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2021 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

1. States Undermining International Law: An Introduction

Author : Deepak Mawar

Published in: States Undermining International Law

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

Abstract

This chapter introduces the key research aims and questions explored throughout this book. Firstly, the valuable impact of utopianism on the international legal system is introduced and summarised by a new utopian concept, emancipatory idealism. Secondly, concerns regarding the State’s primary position in international law are raised in order to argue that for the sake of achieving utopian goals, this aspect of international law requires reassessment. Then, it is suggested that the central aims of emancipatory idealism have played a significant role in the development of international law, and that these utopian developments have at times been undermined by States. In order to prove such a postulation, an analysis of the League of Nations and the United Nations—and the manner in which States have interacted with these international organisations—is proposed.

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Footnotes
1
R. Nozick, Anarchy, State and Utopia, (2001) at 297.
 
2
In fact, preparations for the creation of the United Nations date as far back as 1941, with the Atlantic Charter, as President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill hoped to ‘establish a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries’ and ‘to bring about the fullest collaboration between all nations in the economic field with the object of securing, for all, improved labour standards, economic advancement and social security… after the destruction of the Nazi tyranny.’ ‘The Atlantic Charter- Declaration of Principles issued by the President of the United States and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom’ (August 14, 1941). https://​www.​nato.​int/​cps/​en/​natohq/​official_​texts_​16912.​htm?​. Last accessed 1 July 2019. See also P. Malanczuk, Akehurst’s Modern Introduction to International Law, (1997), 27.
 
3
Eleanor Roosevelt, ‘Struggle for Human Rights,’ (University of Paris, September 28, 1948). https://​erpapers.​columbian.​gwu.​edu/​struggle-human-rights-1948, Last accessed 19 June 2019.
 
4
A Hehir, ‘“Utopian in the Right Sense”: The Responsibility to Protect and the Logical Necessity of Reform’, (2017) 31.3 Ethics & International Affairs 335, at 337. See also E.H. Carr, Twenty Years’ Crisis, (1964) at 10–12, 202.
 
5
Ibid., at 337. See also K. Booth, ‘Security in Anarchy: Utopian Realism in Theory and Practice’, (1991) 67.3 International Affairs 531, 534.
 
6
E.H. Carr, Twenty Years’ Crisis, (1964) at 10–12, 225.
 
7
Carr, supra note 6, at 224.
 
8
PCIJ: Lotus Case, Ser. A 10 p. 30.
 
9
Ibid., 18–19.
 
10
M. Koskenniemi, From Apology to Utopia, (1989), 258.
 
11
Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion, ICJ Reports 1996, 226, 266.
 
Literature
go back to reference Booth, Ken. ‘Security in Anarchy: Utopian Realism in Theory and Practice’, (1991) 67.3 International Affairs, 527–545. Booth, Ken. ‘Security in Anarchy: Utopian Realism in Theory and Practice’, (1991) 67.3 International Affairs, 527–545.
go back to reference Carr, E.H. The Twenty Years’ Crisis 1919–1935: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations, (1948). Carr, E.H. The Twenty Years’ Crisis 1919–1935: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations, (1948).
go back to reference Hehir, Aidan. ‘“Utopian in the Right Sense”: The Responsibility to Protect and the Logical Necessity of Reform’, (2017) 31.3 Ethics & International Affairs, 335–355. Hehir, Aidan. ‘“Utopian in the Right Sense”: The Responsibility to Protect and the Logical Necessity of Reform’, (2017) 31.3 Ethics & International Affairs, 335–355.
go back to reference Koskenniemi, Martti. From Apology to Utopia: The Structure of International Legal Argument, (2005). Koskenniemi, Martti. From Apology to Utopia: The Structure of International Legal Argument, (2005).
go back to reference Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion of 8 July 1996, [1996], ICJ Rep. 226. Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion of 8 July 1996, [1996], ICJ Rep. 226.
go back to reference Malanczuk, Peter. Akehurst’s Modern Introduction to International Law, (1997). Malanczuk, Peter. Akehurst’s Modern Introduction to International Law, (1997).
go back to reference Nozick, Robert. Anarchy, State and Utopia, (2001). Nozick, Robert. Anarchy, State and Utopia, (2001).
go back to reference SS Lotus case (France v. Turkey), PCIJ Rep Series A No 10, at 18. SS Lotus case (France v. Turkey), PCIJ Rep Series A No 10, at 18.
go back to reference Wilde, Oscar. The Soul of Man Under Socialism, (1997). Wilde, Oscar. The Soul of Man Under Socialism, (1997).
Metadata
Title
States Undermining International Law: An Introduction
Author
Deepak Mawar
Copyright Year
2021
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-64789-6_1

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