar Plants Economic

Abstract
The rapid increase in the integration of PV system over the past decades is due to its falling cost and advantages. High penetration of solar PV system causes a significant effect on the power quality of the system due to the mismatch between demand patterns and the solar resource. The negative impact of PV penetration on the system limits its high penetration. Therefore, PV itself may represent a new challenge to the electrical system rather than being a part of the solution. Hence, the CSP technology including TES has been aggregated in the system in order to accommodate the required electrical power during the higher and lower solar energy at all timescales. Therefore, this chapter studies the CSP impacts on the penetration level of PV system as well as on the reliability of the system in two cases: the first case is only integration of PV system. The second case by using hybrid PV and CSP systems. The results showed that the performance of CSP technologies has a significant positive impact on the system, which supports the overall flexibility of the system because of its ability to store and send generated energy. In addition, the use of CSP reduces the minimum generation constraint of the conventional generators that allows more penetration of the PV system.
Ibrahim Moukhtar, Adel Z. El Dein, Adel A. Elbaset, Yasunori Mitani

Chapter 6. Economic Study of Solar Energy Systems

Abstract
Global installed capacity of renewable energy technologies is growing rapidly. Hence, the technology assessment of energy production technologies is often computed as financial cost. Competition among alternative renewable technologies has increased substantially over the past few years, due to downward cost trends within each technology that have resulted from policy support and financial incentives. This chapter presents the results of the relationship between the energy price generated by the CTR plant with changing the number of storage hours (Ts), solar multiple, and also with the changing capacity of the station. Also, this chapter introduces program for optimal cost and LCOE of CTR system, PV and CTR/PV hybrid solar system. The computer program has been designed to determine optimum design parameters of PV and CTR for the system under study. The decision from the computer program is based on minimum price of the generated kWh from the system. Finally, the objective of this chapter is to research whether or not a solar PV system is more economical compared to the CTR system. The systems being considered in this study are in Aswan, Egypt as this region has hot and clear weather.
Ibrahim Moukhtar, Adel Z. El Dein, Adel A. Elbaset, Yasunori Mitani

Chapter 7. Conclusions and Future Works

Abstract
This chapter reports the main conclusions that can be drawn from the book and open the window for different research points in future work.
Ibrahim Moukhtar, Adel Z. El Dein, Adel A. Elbaset, Yasunori Mitani

Backmatter

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