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About this book

A true revolution has rocked the space industry, as Silicon Valley and new startup companies around the world have shaken up the status quo. This has in turn triggered a hefty response among traditional aerospace companies, launching the sector into the new Space 2.0. This book explains how and why this remarkable change has happened, starting from the industry’s origins during the Space Age and working its way to the present day.

No other industry in the world has experienced the dramatic shift in technology and services as rapidly as the field of satellite services and rocket launch systems has. This book analyzes the dynamic shift over the past decade in how satellites are designed, manufactured, launched, and operated. It also turns an eye to the future, discussing the amazing feats and potential issues we can expect from this shifting arena by 2030.

With its beginner-friendly writing style and plethora of illustrations, this book serves as a perfect introductory text to students and professionals alike wishing to learn more about the key trends in the field of space applications and launch systems.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

1. The World of Space in Flux

Abstract
The space industry is in a period of enormous change. Newly emerging space technology and a myriad of innovative space applications are both in a state of unparalleled growth and market flux. Only the fields of computer science and artificial intelligence (AI) – the so-called cyber-industries – have a similar pattern of rapid technological advancement and industrial ferment. This is not at all surprising in that the space industry has largely become a software-defined extension of the computer industry. Communications satellites, remote sensing and weather satellites, and space navigation satellites currently represent the largest space applications industries. If one stops to analyze the underlying technologies on which these space applications are based, one finds that they are essentially digital processing and sensing space systems in the skies, using specialized digital software and hardware. Digital processing is at their core.
Joseph N. Pelton

2. How Satellite Communications Systems Are Changing

Abstract
The field of satellite communications is highly competitive and rapidly growing. Today, this sector of the global space industry market, including defense and commercial satellite communications, represents annual revenues of nearly $200 billion out of total revenues of over $350 billion [1].
Joseph N. Pelton

3. Key Trends in Remote-Sensing Satellite Systems and Services

Abstract
Remote sensing is an extremely valuable tool that is vital to many industries, from mining to fishing and farming to mapping and surveying operations. Indeed the uses of Earth observation satellites spread across a wide spectra of other industries. The ways to use remote sensing just keeps expanding. Each year new applications are being developed in fields as diverse as real estate development, retail sales, urban planning, law enforcement, disaster relief and recovery, archaeology, energy exploration, and transportation. There is even an online listing of the top 100 uses that can now be made of remote-sensing satellites [1].
Joseph N. Pelton

4. The Growth and Expansion of Precise Navigation and Timing

Abstract
There are actually many terms that are used to characterize Global Navigation Satellite Services (GNSS) around the world. Some of these terms include: Precision Navigation and Timing (PNT), Sat Nav, and GPS (for Global Positioning Satellites). There are also a growing number of systems that provide this type of service. These include the Glosnass system operated by Russia, the Chinese Beidou and Compass systems, the Japanese Quasi-Zenith system, the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite system, and the European Galileo system. There are possibly others that might be initiated in the future, such as system deployed by the Republic of Korea and one operated by the United Kingdom if it is not able to negotiate continued participation in the Galileo system due to Brexit [1].
Joseph N. Pelton

5. The New Capabilities of Weather Satellites

Abstract
Weather, or meteorological, satellites are in fact essentially remote-sensing satellites. What is an important distinguishing feature about this type of satellite application is that they are essentially all operated as governmental services that are supported by tax revenues rather than commercial revenues and services.
Joseph N. Pelton

6. New Uses of the Protozone

Abstract
There is an interesting book by David Loth entitled How High Is Up that explored the problem that has been an issue for national armed forces seeking to defend their countries for many centuries. The conclusion in Loth’s book is that despite efforts to define things like national air space and sovereignty over land of a particular country, the practical answer has been the area that can be effectively defended. Today, national commercial air space is generally accepted to rise up to 20 kilometers (12.5 miles).
Joseph N. Pelton

7. On-Orbit Servicing, Active Debris Removal and Repurposing of Defunct Spacecraft

Abstract
There are many aspects of the NewSpace industries that tend to capture headlines. The idea of mining asteroids or new rocket systems that can be reused by landing them at precisely defined spots give rise to exciting television and helps to fire the human imagination. Two booster rockets landing together in synch produce great visuals that are immediately grasped even by small children. Not all of the NewSpace developments, like in-orbit refueling of a satellite, produce great theater.
Joseph N. Pelton

8. Space-Based Solar Power Satellite Systems

Abstract
One of the unrealized potential uses of space systems that has been discussed and examined for nearly five decades is the tantalizing idea of creating solar power satellite, or what is most commonly now called space-based solar power (SBSP). The theory is that it would be possible to create such a system at geosynchronous orbit or perhaps at a suitable Lagrangian point that would be capable of beaming clean energy back to Earth on a 24 hours a day 365 days a week basis. This energy would be sent down to Earth using a suitable radio frequency or laser transmissions that could then be converted to electrical power using diodes placed within dipole antenna receivers. This energy could then be sent to locations where energy is most needed. Countries without large energy reserves, such as China and Japan, have accordingly been among those nations that have pursued some of the most active research programs in this area [1].
Joseph N. Pelton

9. Space Weapons, the Threat of War in Space and Planetary Defense

Abstract
For fifty years the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 has provided a stable framework by spacefaring nations to carry out a wide range of activities in outer space. There have been some remarkable international cooperative ventures. We have seen the success of the Solyut-SpaceLab linkage, the International Space Station (ISS) and many other cooperative projects involving countries around the world. There is now an amazing array of cooperative organizations in the area of outer space. These include the International Telecommunications Satellite (INTELSAT) organization, with its service to almost 200 countries, the International Mobile Satellite (INMARSAT) organization, COSPAS-SARSAT, EUTELSAT, EUMETSAT, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA), the International Space University (ISU) and many dozens of others.
Joseph N. Pelton

10. Trends in Chemical Rocket Systems and New Approaches to Launching Satellites

Abstract
The world of satellite applications has been turned upside down for several reasons in the past decade. The advent of small satellites and large-scale constellations, high throughput satellites, new types of Earth stations employing metamaterial and electronic beam forming, and new launcher design and operation – including reusable vehicles – have all served to reinvent the world of space. The common factors these innovations share are innovative thought and entrepreneurial initiative. The significant changes that have come to the launch industry, on which the broader space industry depends, is truly a key part of the reinvention of the space industry. This chapter examines the most important of these changes and also sets the stage for an exploration of the further changes yet to come, which will be explored in chapter eleven.
Joseph N. Pelton

11. The Longer Term Future of Launch and Propulsion Systems

Abstract
In the previous chapter the remarkable progress that is being made to increase the reliability, performance and cost effectiveness of launcher vehicles was presented in some detail. This particularly stressed the progress that is being achieved with reusable launch systems. SpaceX Falcon launchers, Blue Origin New Shepherd and planned New Glenn and Sierra Nevada’s Dreamchaser vehicle that would provide resupply services to the International Space Station are just some of the new advances that are being achieved. Advances in 3D printing, additive manufacturing and other new production systems are not only resulting in spacecraft operating more efficiently and cost effectively, these new techniques are also serving to reduce the cost of launch vehicles as well. The advances of today will not be the advances of tomorrow, though. The space revolution will continue in the form of new and better forms of space transport.
Joseph N. Pelton

12. Spaceplanes, Space Tourism and Private Space Habitats

Abstract
Spaceplanes carrying celebrities, sports figures, movie stars and royalty will soon be the rage for the next few years – barring a serious accident. Sir Richard Branson has done well to book not only millionaires but media idols to promote his space adventures business known as Virgin Galactic. His VSS Unity spaceplane is now set to carry would-be citizen astronauts up 120 kilometers into space. Jeff Bezos, with his increasingly successful Blue Origin suborbital flights will apparently soon follow suit. In what is not always friendly rivalry with Musk and Branson, Bezos’s company will also be booking big names to capture headlines and promote his suborbital launch service as well.
Joseph N. Pelton

13. Space 2.0 Economic, Business and Regulatory Issues

Abstract
Dr. John Logsdon, who directed the Space Policy Institute at George Washington University for many years, had a favorite saying when he lectured to the International Space University. This admonition was: “The regulators always win.”
Joseph N. Pelton

14. The Way Forward

Abstract
The world of NewSpace or Space 2.0 enterprises has blossomed in just a few short years. Commercial space activities now dwarf governmental space programs. The scope of these activities just keeps on expanding. Innovative new space businesses keep increasing in original and sometimes even unsuspected ways. When the cyber-industries found their way into the world of aerospace it encountered a fertile ground in which to plant new ideas, grow new enterprises and reform and revitalize institutional and regulatory processes.
Joseph N. Pelton

Backmatter

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