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About this book

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the First IFIP TC 3 International Conference on Stakeholders and Information Technology in Education, SaITE 2016, held in Guimarães, Portugal, in July 2016.The 15 full papers presented together with 2 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 48 submissions. They are organized in four topical sections: computer studies - developing practices and involving stakeholders; teacher education - key stakeholder practices; developments in educational management; and information and communication technologies for social and national development.

Table of Contents


Computer Studies - Developing Practices and Involving Stakeholders


Fathers and Male Guardians Are Important Stakeholders in Children’s Education: Do Lego Building and Scratch-like Programming Activities Hold a Key to Involving Them More?

Previous research indicates positive influences on engagement, expectation and outcomes of learning when fathers and male guardians support and work with their children. In primary school settings, fathers and male guardians are less frequently seen to be involved in educational, school-based discussions and activities. The research reported in this paper indicates how a contemporary project is positively supporting father and male guardian involvement with their children, using technologies (Lego Technics Mindstorms and Scratch-like programming) as an important medium, where building and programming enable shared and collaborative learning. The findings highlight important ways in which this project is enabling this shared activity learning, through intergenerational learning practices. Clear implications for wider national and international development are raised. Recommendations are offered.

Don Passey, Gavin Hawkins, Darren Clift

Measuring an Impact of Block-Based Language in Introductory Programming

The use of block-based visual language in introductory programming is a popular method in education. However, there is little research which provides evidence showing advantages of block-based language. This paper presents the results of learning data analysis with fine grain logs recorded by students’ development environment where the students can select their language in block-based or Java. A total of 400+ students’ logs collected each of four years were analyzed. The results show that migration from Block to Java can be consistently seen each year, although the whole block-editing rate was influenced by the method of the instructor’s introduction. Though block-editing did not affect working time and Lines of Code (LOC), it could reduce the compile error correction time, whereas using Java requires approximately 20% of compile error correction time for students. We concluded that block-based language worked to encourage students to focus high-level algorithm creation, as well as it provides an advantage to understanding text-based language.

Yoshiaki Matsuzawa, Yoshiki Tanaka, Sanshiro Sakai

Curriculum Issues, Competence Models and Informatics Education in Austrian Secondary Schools: Challenges Now and Ahead

At the core of this paper lies an overview of recent developments of Austrian curricula issues in the field of digital education. It puts this important part of educational governance into a broader perspective, comprising considerations about the nature of curricula. The coexistence and interdependency between competence models, national curricula and educational standards are elaborated, together with exemplary in-depth aspects of secondary digital education. After critical reflections about the continuing lack of a coherent and compulsory digital education at lower secondary level, recent amendments of Austrian informatics curricula for upper secondary level are presented and reviewed.

Peter Micheuz

Modelling Competency in the Field of OOP: From Investigating Computer Science Curricula to Developing Test Items

In this paper, we describe the results of a thorough analysis of 44 K12 computer science curricula and standards documents conducted as part of an ongoing research project aiming at the development of a competency structure model and measurement instruments in the field of object-oriented programming (OOP). The curricula analysis builds upon a first model draft derived theoretically from a literature analysis in prior work. The model draft is 4-dimensional and consists of the four competency dimensions (1) OOP knowledge and skills, (2) Mastering representation, (3) Cognitive processes and (4) Metacognitive processes. We used these dimensions and the belonging sub-dimensions as a coding scheme and coded competency facets concerning OOP contained in the curricula and standards documents using the method of qualitative content analysis according to Mayring. This way, we could firstly successfully prove the curricular validity of our model draft and secondly, after a step of paraphrasing the identified competency facets, use these descriptions to initiate the process of item development to operationalize our competency model draft.

Matthias Kramer, David Tobinski, Torsten Brinda

Introducing Collaborative Practices to Undergraduate Studies

The changes in software industry and software development methods call for appropriate teaching methods in academia. In addition to theoretical knowledge and coding practice, familiarity with common practices in the industry is expected from the graduates. Teamwork, collaboration and communication skills are essential demands for software engineers. These skills take years to develop, and therefore, this study presents how collaborative practices were introduced right in the beginning of information technology studies. The results of project based courses were encouraging in terms of student achievements and course completion rates. Additionally, feedback from students through an extensive survey was largely positive.

Jaana Holvikivi, Minna Lakkala, Hanni Muukkonen

Teacher Education - Key Stakeholder Practices


Introducing Blended Learning MOOC – A Study of One bMOOC in Norwegian Teacher Education

Although MOOCs have been around for a decade, the use of MOOCs in teacher training is a new development. In 2015, a Norwegian teacher education received internal funding to develop a MOOC intended for blended learning, which we call bMOOC. The bMOOC consisted of four different modules, and the course content was created internally by highly competent teacher trainers. One goal with the bMOOC was to familiarize teacher students and teacher educators with the concept of blended learning. Another goal was to support students’ academic writing processes across courses and possibly take some of the workload connected to instruction and feedback off the teacher trainers. The article analyzes the outcome of the implementation of the bMOOC, which shows low user adoption rate and low course completion. The study questions whether teacher educators see the pedagogical value in MOOCs and whether teacher students have enough digital competence to make use of online learning objects in formal learning.

Inger Langseth, Halvdan Haugsbakken

cMOOC: How to Assist Teachers in Integrating Motivational Aspects in Pedagogical Scenarios?

From the very beginning of MOOCs, education stakeholders and researchers in the field of technology enhanced learning (TEL) considered closely the issues related to dropout of learners in these environments. In a detailed analysis of this question, several authors pointed out that this dropout is due to a lack of learners’ motivation, a lack of learners’ engagement, the isolation, etc. These dropout rates can also be associated with inadequate tools, models and mechanisms allowing personalization and/or adaptation of learning activities. According to these studies, a highly promising solution consists in looking to achieve the supporting of learners’ motivation and engagement via adaptation of pedagogical scenarios. This paper goes in this direction by examining and trying to analyze the literature around the dropout issue in MOOCs. It mainly focuses on finding some possible solutions to adapt teaching scenarios and therefore motivate learners. More precisely, these solutions are essentially based on the connectivist approach, by taking into account four dimensions of educational activities, that is: aggregation, remixing, repurposing and feed forward.

Aïcha Bakki, Lahcen Oubahssi, Chihab Cherkaoui, Sébastien George

Using Images as a Stimulus to Explore the Identity of Student Teachers in Computing

The computing curriculum in English secondary education is now officially in its second year of implementation. A new, specialist group of student teachers are being trained to be able to deliver the new, rigorous computing curriculum. In this emerging curriculum area, it is essential teachers explore their own identity, beliefs and values in order to deliver effectively and ensure enjoyment for both themselves and the pupils they teach. In this study, the student teachers engage with images and place them in a hierarchy to stimulate honest discussion and exploration of computing teacher identity. Whilst the student teachers resonate with approaches in the classroom, such as group work, engagement with the computing curriculum topics themselves are limited and show an area which may require more attention and challenge in the computing teacher training programme.

Eleanor Overland

Developments in Educational Management


Datafication in Education: A Multi-Level Challenge for IT in Educational Management

While data-driven decision-making has become a new paradigm for school development and accountability, research on the underlying ICT infrastructures and the ICT management processes have been less prominent. With the trend of datafication, educational management gains new options but also requires adequate controlling mechanisms to take care of the data and to account for privacy and security. The information management cycle can be used to define all relevant aspects of the management process. This is adopted to the specific situation of educational institutions and furthermore extended to account for the different levels of educational governance. This leads to a new concept of educational technology governance as a necessary frame for supporting datafication processes.

Andreas Breiter

IT in Educational Management: Can it Support Solution of e-Cheating Problem?

The paper tries to answer the question – can IT tools help to solve e-cheating problem during the course of information technologies and computer sciences. The scale of e-cheating leads to the situation that dishonest students have better grades than honest ones. None of the simple solutions known from the literature helped to solve that problem, so IT tools were used. The first part of the paper gives a critical review of the literature of the subject. In the second one comparative analysis of results of the two surveys is performed. The first one was based on a survey conducted in United States, the second in Australia. This analysis shows that there are very big cultural differences in students’ attitude to cheating in different countries. The third part presents two software solutions of e-cheating problem investigated during research – monitoring software and safe exam browser. Final remarks are accompanied by raising an open question – will these IT solutions be valuable in the coming decade?

R. Robert Gajewski

Business Process Management (BPM) and e-Government: An Experience at University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC)

The development of business process management (BPM) is a key factor to launch e-Government in a public organization. This development requires first identifying the components that make up the business process management and, second, implementing them. It is just this implementation which has been presented as one of the most complex milestones in the development of BPM. In this paper the authors show how to implement the components of BPM successfully based on construction that deploys an organizational initiative that addresses directly a problem expressing the organization and indirectly the implementation of BPM. This methodology is justified by a case study carried out in the ULPGC.

Pablo Hernández-Bolaños, Jorge Rodríguez-Díaz

Alternative Ways of Involving Stakeholders: The Rise of Entrepreneurism in Higher Education and the Case of a Learning Enterprise

The education field has not traditionally stressed entrepreneurship; however, in light of current difficult economic scenarios and shrinking global job markets, a myriad of Educational Technology entrepreneurs is emerging across the world. Edupreneurs are here. They are self-motivated members of an enterprise who can recognize opportunities and take action on complex educational problems while aiming to create social value, financial value, and/or social benefits. Stakeholders hold a critical role when relating with edupreneurs. Stakeholders are the various individuals and groups who are directly invested in and may be affected (positively or negatively) by the entrepreneurial activities. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the rise of entrepreneurism in higher education and explore the case of a learning enterprise that supports the preparation of educational technologists as up-and-coming entrepreneurs. The development of such a learning enterprise is connected to the concept of a civic-minded professional who is someone interested in using his or her knowledge and skills for the public good. The learning enterprise enhances its members’ civic-minded agency, meaning the group’s purposeful and reflective acts that aim to address community members’ educational needs. Stakeholders are deeply involved in addressing needs and issues in collaboration with educational technologists.

Ana-Paula Correia

Vingt Ans Après: Analysis of WG 3.7’s Published Work on Information Technology in Educational Management (1994–2014)

In this paper, articles published in the proceedings of the IFIP Working Group 3.7 conferences during its twenty years of existence are reviewed. This work is a continuation of a previous one that classified the most relevant topics addressed by the Group in its first ten years and the major research methodologies adopted by the contributors to carry out their work. The paper has been structured to facilitate the comparison of the Group’s first decade of activity with the second decade. The review shows that the topic of Assimilation and Integration of IT into Educational Management continues to be the leading theme in publications. The published work by IFIP Working Group 3.7, which accounts for some 213 papers, is a good indicator of the maturity of the research on information technology in educational management (ITEM).

Javier Osorio, Julia Nieves

Information and Communication Technologies for Social and National Development


Digital Pedagogy for Enhanced Social Qualities, Collaborative Processes and Quality of Learning

The best learning environment that enables excellence should always be sought. This research seeks to draw measures to promote virtual learning experience based on promotion of social interaction and collaborative processes. The research is based on a total virtual learning experience of a masters’ level information and communication technology for development (ICT4D) class at the University of Tampere. A questionnaire was conducted at the end of the course to assess social qualities, collaborative processes and qualities of learning. The research seeks to promote quality learning by developing a social and collaborative learning environment. The results of this study included measures, such as, pedagogical techniques and technological tools that could foster such an environment.

Nicholas Mavengere, Mikko Ruohonen

Exploring the Information and ICT Skills of Health Professionals in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Information is at the heart of healthcare because all stakeholders need fit-for-purpose information to make decisions. However, producing and utilizing information in the data-intensive and ever-changing health environment requires various skills. In the particular context of low- and middle-income countries, this study, consisting of a scoping review and a qualitative case study, explores the information and ICT skills of health professionals. Our review identifies challenges in several areas of health professionals’ skills, including computer skills; skills required for using the routine health information system; data security skills; and data management and analysis skills. Our South African case study, based on interviews, adds a more nuanced understanding of the different types of training needs. This assessment shows that training and education aimed at improving the ICT and information skills of health professionals have to be versatile and cater to different groups with varying needs.

Annariina Koivu, Nicholas Mavengere, Mikko. J. Ruohonen, Lucy Hederman, Jane Grimson

An ICT Model to Enhance Teaching and Learning in a Resource Constrained Setting: A Case of Malawi

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) play a pivotal role in enhancing learning and teaching at all levels of education across the globe. Many developed countries appreciate that the use of ICTs has improved the quality of education. Developing countries such as Malawi have also incorporated ICTs in various curricula of programmes at all levels of education. Unfortunately, these resource constrained countries face a number of challenges in gleaning the maximum benefits of ICT in education sector.This paper discusses the fundamental challenges underlying ICT development in the education system in Malawi. Some recommendations have also been made on how to mitigate the challenges that are encountered in the education sector in Malawi. The paper further advances the notion that the ICT intervention in education can be meaningful and effective if all stakeholders such as government, private sector, policy and decision makers, communities, students, teachers and international agencies are engaged at all levels of the education system. An attempt has also been made to compare different models of implementing ICT in the education system in a resource constrained environment. The paper finally proposes an inclusive model for the ICT intervention in education system in Malawi.

Richard Pankomera, Darelle Van Greunen

The Project Case: A West African Digital University

This paper is a project case report of a proposed West African Digital University that started based on the outcome of several research findings that focused on three West African countries mainly on export e-education through e-learning environments, which has been discussed as a way to improve African students’ learning culture, designs and usability of web-based learning. The main aim and objective of this digital higher education institution are to contribute to the possible solutions to problems of higher education in developing countries, in particular the sub-Saharan West African countries by providing export e-education to West Africa citizens. The West African Digital University, put in practice, would develop students’ minds and raise awareness for peace and tolerance as a way of integrating the West African region.

Adewunmi Obafemi Ogunbase, Roope Raisamo


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