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About this book

This book seeks to explore the development and policy implications of South-South migration, specifically with regard to the role and challenges for social policy. It examines the linkages and impact of migration on gender and care regimes, human resource flows, remittances, poverty, and political organizations by or for migrants.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

1. Linking Migration, Social Development and Policy in the South — An Introduction

Abstract
In an increasingly globalized and interconnected world, migration has emerged as one of the central policy challenges of the future. In 2007, 200 million international migrants existed worldwide, sending around US$337 billion1 in remittances across the globe, with $251 billion of this going to developing countries (IOM 2008a; Ratha et al. 2008). Not surprisingly, international migration and the debate on the causes and consequences of migration for developing countries have gained a great deal of visibility within the policy-making world2 and regained much attention within academia as well (Castles and Wise 2008; Adepoju et al. 2007). This new interest and concern at the global level is reflected in the set-up of the Global Commission on International Migration between 2003 ©and 2005, the subsequent United Nations (UN) High Level Dialogue on International Migration and Development in 2006 and the Global Forum on Migration and Development (GFMD) that was launched in Brussels in 2007 and is now held annually. The latest addition to these activities, which further highlights the growing importance of migration on the global policy-making agenda, is the United Nations Development Programme’s (UNDP) Human Development Report, entitled Overcoming Barriers: Human Mobility and Development (UNDP 2009).
Katja Hujo, Nicola Piper

2. The Implications of Migration for Gender and Care Regimes in the South

Abstract
In the past decade there has been considerable concern over issues of funding and provision of care in public and social policy (Razavi 2007a). Although there is an increasing interest in this field, so far there has been little research on social policy and care provisioning in the global South, especially as they pertain to migration and gender relations. However, migration, especially that of women, is changing care landscapes the world over, including in Southern countries, and there is an urgent need for research in this area in order to guide the setting up of effective and appropriate social policy. This chapter looks at some conceptual issues that could steer new research in this field.
Eleonore Kofman, Parvati Raghuram

3. Human Resource Flows from and between Developing Countries: Implications for Social and Public Policies

Abstract
Today, a significant proportion of the world’s migrant population flows occur between developing countries. This is confirmed by recent estimates of both the United Nations (UN) and the World Bank, though data limitations may underestimate migrant movements, especially South—South. When qualifications are taken into account, the flows of skilled human resources appear to be significantly higher towards rich countries than towards others. This is the result of a traditional concentration of educational, technological and scientific capacities in the North, and of an unequal worldwide distribution of labour, income and living conditions. However, there is some evidence that the pattern of flows is becoming more complex. New countries from the South send and/or receive highly skilled people. Despite information limitations and the need for a historical perspective to assess specific trends, these changes tend to indicate an increasing multilateralization of human resource flows in the global society. At the same time, the feminization of these flows — now well assessed for overall migrations — exhibits particularly strong features within the highly skilled subpopulation. The rate of tertiary educated female emigrants from the South is higher than for males. And the impact on social/human development indicators is noticeable.
Jean-Baptiste Meyer

4. Migration and Social Development: Organizational and Political Dimensions

Abstract
Collective pressure exerted by migrants1 on governments in both origin and destination countries to address a variety of migration- and work-related issues and concerns has been mounting in recent years, as evidenced by recent studies on this topic, as well as concrete action taken by a variety of civil society organizations (CSOs).2 Because public policies tend to give low priority to targeting migrant populations (Grugel and Piper 2007), the important role for migrant associations, trade unions and other relevant CSOs in providing crucial services and political advocacy for migrants has been recognized by academics3 and policy makers alike (ILO 2004a; GCIM 2005). The different types of organizations involved in migrant issues have their historical and institutional strengths and weaknesses. In recent years, new strategies are being developed in the form of intra-organizational policy shifts or reform processes, and inter-organizational alliances within and across borders. The question is to what extent these processes manage to integrate the changing landscape of economic migration into political activism aimed at social justice pre- and post-migration — that is, whether these processes relate to broader social development concerns in the attempt to address the causes and consequences of international migration.
Nicola Piper

5. Remittances, Migration and Development: Policy Options and Policy Illusions

Abstract
In the past few years there has been a remarkable renaissance in the interest in remittances by policy makers, multilateral organizations, such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM), and scholars (Ratha 2003; Kapur 2005). After years of relative neglect, remittances have been rediscovered as a potential source of development finance. This interest has been triggered in part by a striking increase in remittance flows. Registered remittances sent back to developing countries rose from $31 billion1 in 1990 to $83 billion in 2000, to no less than $338 billion in 2008. While remittances to developing countries surged, official aid flows showed a declining trend. Although this surge reflects to some degree the surfacing of erstwhile informal remittances, improved recording of remittances and depreciation of the United States (US) dollar, there is little doubt that at least part of this increase has been real.
Hein de Haas

6. Migration and Poverty: Linkages, Knowledge Gaps and Policy Implications

Abstract
This chapter explores the links between migration and poverty, and their implications for social policy. It argues that research on linkages between migration and poverty can, and should, start with knowledge about poverty itself: what it is, what causes it, what reduces it, poor people’s agency as well as constraints, and so on. Poverty research offers several established understandings on the natures, structures and processes driving poverty, and these should be central to how the issues are framed in migration research and policy. The chapter argues that context-dependency, rather than generalized conclusions, is the main way forward. This could help develop migration research that is more strongly poor-centric, and, consequently, move migration debates and policies toward issues more favourable and relevant to the poor.
Arjan de Haan, Shahin Yaqub

7. Towards Inclusive Migration and Social Policy Regimes — Conclusion

Abstract
Migration is one of the central policy challenges of the present and future as indicative from the increasing and widespread interest that issues of migration receive today in global policy debates, in reports by international organizations and in academic studies. In this volume, we have tried to contribute to this ongoing debate by focusing on two areas that fall broadly into the migration—development nexus but have not received sufficient attention so far: (1) the development implications of migration that occur between developing countries, that is, so-called South—South migration; and (2) the links between migration, social development and social policy. In the introductory chapter we have outlined the broad trends in the patterns of South—South migration and introduced some ideas on the relevance of social policy for developing countries in general and for a migration context in particular. The literature on developed welfare states and immigration issues, as well as the incipient research on portability of social security rights for migrants in different contexts, has further allowed us to identify possible entry points for future research. The individual chapters in this book constitute state-of-the-art analyses of existing studies on specific themes that are relevant to exploring the intersection between migration, social development and social policy — such as remittances, poverty, care and gender, skilled labour migration and political organizations. In the attempt to evaluate the implications of these phenomena and corresponding theoretical approaches in a South—South context, the final objective was for the authors to formulate research questions and identify research gaps in order to stimulate discussion and guide future studies.
Katja Hujo, Nicola Piper

Backmatter

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