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About this book

This comprehensive Springer Handbook covers all major areas encompassed by the broad field of mechanical engineering. This second, substantially updated edition with many new chapters provides easily accessible but authoritative information in a clear structure.

The book starts with concise chapters that cover the most important fundamentals of mathematics, mechanics and thermodynamics needed specifically in the engineering disciplines. It then provides a holistic description of the most relevant materials in engineering, including a discussion of mechanical and physical properties on the microscopic as well as the macroscopic scale. Additional chapters put special emphasis on corrosion, tribology and inspection. Manufacturing techniques and machining processes, from traditional casting and forming to state-of-the-art precision machining on the microscopic scale are also extensively covered. An extra chapter focuses on quality control. Contents continue with in depth descriptions of machine and system design, from machine elements over engineering design for piston machines, pressure vessels, heat exchangers, turbomachinery and construction machines. A completely new part is dedicated to the various areas of industries in mobility on ground, air and water. A brief outlook into related fields of electrical engineering and power generation provides an ideal starting point for the practitioner venturing in these areas. The book concludes with an annex summarizing important key data for practical reference in the day-to-day work of an engineer.

Written by distinguished experts from industry and academia, this comprehensive Springer Handbook provides authoritative and state-of-the-art information of international validity for the professional engineer and those to be.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Fundamentals

Frontmatter

1. Introduction to Mathematics

Abstract
This chapter presents mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental for the study of problems in mechanical engineering. Precisely formulating a mathematical model of the problem at hand, using appropriate methods and techniques to solve the mathematical problem, and, finally, interpreting the solution to the real life problem are some of the important components of the process of solving problems in any engineering field. The topics covered here include linear algebra, differential equations, the Laplace transform, Fourier analysis, and complex analysis. These basic concepts essentially act as tools that facilitate the understanding of many techniques involved in different branches of mechanical engineering.
Gnana Bhaskar Tenali

2. Mechanics

Abstract
Engineering mechanics is the study of forces and their effects on the objects to which they are applied. This chapter presents the fundamentals of the study of mechanics in the two categories of static mechanics, (or simply statics) and dynamic mechanics. The first section deals with statics and addresses stationary objects. Statics is based on a reduction of Newton's second law (F  =  ma) and the equivalent equation describing rotational motion for the special case where the accelerations are zero. This results in the equations of equilibrium, which state that the vector sum of all forces and moments acting on a static body must be zero. Equations of static equilibrium can be used to find, for example, forces generated by supports that constrain a body against externally applied loads. Principles of statics are also used to understand the internal forces in the material comprising a structure under load. Understanding these forces is fundamental to the design of structures to avoid material failure. The second section is devoted to dynamic mechanics which is concerned with the motion of bodies. It is divided into two parts, kinematics and dynamics (also called kinetics). Kinematics is the study of motion without consideration of the forces and moments that produce the motion. Relationships between displacement, velocity, and acceleration are part of the study of kinematics. Dynamics relates the motion of bodies to the action of applied forces and moments, and thus is fundamental to many engineering problems.
David C. Fleming, Hen-Geul Yeh, Hsien-Yang Yeh, Shouwen Yu

3. Thermodynamics

Abstract
This chapter presents the basic definitions, laws, and relationships concerning the thermodynamic states of substances and thermodynamic processes. It closes with a section describing heat transfer mechanisms.
Peter Stephan, Frank Dammel, Jay M. Ochterbeck

Materials

Frontmatter

4. Atomic Structure and Microstructure Characterization

Abstract
This chapter is structured into two main parts. Part 1 describes the fundamentals of the atomic (ideal) structure and (real) microstructure arrangement of solid matter. The way in which (metallic) materials are generated from the melt and the resulting phase diagrams for common binary systems are elucidated in the first part of this chapter (Sect. 4.1). In order to understand materials properties, microstructural characterization has to be carried out on various length scales. Therefore, in the second part (Sect. 4.2), the most common preparation steps for microscopy methods used in materialography are given. Next, basic micromethods for the investigation of the local chemical composition and local crystalline structure are outlined. This includes methodologies for the quantification of the complex microstructures in engineering materials.
Jens Freudenberger, Martin Heilmaier, Ulrich Wendt

5. Mechanical Properties

Abstract
This chapter is structured into two main parts. Section 5.1 provides an overview of the most common methods for mechanical testing of materials. In this section, the different available and standardized methods are further subdivided into quasistatic and dynamic testing methods. The former include, e. g., tensile and hardness testing, while the latter focus on impact and cyclic testing, including linear elastic fracture mechanics. Section 5.2 introduces the most common electrical (Sect. 5.2.1) and thermal (Sect. 5.2.2) physical properties for all material classes relevant for mechanical engineering applications.
Vivek Srivastava, Martin Heilmaier

6. Corrosion and Corrosion Resistance

Abstract
The chapter starts with a brief introduction about corrosion, which is defined as the interdependency between a metal, a corrosive environment, and the respective component design. The second section introduces the most important forms of aqueous electrochemical corrosion (uniform corrosion, galvanic corrosion, selective and intergranular corrosion, and finally pitting and crevice corrosion in the case of passive layer forming metals). In addition, electrochemical corrosion under applied mechanical load is introduced (stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen-assisted cracking, corrosion fatigue), as well as special forms of corrosion (erosion, fretting, and microbiologically induced corrosion). The third section of this chapter introduces (mostly dry) chemical corrosion and high-temperature corrosion (oxidation, carburization, high-temperature hydrogen attack, sulfurization, nitriding, halogenation). As in the case of electrochemical corrosion, chemical corrosion can also be superimposed by mechanical loads. Finally, general facts on the testing of corrosion are introduced.
Thomas Böllinghaus, Michael Rhode, Thora Falkenreck

7. Nondestructive Inspection (NDI)

Abstract
This chapter discusses various nondestructive inspection () methods. Nondestructive inspection includes all methods to characterize a material without indenting, extracting samples, reducing its service capabilities or destroying it. The following chapter describes principles of NDI. Subsequently, NDI methods will be classified into seven categories namely, acoustic, potential drop, magnetic, electromagnetic, thermography, optical, and radiation methods. Each category may involve several methods where all will be discussed. For each method presented in this chapter, principles, setup and probes, nondestructive testing (), nondestructive evaluation () and current scope are discussed. Last but not least, the chapter presents NDI methods that rely on integrated sensors in the inspected structure itself, known as structural health monitoring ().
Gerhard Mook, Islam Shyha

8. Engineering Materials and Their Properties

Abstract
Because engineering materials must cover a wide range of very different properties, a great number of such materials are necessary to address all technical applications. The main classes of engineering materials are dealt with in this chapter: metals and their alloys, polymeric materials, ceramics, glasses, and composites. The specific composition, the manufacturing processes leading to specific constituents/phases and structures, and the resulting properties are outlined for iron and its alloys, for some light metals, and for alloys based on nickel, cobalt, and copper. Great space is dedicated to iron alloys, because they offer the widest range of properties and thus applications in mechanical engineering based on one metal, such as construction steel, automobile sheet steel, cutting tools, and silverware, to name but a few examples. The fine-tuning of properties using heat and mechanical treatments is outlined. A special field of modification is the chemical alteration of surfaces to increase the carbon concentration, leading to different properties of the core and surface of parts.
Polymeric materials with carbon as the main component can be distinguished into thermoplastics, elastomers, and duromers, depending on their mechanical and thermal properties. The most widely used polymers are described. Special attention is paid to the interaction of polymeric materials with solvents and mineral oils. Glasses and ceramics are included as examples of nonmetallic inorganic materials. Composites combine the properties of two or more materials, opening important applications based on their mechanical properties and density.
Ulrich Wendt

9. Tribology

Abstract
The main subjects of this chapter are the tribological system, friction, wear and lubrication. Regarding the tribological system essential information on structure, real contact geometry, tribological loads, operating and loss variables are provided. Concerning friction, the different friction types, states and mechanisms are discussed. In the sections on wear a lot of details on types and mechanisms of wear, wear profiles and the determination of wear and the average lifetime are introduced. The sections on lubrication contain relevant expositions on the lubrication states, like hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, hydrostatic, mixed and boundary lubrication and lubrication with solid lubricants. Lubricants like mineral, synthetic and biodegradable oils and additives, lubricating greases and solid lubricants are also considered, as are the properties of lubricants, like the dependence of oil viscosity on temperature, pressure and shear rate, and the consistency of lubricating greases.
Ludger Deters, Dirk Bartel

Manufacturing

Frontmatter

10. Casting

Abstract
Primary shaping, by definition the production of a solid body from formless material while creating a material cohesion, forms one of the six main groups of production technology according to DIN 8580. It is upstream of all other production processes and creates the precondition for their application. In addition to state-of-the-art manufacturing technologies, such as additive manufacturing, classical casting is still the main application of primary shaping processes. In particular, the casting of metals has a long history of development that goes back to the beginnings of human metallurgical activity. Over time, castings often have been and continue to be decisive for the cultural, technological and economic progress of mankind. Although it has been used for more than 5000 years, the casting process, which has been continuously developed through continuous innovation, is still of central importance within the most modern production processes. Last but not least, a wide variety of casting processes as well as casting materials offer unique conditions for manufacturing high-quality components in a very economical manner. The extraordinary range of applications for cast components extends from one-off production in the arts and crafts sector to highly stressed components for the aerospace industry and up to millionfold mass production in the automotive industry. The following chapter gives an overview of common casting materials and the special features of individual variants of these fascinating manufacturing processes.
Klaus Herfurth, Stefan Scharf

11. Metal Forming

Abstract
Metal forming processes do not only shape workpieces but also set their properties over the whole volume including the surface. They improve the physical properties such as mechanical, electrical, acoustical, etc. of workpieces and hence increase their capabilities in service. Besides the hardness, ductility, residual stresses also the ductile damage level of the formed components can be controlled during forming. Formed metallic components have low imbedded energy per mass thanks the minimal or even none scrap. Hence, metal forming is among the most environmentally friendly manufacturing processes. This chapter starts with an overview of various processes of metal forming. There are over 250 different forming processes and every year new ones are invented showing the vitality of the technology. The metallurgical fundamentals relevant for metal forming processes are described next covering the mechanisms of plastic deformation, strain hardening and heat treatment. The basic concepts of elementary plasticity including the true stress, true strain, flow stress, flow condition and flow rules are followed by simple analytical methods necessary to understand the process mechanics effectively. The technological processes are covered in two groups: Bulk and sheet forming processes. Upsetting, forging, cold extrusion, rolling and shear forming is discussed in detail as bulk forming representatives. Emphasis is placed on the process description, process windows, stress states in the forming region and force displacement curves. Where necessary, tools are included as well. An introduction to sheet metal forming is given through the analytical models (such as membrane theory) and the material characterization for formability. Bending as a basic sheet forming process is studied in detail. This is followed by stretch- and deep drawing processes including hydroforming. The chapter concludes with a summary of typical forming machines including energy-, force- and displacement-controlled machines.
A. Erman Tekkaya

12. Machining Processes

Abstract
In this handbook, machining processes are seen in the first place as material removal processes. Any surplus material is removed from a solid object (workpiece) either in the form of small pieces (e. g., chips) or by chipless processes based on e. g., evaporation. To achieve this kind of material removal different tools are mandatory, thus generating surfaces by relative motions between the workpiece and tool provided by the respective machine tool. The following chapter is structured in three major subgroups:
Cutting with geometrically well-defined tool edges
These processes are widely used for material removal in any kind of industrial application. The most prominent processes are turning, drilling, and milling, but also less prominent processes like planning and shaping, broaching, and sawing will be discussed.
Cutting with geometrically undefined tool edges
The tools of this group of processes cannot be described with simple geometrical quantities, because they consist of thousands of small abrasive grains in a bonded structure or as loose grains, but they still generate chips during material removal. The most prominent processes are grinding, honing, lapping, and jet-based applications.
Nonconventional machining (chipless) processes
In chipless machining material, particles are removed from a solid object by nonmechanical means, i. e., by electrical discharges, electrochemical machining, or high-energy beams (laser or electron beams).
Bernhard Karpuschewski, Gerry Byrne, Berend Denkena, João Oliveira, Anatoly Vereschaka

13. Precision Machinery Using MEMS Technology

Abstract
Some examples of optical microelectromechanical systems are presented with their fabrication processes. The MEMS-specific driving and display principles and experimental evaluations are also shown. Two types of electrostatic-driven optical MEMS devices: An interferometric display device and an evanescent coupling switching device are shown, in which no liquid crystal or organic electroluminescence materials are required except for a silicon dioxide film with conductive layers.
The interferometric display device consists of a Si reflection mirror at the bottom of an etch pit. On the pit, a SiO2 film with a metal layer is suspended by two folded leaf springs at both sides, which works as both a half mirror of an interferometer and electrode for positioning. Applying a high voltage between the pit and the half mirror, an electrostatic force acts on two electrodes generating an attractive force to the half mirror. Therefore, the half mirror is drawn to the bottom balancing the repellent force from the leaf springs, which means the distance between the half mirror and the bottom can be controlled by the voltage. Thus, various colors can be generated at the micropit of the interferometer, enabling a microcolor display device. The fabrication process based on the conventional MEMS technology is also described, in which anisotropic etching of the Si is the key technology for forming the flat etch pit of the interferometer.
Another device is based on the evanescent switching between two SiO2 films. A cantilever,working as a display pixel and an optical pickup from the substrate, is fabricated on an optical waveguide sheet with a separator. The cantilever has a transparent electrode film and it can be attracted and touch down on the substrate when a high voltage is applied between the substrate and the cantilever. Because of the surface roughness of the substrate and cantilever, the two cannot contact perfectly; however, fairly close contact within optical wavelengths can be realized. Therefore, the evanescent light generated by the waveguide sheet can be transferred to the cantilever, resulting in light emission on the cantilever surface as long as it has a high enough roughness for light scattering. The fabrication process using MEMS technology and evaluation of the device are described.
Takeshi Hatsuzawa

14. Measuring and Quality Control

Abstract
Considering the incessantly increasing requirements on the quality of products and processes, it is necessary to ensure a quality-orientated management in all departments of any type of company and the advantageous application of manufacturing measurement equipment.
In addition to diverse technical requirements, the requirements of national, international, and company-specific norms must also be considered. Companies must not only fulfill the requirements of quality but also those pertaining to safety, the environment, and the economy.
In the following, some aspects of manufacturing measurement technology and quality management and their integration into a manufacturing process will be introduced.
Starting with manufacturing geometrical conditions and statements on drawings (nominal state and geometrical limits) the use of measurement equipment and gages to the evaluation of geometric elements will be described. Basic knowledge of measurement standards, measurement uncertainties as well as calibration and testing of measuring instruments are presented. Based on the physical principles, the equipment and methods for the registration of measurement values, form and position deviations, and surface characteristics will be introduced.
Steffen Wengler, Lutz Wisweh, Shuichi Sakamoto, Norge I. Coello Machado

Machine and Systems Design

Frontmatter

15. Machine Elements

Abstract
Machine elements are components with the same or similar form that are very frequently found in machines, plants, and apparatus. They can be simple elements, such as washers or keys, or more complex components such as shafts, rolling bearings, or gears. The essential functional properties of the elements are mostly defined in corresponding standards. In general, guidelines and calculation regulations are available for the design and dimensioning of machine elements.
The machine elements most frequently used in practice, such as fasteners, connectors, axles/shafts, shaft-hub joints, bearings, seals and gaskets, sprockets, springs, and pipes are introduced and discussed in this chapter. It focuses on choosing suitable elements for a specific problem and proper design/dimensioning of these elements. The chapter is aimed both at engineers in practice and students in training.
Frank Engelmann, Karl-Heinrich Grote, Thomas Guthmann

16. Engineering Design

Abstract
The development and design of engineering systems using a methodical approach based on guidelines in the literature [16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 16.4, 16.5, 16.6] has been found to be a very useful approach. Such design methodology guidelines have also been applied to interdisciplinary development projects of this nature using aids such as requirements lists, functional structures, and the morphological box, to name just a few. During the design phase of the product development process, it is important to comply with the basic design rules: simple, clear, and safe [16.3]. Several examples that clearly show the realization of these three criteria are included in this chapter.
Frank Engelmann, Alois Breiing, Timothy Gutowski

17. Piston Machines

Abstract
Piston machines are the most used power and work machines in the mechanical engineering industry. Piston machines are divided into so-called reciprocating and rotary piston machines. With the first type, a reciprocating motion is transformed to a rotary motion in the case of the power machine and conversely in the case of the working machine. Today, rotary piston machines are almost exclusively used as work machines. Important innovations and intensive research are practiced in particular for the use of piston machines as an internal combustion engine. Therefore, mixture formation and the combustion process, with their consequences in terms of emission and fuel consumption, are in the center of attention.
Helmut Tschöke, Vince Piacenti, Brent Keppy, Aneel A. Singh, Steven D. White, Justin Kern, Jon H. van Gerpen

18. Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers

Abstract
This chapter presents an overview of pressure vessels and heat exchangers and covers basic design concepts, loadings, and testing requirements relevant to such equipment. The principles of thermal design as well as mechanical design criteria, fabrication, testing, and the certification requirements of various standards/codes adopted in different countries are discussed on a comparative basis to bring out the similarities between their features.
To complete this overview, a brief discussion is also provided on commonly used construction materials and their welding practices along with updates on ongoing developments in this area.
Ajay Mathur, Hamidreza Najafi

19. Turbomachinery

Abstract
The following chapter consists of two sections. Section 19.1 presents a concise treatment of the theory of turbomachinery stages including the energy transfer in absolute and relative systems. Contrary to the traditional approach that treats turbine and compressor stages of axial, radial or mixed configurations differently, these components are treated from a unifying point of view. A detailed instruction in Sect. 19.2 for turbine and compressor blade design concludes Sect. 19.1
Section 19.3 is dedicated to steady and unsteady performance of gas turbine engines, where the components are treated as generic modules. Thus, any arbitrary power generation or aircraft gas turbine engine with single or multiple shafts can be composed of these modules. Several examples show, how different gas turbine configurations can be constructed and dynamically simulated. Finally, a section about the new generation gas turbines shows, how the efficiency of gas turbines can be improved far beyond the existing level. This chapter is based on [19.1], where the reader can find detailed explanation of relevant aerodynamic aspects of turbomachines, their component losses and efficiencies, and the design and off-design performance calculations.
Meinhard T. Schobeiri

20. Conveying and Construction Machinery

Abstract
In this chapter, the fundamentals of design of conveying and construction machinery will be presented. Machines that fulfill transportation tasks in limited operating areas such as mines, ports, work and storage yards, as well as construction sites are most common and can be found in any type of industry. Hence, the diversity of conveying and construction machinery is very wide. However, the typical driving elements, machine components, and calculation concepts are similar.
The group of construction machinery covers many machines, e.g., concrete mixers or compactors that are not used for material transport. Such machines are not discussed in this chapter.
While the machinery belonging to the group of conveying technology is very diverse, many machine drives and parts are quite similar. The first aim of this chapter is to present a system for the classification of general materials handling equipment, which allows the understanding of the basic calculation methods. The two main groups of conveyors can be distinguished by their operational process: continuous and discontinuous conveyors. Another significant difference are the goods the equipment should handle: general cargo or bulk materials.
The second aim is the presentation of the basics of the design and calculation of conveying technology and their main mechanical elements and drives. To understand the design of bulk materials handling equipment, the necessary basics of bulk mechanics are described in Sect. 20.2. The design and calculation of basic machine elements of materials handling equipment (e.g., steel ropes, chains or wheels and tracks) are presented in Sect. 20.3. Section 20.4 presents the most important continuous conveying machinery, followed by discontinuous conveying machinery in Sect. 20.5. The necessary storage equipment is presented in Sect. 20.6.
André Katterfeld, Alan Roberts, Craig Wheeler, Kenneth Williams, Chris Wensrich, Jan Scholten, Mark Jones, Günter Kunze, Henning Strubelt, Dusan Ilic, Tim Donohue, Hendrik Otto, Jens Sumpf, Wei Chen, Bin Chen, Daniel Ausling

Transportation - Mobility

Frontmatter

21. Trends and Challenges in Mobility and Transportation

Abstract
This chapter provides a short overview of the three most important transportation technologies: automotive, aerospace, and rail. It initially examines the economic impact of transportation. A strong economy is usually highly dependent on the transportation of people and goods. The effects of environmental and safety legislation on transportation technologies are also discussed. Processes that will transform transportation over the coming decades are then considered.
After that, relevant legislation for and development trends in automotive, aerospace, and rail technologies are described and analyzed, and the processes used to develop new automotive vehicles, aircraft, and rail vehicles are outlined. More specifically, a section on automotive technology explores the different types of powertrains used in automotive transportation, current trends in the development of automobile bodies, chassis, advanced driver-assistance systems, combustion engines, and electric drives, as well as the automotive vehicle development process. A section on aerospace technology considers the relationship between air transportation and society before discussing the history of and challenges facing aeronautical engineering. A generic development process for aerospace technologies is then signposted. Finally, a section on rail technology describes basic technologies relating to the efficiency of and resistance and traction forces associated with rail transportation. Other important factors in rail transportation are then discussed, such as guidance, the braking system, train protection, management, rail vehicle structure, and coupling, before the development process for rail vehicles is detailed.
Marc Claus Schmitt, Stefan Pischinger

22. Automotive Engineering

Abstract
The development of vehicles, both passenger cars and commercial vehicles, has a history of more than 130 years. Changing demands and continuous improvement have led to many innovations and made vehicles more reliable and affordable, more beautiful and comfortable, and safer and less polluting.
Today, the automotive industry is most influenced by two megatrends: urbanization and sustainability.
Traffic in urban areas worldwide is becoming more dense, and the awareness that available resources are limited is increasing. Both trends have a major impact on the automotive industry.
This chapter will focus on current major targets of the automotive industry and specific challenges resulting from that. Emphasis is put on technology areas that are of essential importance in this context. The development of cars is quite specific, since the product is a high-technology mass product which at the same time is subject to massive individualization and, thus, high complexity. In order to generate a better understanding of how this specific development will be undertaken, insight is provided into the processes and methods applied in automotive development.
Gritt Ahrens

23. Railway Systems–Railway Engineering

Abstract
Railway travel is the smallest mode of transport but is becoming increasingly important. Urbanization needs more powerful urban rail systems, while intercity traffic needs fast, reliable, and high-performance long-distance train systems. Also, transport of freight by rail over long distances is increasing. The reason for this is the high transportation capacity with small infrastructure cross section because of their guided nature and high energy efficiency based on low running resistance and regenerative braking, which can transform kinetic energy into electric power with very high efficiency. Also, green electric energy can be used directly.
This chapter argues that railways require good organization not only in operation but also in the construction of vehicles and infrastructure. Special subjects such as wheel–rail interactions are introduced. The basic functions of different elements such as tracks, bogies, bodyshells and their subparts including gearboxes, wheelsets, doors, air conditioning, pneumatic brake systems, etc. for mainline (passenger and freight), metros, and trams are presented using up-to-date examples with modern and widespread applications. Also, safety and environmental issues such as airborne noise reduction and type testing are tackled.
Markus Hecht

24. Aerospace Engineering

Abstract
This chapter focuses on the commercial aviation sector of the aerospace industry. Following a brief introduction, basic definitions and terminology are discussed in Sects. 24.124.5. Sections 24.6 and 24.7 focus on the aerodynamic characteristics of flight, followed by the general configuration of airplanes in Sect. 24.8. Weight definitions and the related performance of aircrafts are discussed in Sects. 24.9 and 24.10. Section 24.11 is on the stability and control of airplanes, followed by a description of loads in Sect. 24.12. Finally, Sect. 24.13 reviews aircraft structure and Sect. 24.14 describes basic maintenance checks for commercial airplanes.
Hamid Hefazi

25. Ships and Maritime Transportation

Abstract
This chapter offers insight into how ships are designed by naval architects to address the ever-growing demand for maritime transportation. The terminology associated with ships is introduced, together with some of the main design characteristics of ships. The stability of marine vessels at both small and large angles of heel is explored. Furthermore, the main resistance and propulsion concepts that must be utilized effectively to ensure that the vessel can achieve its target speed are presented. Elements of ship structure as well as structural design and optimization considerations are discussed. Finally, additional aspects that impact ship design are outlined, including the environment, seakeeping, maneuverability, and damage stability.
Jean-Baptiste R. G. Souppez

Related Engineering Fields

Frontmatter

26. Electrical Engineering

Abstract
Some of the most sophisticated systems are the result of close cooperation between mechanical and electrical engineers. This chapter aims to provide mechanical engineers with an introduction to electrical engineering. It explains its basic laws and components, and how they are used to create electrical and electronic systems.
The fundamental laws of electrodynamics are presented using terminology that is also common to mechanical engineers. In this way, the reader will, for example, understand why inductors are made by winding wires around a core and why, in different applications, completely different types of capacitors and resistors are used.
This chapter not only explains how electrical machines and generators work. It also shows how strong machines may become intelligent strong machines. For this purpose, it describes the functioning of transistors and shows how electronic networks can be analyzed. It also explains how semiconductor devices are able to switch and steer high tensions and large currents.
The chapter ends with a glance at one of the most challenging fields common to electrical and mechanical engineers: the storage of power.
Martin Poppe

27. Power Generation

Abstract
This chapter addresses the process of power generation in eight sections. The principles of energy conversion are discussed in Sect. 27.1, which explains how steam and gas power cycles operate. Internal combustion engines, dual cycles, combined heat and power cycles, integrated gasification and combined cycle plants, and other conversion systems are all described in this section. Fuel cells and magnetohydrodynamic systems are also introduced, and the section concludes with a note on planning and investment. In Sect. 27.2, we discuss primary energy—fuels and their characteristics. Primary energy conversion equipment such as boilers and furnaces are covered in Sect. 27.3. Combustion systems are addressed in Sect. 27.4, together with emissions and environmental control technology. Various types of nuclear reactors and their working principles are elaborated in Sect. 27.5. Renewable energy resources are covered in Sect. 27.6. The chapter also reviews energy storage (Sect. 27.7), and concludes with a discussion of the prospects for power generation in the future (Sect. 27.8).
Asfaw Beyene, Dwarkadas Kothari, P.M.V. Subbarao

Annex

Frontmatter

28. General Tables

Abstract
Often in daily engineering practice, data from various systems and sources need to be merged to develop a product. Not all systems or organizations use the same system to develop their products. The system used may depend on the project requirements, as well as geographical preferences. This chapter provides help for engineerstrying to merge or convert data from one system to another. In addition, it provides typical values of some engineering constants used in product development.
Stanley Baksi

Backmatter

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