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This handbook provides comprehensive treatment of the current state of glass science from the leading experts in the field. Opening with an enlightening contribution on the history of glass, the volume is then divided into eight parts. The first part covers fundamental properties, from the current understanding of the thermodynamics of the amorphous state, kinetics, and linear and nonlinear optical properties through colors, photosensitivity, and chemical durability. The second part provides dedicated chapters on each individual glass type, covering traditional systems like silicates and other oxide systems, as well as novel hybrid amorphous materials and spin glasses. The third part features detailed descriptions of modern characterization techniques for understanding this complex state of matter. The fourth part covers modeling, from first-principles calculations through molecular dynamics simulations, and statistical modeling. The fifth part presents a range of laboratory and industrial glass processing methods. The remaining parts cover a wide and representative range of applications areas from optics and photonics through environment, energy, architecture, and sensing.

Written by the leading international experts in the field, the Springer Handbook of Glass represents an invaluable resource for graduate students through academic and industry researchers working in photonics, optoelectronics, materials science, energy, architecture, and more.

### 1. The History of Glass

Glass production is 5000 years old. Until the 1st century BC when blowing appeared in the Middle East, glass objects were mainly ornaments and small containers for cosmetics. Tiberius created a glass industry in Rome to satisfy the local customers more easily. Very soon, the western European glassmakers learnt to make glass themselves instead of importing ingots and processing them in secondary workshops. The collapse of the Roman Empire did not mean the disappearance of a product that has proved so useful. The art of glass was renewed during the Middle Age: stained glass windows appeared in numerous churches and cathedrals that were built all over Europe. The crusades enhanced the movement with new techniques coming from the East.Glass was still made with sand and a flux but the flux changed from sodium to potassium salts produced by combustion of land plants instead of the Mediterranean coastal plants containing mainly sodium.This composition was still used with a few improvements like purification of the ashes when industrial soda ash was invented at the beginning of the 19th century. The same century saw very important progress in glassmaking and it led to a huge decrease in price to the point where everyone could buy glass panes for their windows at the end of this period. Melting processes were also much improved. Use of coal was common since the 18th century, but the furnaces themselves had not really changed until the Siemens brothers invented the regenerative gas furnace where gas was produced with a gas producer. Ten years later, the tank furnace, a close ancestor of present-day melting furnaces, was introduced.The forming processes had been improved since antiquity but the major changes occurred at the end of the 19th century when the processes were mechanized. As a result, the output increased spectacularly even after the end of the First World War, which took the lives of many glassworkers. Throughout the 20th century, the trend towards automation accelerated and melting tanks were applied to all types of glass. The middle of the century saw the revolutionary invention of float glass which laid the foundations for the modern glass industry.

Marie-Hélène Chopinet

### 2. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Glass

This chapter gives an overview of the thermodynamics of the glassy state and the kinetics of glass formation and relaxation. The emphasis is placed on thermodynamics. First, several characteristic features of glasses are discussed in relation to earlier definitions of the glassy state. Then, the glassy state is contrasted to equilibrium states by discussing glass formation versus crystallization, the glass transition versus equilibrium phase transitions, and relaxation phenomena typical of glasses. A major part is devoted to fundamental aspects of the thermodynamics of glasses, comprising a detailed discussion of enthalpy, entropy, and the kinetics of glass formation as derived by nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Another significant part focuses on the quantitative treatment of multicomponent glasses and glass melts by using the formalism of thermodynamics of mixed phases. Tools and models are presented allowing one to approach the properties of glasses relevant to industry. In terms of examples, the emphasis rests on oxide glasses, in specific, silicate glasses. The chapter closes with an outlook on future developments and on challenges for future research work.

### 3. Viscosity of Glass and Glass-Forming Melts

Beginning with a selection of commercial glasses, the typical temperature course of the shear viscosity of inorganic glasses is discussed. The significance of the different temperature ranges for the different production steps (melting, hotforming, annealing) is explained. The viscosity-based typology of glasses as long or short is introduced and discussed with respect to glass composition.The glass viscosity measurement methods conforming to ISO 7884 1-7 are described. This includes the individual rules for the determination of the shear viscosity fix points. Special shear viscosity measurement techniques applying to extremely high or low viscosity values are also described.Concerning viscosity theory and modeling, Adams–Gibbs theory, Angell's fragility concept, and the semiempirical models after Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann (Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann (VFT)), Avramov–Milchev (Avramov–Milchev (AM)), and Waterton–Mauro–Yue–Ellison–Gupta–Allan (Waterton–Mauro–Yue–Ellison–Gupta–Allan (W-MYEGA)) are presented, applied to different glasses, and compared.Viscoelastic behavior is discussed with respect both to shear and bulk deformation, including Boltzmann's superposition principle, the particular effect of delayed elasticity, the special viscoelastic models after Maxwell, Kelvin–Voigt, Burger etc. as well as special mathematics, i. e., the stretched exponential or Kohlrausch(–Williams–Watts) function. Viscoelastic characterization by dynamic mechanical analysis and by reversible compression in a quasi-isostatic device are discussed considering experimental data.

Ulrich Fotheringham

### 4. Crystallization and Glass-Ceramics

Glass-ceramics are innovative technological materials made up of crystals dispersed in a glass matrix. This dual feature enables the combination of the advantages of glass, mostly ease of shaping/forming, with the specific properties of crystalline phases. Since their discovery in the 1950s, numerous studies have been devoted to glass crystallization mechanisms. Such an understanding is of primary importance to further design glass-ceramics with tailored properties that are closely related to their microstructure. This chapter will thus start with a description of the different nucleation and growth processes. Some practical examples will be provided to illustrate the particular interest of nucleating agents and phase separation in order to master nucleation and growth processes. A brief overview of the complementary characterization techniques used to finely describe the multiscale structure of these glass-ceramic materials will then be presented. Finally, the large range of accessible glass-forming compositions and microstructures will be illustrated by a variety of technological materials combining mechanical, thermal, optical, energetic, and bioactive properties.

Mathieu Allix, Laurent Cormier

### 5. Linear Optical Properties

This chapter provides an extended overview of the optical properties of glasses.glassoptical In Sect. 5.1 the underlying physical background of light–matter interaction is presented, where the phenomena of refraction, reflection, absorption, emission and scattering are introduced.Most oxide glasses are transparent in the visible spectral range. This obvious fact, confirmed by every look through a window, is based on two highly nontrivial principles: (i) the existence of an electronic bandgap and (ii) the (nearly) complete absence of light scattering.lightscattering Although transparent solid materials like single crystals and glasses have been known for thousands of years, understanding the existence of an electronic bandgap, an energy range where practically no absorption of electromagnetic radiation occurs, requires quantum mechanics, which just became 100 years old. If such a forbidden zone is larger than the photon energy of blue photons, the photons with the largest energy quantum in the visible spectral range, the material is visibly transparent. $$E_{\text{band\_gap}}> h\nu_{\text{blue}}\;,$$ E band_gap > h ν blue , with $$h\nu_{\text{blue}}=hc/\lambda_{\text{blue}}={\mathrm{3.18}}\,{\mathrm{eV}}$$ hνblue=hc/λblue=3.18eV , where $$h$$ h is Planck's constant, $$c$$ c is the speed of light in a vacuum (or air), $$\lambda$$ λ is the wavelenght and $$\nu$$ ν is the frequency. The energy is given here in units of eV ( $${\mathrm{1}}\,{\mathrm{eV}}={\mathrm{1.602\times 10^{-19}}}\,{\mathrm{J}}$$ 1eV=1.602×10-19J ).The (nearly) complete absence of light scattering in glasses has its origin in the fact that as opposed, e. g., to most ceramic materials, glasses are isotropic and extremely homogeneous on all length scales relevant for the interaction with visible light. Also, while glasses have well-defined structure on the atomic scale, a few ångstroms ( $$\mathrm{\AA}$$ Å ), they are completely disordered and therefore homogeneous and isotropic on the larger length scales relevant for the interaction with visible light.

Martin Letz

### 6. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Glass

Numerous innovations in photonics have been realized on the basis of nonlinear optical properties, notably in information technologies. To take advantage of the nonlinear optical properties of glass, multidisciplinary research efforts were necessary, combining optics, glass chemistry, material science, as well as development of optical or electrical polarizations processes. This chapter addresses both fundamental aspects of nonlinear optical responses and also the exploitation of nonlinear optical phenomena in glassy material. It starts by a general introduction to nonlinear optical phenomena and concepts. Then, the specific cases of second and third optical responses in glasses are treated separately and described in detail as a function of the corresponding optical phenomena, the various glass families, and their applications.

Marc Dussauze, Thierry Cardinal

### 7. Mechanical Properties of Glass

This chapter focuses on the mechanical properties and behavior of glasses below their glass transition temperature. In this temperature range, they are usually seen as perfectly brittle materials: materials that deform only elastically, until they break. This chapter explores the behavior of glasses from the domain from elasticity to fracture. We first review the most widely used methods for measuring the elastic moduli of glasses, and the state of the art regarding knowledge of the relationship between elastic moduli and short- to medium-range order in glasses. We then discuss nonlinear elasticity in glasses, and how temperature and pressure impact on elastic moduli. But glasses can also deform plastically under high levels of compressive stress, particularly under sharp contact (indentation), because of high pressure and shear stress. This plastic deformation is highly dependent on glass composition; it results from densification and shear flow, two mechanisms that are affected by the loading path, temperature and strain rate. We examine how plasticity occurs under sharp contact (e. g., indentation, scratch), until damage appears (cracks). Finally, we examine the practical strength of glasses, which is highly dependent on resistance to surface damage as well as to crack propagation (fracture toughness). The important role of moisture is also discussed, as it is responsible for subcritical crack propagation, and thus lower durability of glass parts.

Jean-Pierre Guin, Yann Gueguen

### 8. Chemical Strengthening of Glass

A basic ternary sodium aluminosilicate glass system is described since this simple system forms the basis for glasses readily ion-exchanged to the high surface compressive stress and deep compressive stress layer. The ionic interdiffusion of monovalent alkali ions within an aluminosilicate glass is described and the complementary error function form of the invading ion concentration profile is established. The generation of the stress profile from the concentration gradient is then described mathematically. The basics of fracture mechanics are reviewed and then used to describe the advantages of ion-exchanged glasses, namely imparting high surface strengthhighsurface strength to allow highly flexible and bendable thin glass sheets and for thicker glass, the retention of strength following deep contact damage. A simple model is described that can accurately predict the retained strength as a function of flaw depth for a known stress profile. The frangibility behavior of ion-exchanged glassesion-exchanged glass is also described in terms of stored strain energy and cracking responses are shown. The sharp contact failure mode for cover glasses is also described and the use of a Vickers diamond indenter to replicate this type of failure mode is demonstrated. Experimental data show that the resistance to sharp contact strength-limiting flaw generation is improved both with high compressive stress enveloping the deformation region and by utilizing glass compositions that are more resistant to subsurface damage during sharp contact events. Sliding Knoop and Vickers indenter scratch testing shows that ion-exchanged glasses with resistance to subsurface damage do not produce highly visible lateral cracks at loads that readily produce this type of damage in typical ion-exchanged aluminosilicate glasses.

Timothy M. Gross

### 9. Colors in Glasses

Glass is a fascinating material, not only because of its transparency and for its formability, but also because of the manifold facets of bright colors it can display. Just remember how the colored glasses of cathedral windows made us dream in our childhood, and how much we could quarrel in the schoolyard over a marble or a bead necklace.In this chapter, we will attempt to understand the physical origin of different colors and by what chemical processes, hues, and intensity of colors can be controlled in glasses. However, to do so, we must first understand what a color is, and only then will we be able to discuss how the different active color centers, when incorporated into a vitreous matrix, the glass, can create such a variety of responses toward light.We want to focus especially on the most frequent and, thus, typical causes of glass coloring, that is, the mechanisms of absorption. Examples from many transition metal ions will illustrate how their valence, local structure, or relation to other elements can impact the final glass color. The role of plasmon-resonance, involving metallic nanoparticles will also be described.However, other light effects due to reflection and scattering in the bulk or at the surface of a glass can also induce colors. For example, the iridescence of corroded glasses, which originates from multireflection on an alteration layer, can be exploited as an artistic effect. Light scattering by crystals or phase separation also plays an important role, since it gives us the option to modify the aspect from transparent to opalescent or to opaque.Finally, we will present some color-related functionalization of glasses such as photochromism and electrochromism. Many more details on glass and colors can be found in the literature, e. g., [9.1, 9.2, 9.3].

Dominique de Ligny, Doris Möncke

### 10. Electrical Transport Properties of Glass

The aim of this chapter is to review the current understanding of various effects, both electronic and ionic transports, in oxide and chalcogenide glasses. Oxide and chalcogenide glasses are classified into an electronic or ionic transport materials depending on the composition of their constituents. Doping of transition metals or alkali atoms into oxide glasses produces electronic or ionic properties in electrical conduction processes. Free carriers (electron and hole) in rigid materials are transported via extended states (band conduction). Localized carriers are transported by a hopping mechanism through localized states. If carrier transport occurs in a deformable lattice, either with strong or weak carrier–phonon interaction, the carrier is accompanied by lattice distortion. This is regarded as a pseudoparticle and is called a polaron, producing a polaronic transport in these media, which is usually discussed for the transition-metal-oxide glasses (transition metal (TM)oxide glass (TMOG)s). It is suggested in this article that an alternative explanation for the transport mechanism, instead of the traditional polaron model, is also possible in TMOG. When the conduction, either electronic or ionic, is thermally activated, it is pointed out that the Meyer–Neldel rule (Meyer–Neldel rule (MNR)) or the compensation law plays the principal role in the transport process in glassy materials. A long-standing puzzle is the mixed alkali effectmixedalkali effect (MAE) () in oxide glasses, together with the power-law conductivity behavior. A similar effect, i. e., the mixed cation effect, is also found in chalcogenide glasses. All of these are still matters of debate for electronic and/or ionic transport in glasses and there are many unsolved and important problems on electrical conductions in glasses, which will be finally summarized. Although the principal concern is with physics involved in electrical transport in glassesglasselectrical transport property, nevertheless it should be mentioned at this juncture that electrical transport phenomena also have many technological ramifications.

Koichi Shimakawa

### 11. Photosensitivity in Glasses

A photosensitive glass containing a small amount of a photosensitive metal such as Au, Ag, or Cu, and a sensitizer of $$\mathrm{CeO_{2}}$$ CeO2 , is expressed a function of the redox reaction induced by the irradiation of ultraviolet (ultraviolet (UV)) light. In particular, a photosensitive glass is an indispensable material in the photolithography technique, which is valuable in the microprocessing of glass substrates. Here we aim to discuss the photosensitivity of glass from the perspectives of photochemical, photophysical, and photothermal mechanisms. In particular, from three different points of view (photothermal, photochemical, and photophysical interactions), various intriguing phenomena induced by ultrashort pulse lasers are addressed. Furthermore, a new type of photosensitivity exhibiting nonreciprocal characteristics is also discussed.

Yasuhiko Shimotsuma, Masaaki Sakakura, Masahiro Shimizu, Kiyotaka Miura, Kazuyuki Hirao, Jianrong Qiu, Peter G. Kazansky

### 12. Chemical Durability of Glasses

The chemical durability of silicate glasses has long been studied for many applications, in particular when glasses are subjected to environmental weathering and aqueous corrosion. Typical applications include optical instruments, glass vessels, radioactive waste confinement, and bone reparation. Glass corrosionglasscorrosion involves ion exchange, water diffusion, network dissolution-recondensation, and secondary phase precipitation. These reactions may impact, among other things, the release of contaminants from waste glasses, and the glass mechanical, optical and catalytic properties. The glass corrosion mechanisms and alteration product formation have been well studied as a function of many environmental parameters (temperature, pH, water composition, etc.).The present chapter describes the general phenomena behind glass corrosion and details glass dissolutionglassdissolution in aqueous conditions on one hand and glass vapor hydration on the other hand. The latter phenomenon has not received the same level of attention in the literature relative to the corrosion in aqueous solutions. Research and development needs, in particular in complex systems such as radioactive waste geological repositories, are discussed in the conclusion of the chapter.

Abdesselam Abdelouas, James Neeway, Bernd Grambow

### 13. Silicate Glasses

Silicate glasses are important cultural, societal, and geological materials. Geologic glasses testify to the igneous activity of the Earth, and represent an important source of tools and ornamental objects during the Paleolithic. Nowadays, silicate glasses are used to make technical materials, such as smartphone screens or glass matrix for stabilizing hazardous radioactive wastes. Therefore, silicate glasses are central to the history of the Earth and humanity. The compositional landscape of natural and industrial silicate glasses is vast, with various elements that all affect the glass properties and structure differently. The $$\mathrm{SiO_{4}}$$ SiO4 tetrahedral framework, the backbone of silicate glasses, is variously modified by the introduction of network modifier metal cations or network former aluminum cations. Industrial and geologic silicate glasses further contain multivalent elements (e. g., $$\mathrm{Fe^{2+/3+}}$$ Fe2+/3+ ), rare-earth elements, and volatile elements (H, C, S, Cl, F, I) that play different roles in the glass structure and properties. This chapter proposes to review the links between the structure, the properties, and the chemical composition of silicate glasses.

Charles Le Losq, Maria Rita Cicconi, G. Neville Greaves, Daniel R. Neuville

### 14. Borate Glasses

Borate glassesborate glass are both scientifically interesting and surprisingly practical. As additives to silicate-based glasses they can be exceedingly useful. This chapter focusses mainly on the mathematical relationships between structure and property. Atomic structure at both the short and intermediate-range levels was determined by various spectroscopies including nuclear magnetic resonance, neutron scattering, and vibrational spectroscopy. Properties examined include density, molar volume, packing fraction, the glass transition temperature, and stiffness. In many studies, these are model glasses that are relatively easy to make across wide-compositional limits at relatively low temperatures, but they do suffer from hygroscopicity, which leads to degradation of borate glasses in the atmosphere.

Steve Feller

### 15. Chalcogenide Glasses

Chalcogenide glasses are vitreous materials based on sulfur, selenium or tellurium chemical elements. They exhibit unique optical properties such as broad infrared transparency, high quantum efficiency of rare-earth ions emission, and high nonlinear refractive indices. In this chapter, the most significant glass compositions and their related structural models are reviewed. In terms of physical properties, thermal and mechanical properties are presented, and a special emphasis is given to optical properties. Experimental techniques utilized for synthesizing chalcogenide glasses are explained, together with the fabrication and properties of optical components like complex infrared lenses, infrared optical fibers, including photonic crystal fibers, and planar channel waveguides. Some applications in the field of thermal imaging and optical sensing are detailed.

Xiang-Hua Zhang, Jean-Luc Adam, Bruno Bureau

### 16. Phosphate Glasses

This chapter is dedicated to the study of phosphate glasses, from their fundamental aspects to their most relevant applications today. $$\mathrm{P_{2}O_{5}}$$ P2O5 -based glasses have experienced a continuously increasing number of published works in the last decades and still they possess a bright potential. Their sometimes intricate structure has made their study a quite relevant field for the glass science community, which attracts more and more researchers. In addition, the associated difficulties in their preparation on a large scale have led to the development of specific methods, such as those used for the melting of Nd-laser glasses. They are particularly known to have a low chemical durability, though the progress in the optimization of their composition demonstrates that can be very competitive and, in this respect, we will also pay attention to the improvement of their properties as a result of their nitridation. The structure and main physicochemical properties of phosphate glasses will be reviewed, highlighting the most relevant and well-known applications existing nowadays, such as sealing and laser glasses, biomedical glasses, and solid electrolytes or for the storage of wastes.

Francisco Muñoz, Jean Rocherullé, Ifty Ahmed, Lili Hu

### 17. Halide Glasses

Halide glasses, formed from a basis of fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine, are interesting materials because their transparency range can span from the ultraviolet all the way into the infrared portion of the spectrum. Halides are, in general, conditional glass formers, and great experimental care must be taken in producing fully amorphous materials. In addition, because of their more ionic bonding, they exhibit much greater sensitivity to moisture than other glasses.In this chapter we will begin with a discussion of the differences between ionic and covalent bonding in glassy materials, which is a critical consideration in designing halide glass types, and also provides a strong foundation for understanding their physical and optical properties. Among the halide materials, the main focus in this chapter is the fluoride glasses, which offer the best forming ability and have been the most widely commercialized. The rare earth solubility of halides is discussed in depth, as the halides have historically found some of their greatest use in fiber laser applications.

Alexis G. Clare, Peter F. Wachtel, J. David Musgraves

### 18. Metallic Glasses

Many industrial applications require materials with remarkable and sometimes contradictory properties. Let us mention a few examples. In the field of biomaterials (dental implants), micromechanics (gears) or in the field of jewelry or watches (luxury watches), a need is felt very clearly: That of materials that are both hard, wear resistant, biocompatible, possess a high yield strength, while being deformable. However, such ‘‘ideal'' materials do not exist at present, and hence the numerous ongoing research being reported in this field. Polymers are easy to use and deformable but not mechanically resistant; ceramics are very hard but often brittle, metals can be deformable but they are, in this case, characterized by ordinary mechanical properties.It is well known that metallic glasses have a great potential for industrial applications. In general, metallic glasses possess high strength, high elastic limits, excellent corrosion resistance, and thermoplastic formability compared to crystalline materials. This combination of structural and functional properties makes them potential candidates for applications where the use of conventional materials has reached a limit of effectiveness.This chapter addresses the history of bulk metallic glasses, their thermal stability, and their most attractive properties. Some examples of industrial applications are given.

Jean-Marc Pelletier, Jichao Qiao

### 19. Amorphous Selenium and Nanostructures

This chapter reviews studies of amorphous, glassy, and nanostructured Se, focusing on their atomic structures, physical properties, light-induced phenomena, and recent photoconductive applications. Among the group VIb (16) elements, Se forms a monatomic glassmonatomic glass having two-fold covalent and van der Waals bonds that possesses a bandgap of $$\approx{}{\mathrm{2}}\,{\mathrm{eV}}$$ ≈2eV , in contrast to $$\mathrm{SiO_{2}}$$ SiO2 , which has three-dimensional networks consisting of fairly ionic Si-O bonds and a wide bandgap ( $$\approx{}{\mathrm{10}}\,{\mathrm{eV}}$$ ≈10eV ). The dualistic bonding structure of Se causes a low glass-transition temperature ( $$\approx{}{\mathrm{310}}\,{\mathrm{K}}$$ ≈310K ), the narrow gap provides photoconductive responses covering visible wavelengths, and the heavy atomic mass of 79 can afford high x-ray sensitivity. In addition, the one-dimensional atomic structure becomes a framework of needle-like and single-chain nanostructures.

Keiji Tanaka

### 20. Spin and Ferroic Glasses

Spin glasses are a broad class of magnetic materials that exhibit varying degrees of disorder and magnetic frustrationfrustration, resulting in characteristic glassy relaxationrelaxation behavior including frequency-dependent susceptibility, agingaging, and memory. Ferroic glasses include spin glasses and also relaxor ferroelectrics and strain glasses, which exhibit glassy dynamics in polarization and strain respectively, in similar ways to spin glasses. This chapter introduces ferroic and spin glasses, their phenomenological classification, and some parallels with structural (amorphous) glasses. A brief theoretical treatment is given, including modeling of the relaxation phenomena in ferroic glasses. Strain glasses and relaxors are discussed, followed by a detailed taxonomy of spin glasses and comparison with collectively behaving particle systems and structurally amorphous magnetic materials. Finally, some characteristic experimental methods are discussed, and an outlook for the future involvement of glass scientists in the study of spin glasses is offered.

John S. McCloy

### 21. Hybrid Glasses: From Metal Organic Frameworks and Co-ordination Polymers to Hybrid Organic Inorganic Perovskites

In this review, we introduce the structural variety of glasses derived from metal organic frameworks, coordination polymers, and hybrid perovskites, in each case stressing the atomic building blocks from which non-crystalline networks are assembled. We describe many ways of producing hybrid glasses, which, irrespective of their novelty, call on an interestingly wide variety of glass-forming methods, from standard melt-quenching to thermal and pressure induced amorphization and ball milling. These raise issues currently fundamental to glass science, not least the ubiquitous influence of mechanical stability on melting, temperature and pressure-induced amorphization, and glass-forming ability. Characterizing hybrid glasses calls on the full range of techniques available, ranging from pair distribution function analysis, neutron and synchrotron radiation methods, differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, to atomistic computer simulation. By considering the different groups of organic–inorganic glass formers together, we are able to throw light on the role of crystalline compressibility on the reversibility of amorphization and on the demarcation between the brittleness and ductility of melt-quenched glasses. Furthermore, in looking at the structural and dynamic properties of hybrid glasses formed from hybrid zeolitic frameworks to perovskites, and the liquids they are condensed from, we anticipate how compositions can be extended and ways in which the physics of this exciting new branch of glass science can be further developed.

G. Neville Greaves

### 22. Natural Glasses

Natural glasses have been used since prehistoric times and are strongly linked to human evolution. On Earth, glasses are typically produced by rapid cooling of melts, and as in the case of minerals and rocks, natural glasses can provide key information on the evolution of the Earth. However, we are aware that natural glasses are products that are not solely terrestrial and that the formation mechanisms give rise to a variety of natural amorphous materials. On the Earth's surface, glasses are scarce compared to other terrestrial bodies (i. e., the Moon), since the conditions on the surface give rise to devitrification or weathering. In order to provide an exhaustive overview, we shall classify natural glasses based on the mechanisms by which they were formed: temperature related, temperature–pressure related, temperature–pressure–volatile related, and others.In this chapter, we will review the most common natural glasses and their technological applications and also the scientific and technological advancements achieved from the study of these natural amorphous materials. Finally, we will provide some insights into the structure and properties of natural glasses and melts.naturalamorphous materialglasspropertyglassstructuredevitrificationobsidianbasaltic glass

Maria Rita Cicconi, Daniel R. Neuville

### 23. Bioactive Glasses

This chapter summarizes the development of bioactive glasses as implant materials designed to interfacially bond with bone tissue as components of tissue engineering devices that activate and guide the healing and regeneration of damaged or diseased soft and hard tissue. The main ideas and findings of the almost $${\mathrm{50}}\,{\mathrm{year}}$$ 50year history of bioactive glasses are discussed, with the main emphasis on the melt-derived silicate-based glasses in clinical use today. In addition, sol–gel glasses and also phosphate and borate glass compositions are introduced. The goal is to cover some fundamental concepts to be taken into account in the development of products consisting of bioactive glasses: 1. Their characterization in vivo and in vitro 2. Clinical experiences and physical properties to be taken into account in the fabrication of the end products 3. In particular, bioactive glass-based scaffolds for tissue engineering. The development of bioactive glasses will be discussed from the materials science point of view. However, one important goal is to explain the various requirements of bioactive glasses due to their special application areas—implantation inside or in contact with the human body.

Leena Hupa, Xiaoju Wang, Siamak Eqtesadi

### 24. Thermal Analysis of Glass

This chapter explores the use of thermal analysis in the characterization of glassy materials. Common characterization methods are described as well as a basic overview of the techniques mentioned. Differential scanning calorimetry, thermomechanical analysis, and measurement of glass viscosity are among the primary topics covered. The inner workings of each of the instruments in question is touched upon, along with general calibration procedures and best practices for measurement. Where appropriate, basic material science principles are used to improve the readers' understanding of the reason for a measurement or particular method. While outlining the most important instruments in the thermal analysis of glasses, key glass properties such as glass transition temperature, crystallization temperature, melting temperature, and softening point are explained. Finally, a discussion of glass viscosity necessary for an understanding of the most common viscosity measurement instruments and methods is included.

Erick Koontz

### 25. Optical Spectroscopy of Glass

Optical spectroscopic methods offer an important means to investigate glass structure and its associated dynamics. Moreover, they provide a set of powerful tools to evaluate material optical performance for a broad range of applications. Successful use of optical spectroscopy requires an understanding of intrinsic phenomena associated with the interaction of light with matter, of concerns surrounding measurement tools and techniques, and of data analysis and interpretation. While not intended to be an exhaustive examination of all techniques and phenomena, the present work seeks to highlight concepts of significant interest to the study of solid-state material atomic and electronic structure, and associated optical spectroscopic properties, in the context of the study and application of glass.

Barrett G. Potter Jr.

### 26. Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy of Glasses

Terahertz-time domain spectroscopy (terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS)) uses the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric and optical constants for glass characterization over a wide frequency range in the electromagnetic spectrum. This chapter provides an overview and analysis of various THz spectrometers and typical data sets over $$0.1{-}10\,{\mathrm{THz}}$$ 0.1-10THz . Phonon modes in THz region and Lunkenheimer–Loidl plots for disordered materials along with density-functional based tight-binding (density-functional based tight binding (DFTB)) modeling results for $$\mathrm{As_{2}S_{3}}$$ As2S3 are described. THz optical and dielectric properties of selected model glass systems, e. g., silica, alkali borate, and silicates, based on works reported in the literature, are discussed. Mixed-alkali effects and thermal stability in terms of THz properties of simple tellurite glass composition, $$\mathrm{80TeO_{2}}$$ 80TeO2 - $$\mathrm{10WO_{3}}$$ 10WO3 -( $$10{-}x$$ 10-x ) $$\mathrm{Li_{2}O}$$ Li2O - $$\mathrm{\mathit{x}Na_{2}O}$$ xNa2O with $$x=$$ x= 0, 2, 4, and 6, are reported. Chalcogenide (As-S) glasses show that the refractive indices in THz, infrared, and visible frequencies decrease with arsenic composition up to a point of optimal constrained structure with average coordination number, $$\langle r\rangle$$ ⟨r⟩ , beyond which the refractive index increases. Our results in hydroxyapatite ( $$\mathrm{Ca_{10}(PO_{4})_{6}}$$ Ca10(PO4)6 $$\cdot$$ ⋅ $$\mathrm{(OH)_{2}}$$ (OH)2 ; HA)-glass (0.05CaO- $$\mathrm{0.12TiO_{2}}$$ 0.12TiO2 - $$\mathrm{0.17Na_{2}O}$$ 0.17Na2O -0.28ZnO- $$\mathrm{0.38SiO_{2}}$$ 0.38SiO2 ) composites demonstrate that the THz-TDS can be a promising non-destructive tool for evaluating these composites and tracking their degradation in simulated body fluids in biological applications.

S. K. Sundaram

### 27. Electron and Ion Beam Characterization of Glass

Scientists and engineers have available to them powerful qualitative and quantitative analytical techniques for the analysis of materials. Specifically, ion and electron beam instrumentation can deliver a wealth of information about a material like glass, provided that the limitations of the measurements for insulators and materials without long-range atomic order are well understood. This chapter brings together expertise from the fields of geology and mineralogy, semiconductors, and glass science to provide an overview of how ion and electron beams interact with glass materials. All these disciplines require accurate analytical techniques, and an incomplete understanding of interactions, interferences, and calibration can lead to inaccurate conclusions. The aim is to encourage the reader to be aware of the scientific principles and constraints of the instrumentation in the analysis of glass materials, and to be vigilant in interpreting the results.

Jennifer McKinley

### 28. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Studies of Glass

Nuclear magnetic resonance and electron paramagnetic resonance (nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) respectively) are powerful experimental probes of the atomic-scale structure of glass. This chapter provides a practical introduction to the current state of the art of these methods in glass research, and is intended to provide researchers with the basic knowledge needed to apply and interpret the results of these methods. Topics covered include the basic physics of spin resonance experiments, necessary instrumentation and sample considerations, representative experimental results, and methods of interpretation.

Josef W. Zwanziger, Ulrike Werner-Zwanziger, Courtney Calahoo, Alexander L. Paterson

### 29. Refractive Index of Optical Materials

This chapter deals with the use of methods for measuring the refractive index of optical materials. It contains five sections:The first section recalls some bases of the electromagnetic theory of light leading to the main characteristics of the index of refraction, and their consequences in geometrical optics (Snell–Descartes laws), in the spectral transmission and absorption of optical media, or the polarization of light beams at interfaces between optical media.The second section describes the more or less classical panel of methods that have been devised to measure refractive indices of bulk materials: these are essentially based upon either the refraction or reflection of light inside prisms (minimum deviation angle, Littrow methods,…) polarizing properties of optical boundaries (ellipsometric, Brewster configurations).While the previous section consists of refractive index characterization at a given temperature, the third section is dedicated to the dependence of the refractive index upon the temperature: the normalized thermo-optic coefficient (NTOC) is defined here and an experimental set-up specially designed for this purpose by one of the authors is described in detail.The last section is concerned with the fact that most optical components are thin film coated in order to improve their performance in transmission, reflection or absorption. Since spectrophotometry is extensively used to characterize these coatings, the operating principle of spectrophotometers is recalled, as well as the main parameters of these deposited films that one can expect to extract by using this technology from spectrophotometric measurements. Various spectrophotometric procedures are described to determine the optical constants of optical ‘‘systems'' (bulk and thin film compounds) in the case of homogeneous or inhomogeneous films, slightly absorbing or not.

Jean-Louis Meyzonnette, Jacques Mangin, Michel Cathelinaud

### 30. Neutron and X-Ray Diffraction of Glass

A basic characterization of amorphous materials is usually obtained using diffraction measurements. Indeed, amorphicity is revealed by the absence of sharp Bragg peaks in the angular diffraction pattern, signaling the lack of long-range order and periodicity. However, diffraction patterns obtained by scattering from x-rays, electrons or neutrons contain much more structural information, often overlooked, about the atomic organization of disordered materials. X-ray and neutron diffraction are pioneering tools to get information on the atomic arrangements of noncrystalline materials, alongside the older x-ray diffraction investigations [30.1, 30.2, 30.3], which are still routinely used as structural experimental techniques.The success of diffraction methods is partly due to the fact that they give the most direct access to the atomic structure (in particular interatomic distances and coordination numbers), and diffraction data can be easily compared to simulations, which is widely used to validate interatomic potentials in molecular dynamics. Another advantage of this technique is that it probes both the short- and intermediate-range order, being very sensitive to the nature and extent of disorder in glasses and liquids, and is an essential probe to understand the structural differences between glasses and their crystalline counterparts. Finally, various environments have been developed, allowing high temperature and/or high pressure measurements to be carried out.

Laurent Cormier

### 31. First-Principles Calculation

This chapter describes the application of first-principles calculation to investigate the structure and properties of different classes of glasses. These include insulating glasses, three types of metallic glasses, and an example of an amorphous metal–organic framework as an emerging hybrid organic glass. First-principles calculation differs from the more popular molecular dynamics simulation and can provide more in-depth information on interatomic interactions. In many highly complex multicomponent glass systems, ab initio calculation may be the only viable method for realistic modeling. Here it is demonstrated that first-principles calculation is best accomplished by a combination of methods with different strengths and advantages. We introduce the novel concept of using total bond order density as a single quantum mechanical metric to assess the strength and cohesion in different types of glasses by providing some provocative examples of the limitations and inadequacy in current theory for structure characterization of glasses. The chapter also highlights some urgent areas in glass research where first-principles calculations could play a more critical role.

Wai-Yim Ching

### 32. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Oxide Glasses

Molecular dynamics (molecular dynamics (MD)), one of the most important atomistic computer simulation methods, and its applications in glass simulations is introduced in this chapter. Essential ingredients of MD simulations such as empirical potentials, thermodynamic ensembles, integration algorithms, and procedures for glass structure generation, as well as structure analysis and property calculations, are covered. MD simulations of silicate-based glasses including silica glass, sodium silicate, soda lime silicate and sodium aluminosilicate glasses, silica glass/water interfaces are given as examples. Issues such as validation of simulated structure models, empirical potential development, and extending time and length scale of simulations are discussed. The chapter concludes with an outlook on future directions of MD simulations of glasses.

Jincheng Du

### 33. Machine Learning for Glass Modeling

With abundant composition-dependent glass properties data of good quality, machine learning-based models can enable the development of glass compositions with desired properties such as liquidus temperature, viscosity, and Young's modulus using much fewer experiments than would otherwise be needed in a purely experimental exploratory research. In particular, research companies with long track records of exploratory research are in the unique position to capitalize on data-driven models by compiling their earlier internal experiments for research and product development. In this chapter, we demonstrate how Corning has used this unique advantage to develop models based on neural networks and genetic algorithms to predict compositions that will yield a desired liquidus temperature as well as viscosity, Young's modulus, compressive stress, and depth of layer.

Adama Tandia, Mehmet C. Onbasli, John C. Mauro

### 34. Industrial Glass Processing and Fabrication

Glass is among the most widely produced materials in the world, with a global annual production of over 100 million tons [34.1, 34.2]. Due to its versatility, it can be found in a wide range of applications, from the ubiquitous windows, screens or bottles to more specialized usages such as glass for sealing applications. Most of the industrially produced glasses are prepared using similar steps, via melting of raw materials, homogenization of the melt, conditioning, shaping and cooling. Numerous postprocessing steps such as cutting or polishing can be applied.Depending on the type of glass prepared and the quantity produced, the processing and fabrication techniques employed may differ greatly from one type of glass to another. Since the first man-made glass articles, some millennia ago, the processing of glass has been constantly improving to produce better, cheaper products, while decreasing the energy demand and the environmental impact of the glass fabrication process.In this chapter, the basics of industrial glass production are described, from the selection of the raw materials to the delivery of a homogeneous glass melt to the forming process. The different types of furnaces employed for different types of production are described, and the importance of process and furnace modeling in modern glass making is highlighted.

Mathieu Hubert

### 35. Batch Chemistry and Reactions

In industrial glass productionindustrial glassproduction, a batch composed of a mix of raw materials is introduced in the furnace at high temperatures, to be converted into a glass melt, which will then be shaped into the desired article. The batch-to-melt conversionbatch-to-melt conversion is a critical process, involving a sequence of reactions (dehydration, solid-state reactions, formation of primary melt phases, dissolution of sand grains), the nature and rate of which depend on both thermodynamics and kinetics. Heat transfers to the batch are of major importance, as the rate of batch-to-melt conversion has a direct impact on the energy required for melting the glass, and therefore on the production costs. After the batch-to-melt conversion, the melt will contain a large amount of bubbles and dissolved gases, and a proper fining is required to obtain a product with good quality.In this chapter, the different reactions taking place during the batch-to-melt conversion and the fining of the melt are described. Specific attention is given to the heat transfer mechanisms, kinetics, and the silica (sand) grain dissolution mechanisms. The consequences of batch-to-melt and fining reactions in an industrial furnace (foaming, refractory corrosion) are also mentioned.

Oscar S. Verheijen, Mathieu Hubert

### 36. Glass Shaping

The possibility to shape glass easily and in all kind of forms for applications in our everyday life is one of the key factors to its success. The fabrication of a glass article comprises a succession of steps, often starting from a hot glass melt that is shaped during its cooling. The product can then be worked at lower temperatures, to modify its dimensions or its surface finish.In this chapter, the shaping processes at both high and low temperatures are presented. In a first part, the different forming processes (shaping at high temperature) developed by the glass industry are illustrated, and a specific emphasis is given to glass viscosity, a key parameter in these processes. In the second part of the chapter, the shaping processes occurring at low temperatures, such as cutting or grinding, are described. In this section, specific attention is given to the mechanical behavior of the glass during the process as well as to machining parameters.

Romain Laniel, Mathieu Hubert, Mathieu Miroir, Antoine Brient

### 37. Amorphous Thin Film Deposition

This chapter is devoted to the description of available experimental methods which are used for the fabrication of glassy and amorphous thin films or coatings on glass. Current deposition techniques offer great flexibility for the fabrication of such thin films with specific chemistry and microstructure leading to films and coatings with distinctive properties. After a brief introduction to amorphous thin films' processing, general information regarding film nucleation and growth, its microstructure and films' characterization techniques, the main focus is on physical vapor deposition techniques, with special emphasis on plasma processing techniques, i. e., sputter deposition and pulsed laser deposition. The classical vapor deposition techniques as well as ion plating and ion beam-assisted deposition are also briefly described. The chapter then describes the exploitation of chemical vapor deposition, after which a comparison of physical vapor deposition processes with chemical vapor deposition is given. Amorphous thin film fabrication via liquids is shortly reviewed, and finally an outlook regarding the contribution of amorphous thin films and coatings to societal development in the 21st century closes the chapter.

Virginie Nazabal, Petr Němec

### 38. Sol-Gel Glasses

Sol–gel processing is a nonmelting path to forming primarily silicate glasses. The most widely used precursors for the sol–gel process are metal alkoxides that undergo hydrolysis and condensation polymerization. Pure silica, binary compositions and multicomponent compositions are reacted to generate oxide polymers in the presence of water and alcohols. The oxide polymers grow and crosslink to produce a gel network at the sol–gel transition. After gelation, the solvents are removed, leaving behind a microporous skeleton that can be collapsed to a chemical and physical duplicate of a melted glass. The sol–gel process also refers to solution routes that involve soluble salts and colloidal routes that involve metastable suspensions of oxide nanoparticles. Combinations of alkoxides, salts and colloids are all considered sol–gel routes. The advantage of the sol–gel process, compared to melting and quenching, is that the process is carried out largely at room temperature. The low temperature makes the sol–gel process compatible with organic polymers, which enables formation of organic–inorganic hybrids. Also, when it is not necessary to remove the porosity, the sol–gel process is a means to form microporous and macroporous glasses.

Lisa C. Klein

### 39. Glass Recycling

The main objective of this chapter is to give the reader a general overview of glass recycling activity. Industrial and academic results are presented, which are useful to open new possibilities of economic activities using glass waste for environmental benefits for the society. The greatest answer to master the environmental effect of glass wastes is to reuse them. Recycling of these wastes principally from glass bottles and flat glasses will benefit in safeguarding the earth's natural resources, diminishing landfill places, and saving energy and money. With a number of TV sets and computers attaining their end-of-life, electronic production is also challenged with the main difficulty of dealing with used devices.

Ronan Lebullenger, François O. Mear

### 40. Laser Glasses

Bulk solid-state lasers (s)solid-statelaser (SSL) are a preferred class of lasers for high peak power and high average power generation due to their technological simplicity and economical power scaling. At the heart of a bulk SSL is a crystalline or amorphous material doped with transition metal ions or rare-earth elements. The focus of this chapter is a special subset of gain materials used for bulk solid-state laser emission, namely multicomponent glasses. A broad discussion on why glass is ideally suited for many laser applications along with methods used for assessing the many optical, thermal, mechanical and laser properties is presented. A detailed survey of spectroscopic methods used for the first-order approximation of laser performance from $$\mathrm{Er^{3+}}$$ Er3+ - and $$\mathrm{Nd^{3+}}$$ Nd3+ -doped glasses is given. A few critical considerations for high-quality laser glass and components manufacturing is given in the final sections.

Simi A. George, Joseph S. Hayden

### 41. Optical Fibers

Optical fibers are dielectric waveguides that transport light between two points. They are usually made of high-purity glasses. It is well known that light travels in a straight line in free space but when light is trapped in an optical fiber, it can propagate with bends and can carry information anywhere from a few meters to thousands of kilometers. This property of optical fibers has driven the fabrication of low-loss optical fibers for telecommunication applications. Nowadays, optical fibers are used in many other fields such as lasers, amplifiers, and sensing.This chapter is organized as follows: In the first part, fundamentals of light guiding in optical fibers will be given. In the second part, after a brief presentation of the fabrication process of optical fibers, some properties of optical fibers such as attenuation, dispersion, polarization effects, and nonlinearities will be presented. In the third part, some types of specialty optical fibers will be described, in particular rare-earth-doped fibers, photonic crystal fibers, nonsilica fibers, and fiber Bragg gratings. Finally, in the fourth part, a focus will be put on some usual applications of optical fibers, in particular for telecommunications, amplifiers, lasers, and sensing.

Thierry Chartier

### 42. Glass in Integrated Photonics

Integrated photonics, which generically refers to the technology of combining multiple optical components on a chip-scale platform to form a functional photonic circuit, is often hailed as the optical equivalent of electronic integrated circuits, which holds the potential to revolutionize communications, computing, sensing, and imaging. Similar to microelectronic integrated circuits, which assimilate more than half the Mendeleev periodic table into the manufacturing process, integrated photonics necessarily involves many classes of materials to enable different photonic functionalities essential to photonic circuit operation. Glassy materials, with their exceptional optical and structural properties, constitute critical building blocks in state-of-the-art integrated photonic systems. The progress in these materials will help diversify the choices of materials for novel devices and components and will, therefore, push forward the development of integrated photonics with advanced functionalities. This chapter addresses the key facets of glassy materials in the context of integrated photonics, including material characteristics and processing technologies with specific application examples based on different glass composition families.

Juejun Hu, Lan Yang

### 43. Amorphous Silicon in Microphotonics

Amorphous silicon (amorphoussilicon (a-Si)siliconamorphous (a-Si)) is an attractive high-refractive-index material for waveguide applications because of its flexible deposition conditions, which do not rely on the existence of crystalline silicon. However, a-Si can exhibit significant propagation losses due to unsaturated bonds in the silicon. Adding hydrogen will reduce those losses, but hydrogen itself can out-diffuse due to elevated processing temperatures. In this chapter, we describe the progress that has been made in the last 20 years with a-Si waveguides and related passive and active photonic devices. We review the basic mechanisms of loss in a-Si and solutions for reducing propagation losses to an acceptable level. We then discuss passive a-Si devices such as ring resonators and multimode interferometer (MMI) power splitters. In the last section, we focus on active devices that use a-Si-based waveguides.

### 44. Phase-Change Memory and Optical Data Storage

Phase-change memory is regarded as the most appealing of the nonvolatile memory technologies, with attractive properties including scalability, bit alterability, and fast write/erase and read performance. Over the past decade, the technology has experienced rapid growth. Well-known semiconductor manufacturers such as IBM, Infineon, Samsung, and Macronix have spared no effort in the push to commercialize this technology. At the same time, many novel phase-change materials have been developed, such as typical Ge-Sb-Te alloys, Zn-Sb-Te alloys, and ZnO- $$\mathrm{Sb_{2}Te_{3}}$$ Sb2Te3 nanocomposite.New techniques such as ultrafast calorimetry are continuously emerging to better understand the crystallization kinetics of supercooled liquids for phase-change materials. In addition, phase-change materials are ideal functional materials for use in integrated photonic memory, which provides a new paradigm in all-photonic memory.

Xiang Shen, Yimin Chen, Guoxiang Wang, Yegang Lv

### 45. Display Glass

Active matrix displays are rapidly making all other display technologies on the market obsolete. They are all around us, from the smart watches on our wrist, to the phones in our pocket, to the TVs in our homes and they provide us with information, entertainment, biometrics, and a connection to the world, all on a thin bright device. The array of thin film transistors in the backplane of all active matrix devices eliminates cross-talk between pixels, provides a larger dynamic range in brightness, and accelerates the response time of the display. Whether it be a liquid crystal display (liquid-crystal display (LCD)) or an organic light emitting diode (organiclight-emitting diode (OLED))-based display, an efficient and responsive active matrix of thin film transistors requires high mobility silicon, which requires high processing temperatures and precise patterning. This puts great demands on the glass substrate that the transistors and the entire display are built upon. The glass must be incredibly flat, smooth, and dimensionally stable at temperatures that would sag common window glass in a heap. This chapter will explore the amazing melting and forming technologies that have been developed to produce precision display glass sheets as well as the glass compositions that are the foundation for glass forming and device fabrication.

Matt Dejneka, T. J. Kiczenski

### 46. Scintillator Glasses

Glasses can be an attractive option for many scintillator applications, due to their unique properties. This chapter introduces the reader to scintillator glasses and examines the basic advantages and disadvantages of glasses in comparison to other scintillator materials. Considerations for the synthesis of optimized scintillator glasses are presented, with an emphasis on compositional effects, including the use of optically active dopants and enriched materials. Basic characterization of glasses is detailed with respect to the scintillation process. Applications for scintillator glasses as they relate to specific forms of ionizing radiation, including $$\upalpha$$ α and $$\upbeta$$ β particles, electron beams, x-ray and $$\upgamma$$ γ radiation, and neutrons, are discussed; the versatility of scintillator glasses is demonstrated by a number of diverse applications including radiation detection, radiography, scanning electron microscopy, and neutron diffraction. The chapter concludes with an outlook on the future of scintillator glasses.

Russell Lee Leonard, Jacqueline A. Johnson

### 47. Mid-Infrared Molecular Sensing

Mid-infrared (MIR)mid-infrared (mid-IR) sensing has wide applicability for detecting molecular solids, liquids, solutions and gases. This chapter reviews how guided waves in MIR-transmitting chalcogenide glass fibers, waveguides and resonators are showing promise for compact, portable and real-time molecular sensing with potential use across many sectors, such as in medicine, security, the environment, agriculture, pharmaceuticals and in manufacturing and chemical processing. New bright, MIR supercontinuum laser sources have been demonstrated both in chalcogenide glass fiber and on-chip for wideband MIR molecular sensing. Also, bright rare earth-doped chalcogenide glass fiber photoluminescence (photoluminescence (PL)) is being harnessed in PL-absorption narrow-band MIR molecular sensing. Many designs of chalcogenide glass sensor heads realized for evanescent field detection of molecules both in fiber and on-chip are described in this chapter. Also, processing of chalcogenide glasses pertinent to application in MIR molecular sensing devices is presented. The necessary background to MIR optical sensing is given, showing how it can be quantitative, of high contrast, fast and with high sensitivity and specificity. The data processing required to interpret MIR molecular sensing is briefly discussed.

Angela B. Seddon

### 48. Glass and Coatings on Glass for Solar Applications

In this chapter we discuss the crucial role that glass plays in the ever-expanding area of solar power generation, along with the evolution and various uses of glass and coated glass for solar applications. We begin with a discussion of glass requirements, specifically composition, that enable increased solar energy transmission, which is critical for solar applications. Next we discuss anti-reflective surface treatments of glass for further enhancement of solar energy transmission, primarily for crystalline silicon photovoltaics. We then turn to glass and coated glass applications for thin-film photovoltaics, specifically transparent conductive coatings and the advantages of highly resistive transparent layers. Finally, we discuss the use of coated glasses as mirrors for concentrated solar power applications. We also discuss various fundamental and manufacturing challenges for glass and coatings on glass in solar applications.

Ashtosh Ganjoo, James McCamy, Adam Polcyn, Zhixun Ma, Paul A. Medwick

### 49. Glass for Thermoelectric Applications

Thermoelectric materials, which are characterized by their figure of merit $$zT$$ zT , are able to convert heat into electricity and inversely, they can produce a heat gradient from a potential gradient. In this chapter, chalcogenide glasses that exhibit low glass transition temperature ( $$T_{\mathrm{g}}$$ Tg ) as well as very low thermal conductivity are envisaged as potential thermoelectric materials for room temperature applications up to $${\mathrm{100}}\,{\mathrm{{}^{\circ}\mathrm{C}}}$$ 100∘C . Even if they do not compete with their crystalline counterparts, such as $$\mathrm{Bi_{2}Te_{3}}$$ Bi2Te3 , in this range of temperature (mainly because of their high resistivity) some strategies are proved to be efficient to increase the $$zT$$ zT value of these materials. For example, adding a metallic element (Cu), partially crystallizing the glassy matrix or considering composite materials are ways to reach this goal.

António Pereira Gonçalves, Elsa Branco Lopes, Gaëlle Delaizir

### 50. Glasses and Glass-Ceramics for Solid-State Battery Applications

This chapter reviews investigations carried out in the last decades to synthesize and characterize ion conducting glasses and glass-ceramics and further use them as solid electrolytes in all-solid-state batteries.First, the focus is put on materials, either $$\mathrm{Li^{+}}$$ Li+ , $$\mathrm{Na^{+}}$$ Na+ or $$\mathrm{Ag^{+}}$$ Ag+ conducting ones, with the most striking points being the discovery of ion conducting chalcogenide glasses in the 1980s, the elaboration of fast ion conducting glass-ceramics with the introduction of mechanical alloying techniques in the 1990s, and more recently the renewed interest in $$\mathrm{Na^{+}}$$ Na+ conducting glasses and glass-ceramics.The second part of the chapter focuses on the development of all-solid-state batteries, Li-ion and Li $$/$$ / S batteries and to a lesser extent $$\mathrm{Na^{+}}$$ Na+ and $$\mathrm{Ag^{+}}$$ Ag+ -ion batteries. It is shown that the performance of the batteries relies on the development of optimized composite electrodes comprising the electrolyte, an active material and a conductive additive. The review sheds light on the key parameters that have to be considered, including the choice of compositions of active material and conductive additive, coating of electrode by the electrolyte, coating of the electrolyte, ratio of the components, homogenization of the mixture and compaction of the powders.

Virginie Viallet, Vincent Seznec, Akitoshi Hayashi, Masahiro Tatsumisago, Annie Pradel

### 51. Art Glasses

In the popular imagination, the art of glass remains primarily tied to prestigious places such as Venice and Bohemia, to the qualities of materials like crystal, to eras and to specific movements, for example, Art Nouveau and Art Deco. At the same time, the glass is too often reduced to a certain category of product, table service or lamps, that is to say, objects for everyday use distant from the solemnity and the value of a work of art. If this vision is not entirely false, it remains desperately simplistic and does not reflect the diversity and complexity of the glass creation. Since the nineteenth century, diverse and brilliant personalities, such as Émile Gallé, Gunnel Nyman, Toots Zynsky or Stanislav Libenský, have produced glass art works in which the aesthetics vie with technical excellence.

Christophe Bardin

### 52. Architectural Glass

This chapter on architectural glass focuses on the use of glass in buildings and structures. It covers a wide variety of glass applications ranging from its most frequent use in facade glazing systems to advanced applications of glass as a load-bearing material. The latter is a relatively young field of application and evolved from the early 1990s from simple beam applications to today's all-glass structures. An overview of flat glass products that are frequently applied in architecture is provided in Sect. 52.1. This includes a discussion of the related float glass production process, processing technologies, surface treatments, and glass functionalities such as insulation and fire resistant and switchable glazing. In addition to these flat glass products, which are most commonly applied in architecture, Sect. 52.2 discusses cast glass products. Cast glass products such as glass channels and glass blocks provide a different typology and offer a different architectural expression from flat glass products and are as such frequently used in exterior facades and interior separation walls. The application of glass in common facade systems and as a load-bearing material in structures is discussed in Sect. 52.3. This includes a reflection on the related design methodologies and safety concepts that deal with the brittle and, thus, inherently unsafe failure behavior of glass. Section 52.4 describes different typologies for connecting glass components such as glass facade panels or structural glass beams. This includes a discussion of classical mechanical connections and more recent adhesive bonding technologies that provide new opportunities for glass engineering. Section 52.5 discusses numerical modeling procedures that can be used in the design and engineering of glass in the architectural domain. Finally, an outlook for future developments in architectural glass is provided in Sect. 52.6.

Jan Belis, Christian Louter, Jens H. Nielsen, Jens Schneider