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About this book

This book presents the latest findings of researchers from around the globe who presented their work at the 9th International Conference on Strategic Innovative Marketing and Tourism in the Covid-19 era. It provides up-to-date information and discusses current trends, issues, and debates, as well as theoretical and practical research, on strategic innovative marketing and tourism and applications from social media. Topics covered include social media in marketing and tourism hospitality, and strategic tools and techniques developed and implemented by some of the world’s leading research labs. In addition, the book brings together work from academia and industry.

Table of Contents


Pursuing Alternative Demand Forecasting Approaches in the Tourism Sector

Relying on econometric principles and modelling has been the dominant in developing models to forecast demand for tourism services. But this is not necessarily the best approach since such models extrapolate the past into the future through a linear perspective. At the same time, this approach fails to incorporate the dynamic nature of travelers behaviour and choices resulting from various emerging conditions. With this mind, we explain in detail the key limitations of the dominant approach to modelling demand and propose an alternative, fresh view that can improve the accuracy and relevance of the prognosis. We also offer a proposed research design to accommodate the requirements of this fresh approach, while explaining who and how would benefit from my proposed method.
Spiros Gounaris

The Impact of COVID-19 on Consumer Behaviour: The Case of Greece

The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic outbreak is still being felt globally. The virus itself and its economic impact has changed and will most likely continue transforming lifestyle, financial choices and consumer behaviour for every generation. People have started to live differently, buying differently and in many ways, thinking differently. The objective of this research is to investigate how the coronavirus and the lockdown have affected consumer behaviour in Greece, with a focus on shopping habits relative to supermarket purchases, preferences towards branding and examining the potential changes regarding on line purchases of goods. 1,882 questionnaires were digitally self-completed from all over Greece of which 1,603 were usable. Empirical results indicate that consumers increased the quantities of the products they bought, focused more on sales promotions, tried new brands and a significant proportion have shifted toward shopping on the Internet. Lockdown and Covid-19 measures have also affected the frequency of shopping visits.
Prokopis K. Theodoridis, Androniki Kavoura

Intelligent Ticket and its Interaction with Transmedia Content in the COVID-19 Smart Tourism Era

The COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly affected humanity’s habits, forcing governments to obtain special measures to ensure world health. The imposition of the social distance measure has raised several questions about the future of tourism. Thus, smart cities (SC) are at the focal point, while their technological capabilities being re-examined for their effectiveness during the pandemic crisis. So far, several solutions have been proposed by the tech giants, states, and the European Union (EU), using Information Communication Technology (ICT) and solutions supported by Bluetooth, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Near Field Communication (NFC), Internet of Things (IoT), as well as Artificial Intelligence (AI). This conceptual paper examines the use of an access point for the tourism of the COVID-19 era, implicated for visitors, marketers, and city authorities-administration, using the NFC technology, or solely a digital ticket. The visitor-user will be informed by an app concerning the social distancing, while at the same time, the user will have the possibility of Transmedia (TM) personalized experience.
Dimitrios Panagiotakopoulos, Athina Mountzouri, Marina Christodoulou, Apostolos Papapostolou, Rossetos Metzitakos

Area of Residence Differences in COVID-19 Effect on Greek Citizens’ Life

This paper presents the outcome of research investigating the COVID-19 outbreak’s effect on Greek citizens’ lives. This country has taken exceedingly early measures in order to prevent the virus spread and deaths of citizens. This paper also examines differences between citizens’ area of residence (urban vs. rural) and the effect of COVID-19 in their everyday lives. A non-probability sampling frame was implemented, and data was collected mainly through online platforms from 1 to May 13, 2020. A total of 3359 citizens completed the questionnaire and were included for analysis. Data Analysis (t-tests) revealed that statistical differences do exist in most cases. Communication routes to moderate citizens’ emotional pressure are discussed, pointing out the importance of preventive measures for public and individual health.
Irene (Eirini) Kamenidou, Aikaterini Stavrianea, Spyridon Mamalis, Ifigeneia Mylona

Consumers Under Lockdown: Self-Gifting and Mood Alleviation

Since March 2020, more than half of the world’s population went under a lockdown or stay-at-home orders. Studies by marketing practitioners hint that consumption during the lockdown has changed due to consumers’ attempts to regulate their negative moods. Drawing on literature on self-gifting, mood-regulatory consumption, and consumer behavior in times of hardship, we posit that consumers under lockdown will be more likely to engage in self-gifting for mood alleviation and that behaviors will be associated with individuals’ mood regulation. Preliminary findings from an online survey on a sample of 118 Greek adults support our central tenets, with the mean propensity for self-gifting for mood alleviation during the lockdown being higher than general propensity for self-gifting for mood alleviation. The findings also provide support for a partial mediation model, where mood alleviation frequency during the lockdown positively affects propensity for self-gifting for mood alleviation during the lockdown, which in turn affects general propensity for self-gifting for mood regulation.
Antigone G. Kyrousi, Athina Y. Zotou, Eirini Koronaki

Comparative Analysis of Coronavirus Influence on the Content Generated by Romanian Travel Blogs

The present research aims to briefly present the impact that COVID-19 virus has had in the online environment, more precisely, on travel blogs from Romania. Because the tourism sector has been and still is affected by this virus, and the subject under investigation consists of the emphasis on travel blogs analyzed from a comparative perspective, following the articles posted in 2019, from March to May and those posted in 2020 during the same months, we were able to identify the various opportunities not exploited so far in connection with this topic. To analyze the impact of COVID-19 on travel blogs from Romania, the main topics in the selected periods and the differences in the articles posted in the two time sequences, content analysis was chosen as a research method. Implications are addressed to the targeted audience and the conclusions revealed an adaptation of the content of the articles from the perspective of the impact of the virus.
Victor-Alexandru Briciu, Arabela Briciu, Andrea-Eniko Csiki

COVID-19 and the Canadian Airline Experience

This paper examines the news articles available for an initial qualitative assessment of the impact of the COVID-19 virus on the Canadian airline sector. It is hoped that this research will provide useful information to managers working in the tourism sector and those conducting future research on COVID-19 and the transportation sector. This study finds that since March 2020 Canadian airlines have been impacted by the pandemic similar to other developed countries. However, none of the Canadian airlines have received direct financial support from the government which has been common in other advanced economies. Economic recovery by the Canadian airline sector has been slow and mostly from freight flights, domestic flights, and essential travel. Canadian airline flights remain far below 2019 pre-pandemic levels. The Canadian airline sector won’t fully recover until a COVID-19 vaccine is widely distributed and the general public regains confidence that air travel is safe from the COVID-19 virus. Air Canada projects that it will be 2023 before air travel may return to 2019 levels.
Stephen J. Havlovic

Increasing Employability Through Development of Generic Skills: Considerations for Remote Course Delivery During COVID-19 Pandemic

This paper takes a look at current approaches to work integrated learning (WIL) aimed to development of generic skills in post-secondary education. Various types of WIL expose students to real-life professional environment as part of their course work or work placement. Experiential learning is recognized for its contribution to development of generic skills and increased employability of graduates. Most of WIL models are appropriate for industry placements, but have limitations when implemented on campus as part of traditional curriculum. In uncertain situation of global COVID-19 pandemic post-secondary educational institutions need to adjust their approach to WIL for on-campus and remote delivery of experiential learning. This paper reviews current approaches to WIL and introduces a framework for development of selected generic skills as part of remote and blended teaching and learning.
Natalya Totskaya

COVID-19 Goes on Twitter. Greek Conversations and Discussions

The COVID-19 disease emerged in late 2019 in China, is still rapidly spreading across the globe. Greece as many other countries enforced strict preventative policies. As a result, the daily life of people has changed and conversation turned online. The paper aims at investigating discussions around COVID-19 on Twitter in Greece. Twitter was selected as it played a significant role during the global health crisis. The presence of the keywords “Κορονοιος”, “κορονοιός”, “κορωνοιος”, “Κορωνοϊός”, “Κορωνοιος” in tweets over four periods of time were recorded. NodeXL Pro was used to identify word pairs, create semantic networks and analyze them. Main topics of conversation were extracted. ‘New cases’ are heavily discussed all of the times showing anxiety about community transmission of the virus. A shift on different views was also recorded. Before the lockdown people showed their concerns about stocking up foods and other essentials, followed by positive hashtags in the fight to save lives and encouraging each other and finally the debate over the deaths. The paper may help policy makers regarding societal issues during the pandemic.
Dimitrios Kydros, Maria Argyropoulou, Vasiliki Vrana

Exploring the Relationship of the Big Five Personality Traits with Student Satisfaction with Synchronous Online Academic Learning: The Case of Covid-19-Induced Changes

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on exploring the relationship between personality factors and student satisfaction with synchronous online academic learning. Currently, the relevant studies of abrupt adoption of the synchronous online teaching are scarce, leaving a gap in our understanding of what the relationship between personality and satisfaction with synchronous online academic learning is. A questionnaire-based survey was employed for the data collection. There were overall 555 usable questionnaires answered by students, at a Greek public university located in Athens during the lockdown period from March to April 2020. The size of the sample allows us to proceed with reliable statistical analyses and produce valid conclusions. The structure of the observed correlations was determined by the factor analysis method identifying the groups of variables that have a high correlation. Five factors retained (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism). The findings indicate that openness and conscientiousness have strong positive influence on student satisfaction while neuroticism has negative. Extraversion and agreeableness did not relate to the dependent variable. Future studies could test the validity of the findings reported here, in different contexts and inquire the potential existence of latent variables which may be confounding the relationships discussed in this paper. The present study’s findings may help college administrators design more effective academic programs in more efficient manners.
Alexandros G. Sahinidis, Panagiotis A. Tsaknis

Social Distancing: Technology to the Rescue

The Covid-19 pandemic, with the unprecedented rate of global spread, and the huge and multidimensional impact it has created, has a significant impact on the way we work and socialize. Amidst the pandemic, and with an eye on the future, Scientists and Engineers are fighting the virus spread with all technological means. In this the use of ICT can offer valuable tools in ensuring social distancing. This paper presents some characteristic cases, focusing mainly on practical and already applicable tools, both in terms of software and hardware. This paper aims to increase public awareness on cutting edge technological solutions which can assist with the CoViD-19 social distancing measures compliance both individually and collectively.
Maria Polychronaki, Charalampos Patrikakis

Effective COVID-19 Management Prerequisites: National Culture, Governance, Human Development, and Income Inequality

COVID-19’s profound impact on global health, well-being, social, economic, and political discourse is unparalleled in recent history, perhaps comparable to the 1918 flu pandemic. Despite the worldwide havoc the current pandemic has caused, there are significant differences among nations with respect to testing, tracing, infection, hospitalization, and ultimately, death rates. In order to effectively manage COVID-19 and future pandemics, it is paramount that macro national factors associated with favorable health outcomes be identified and addressed. This research used four independent macro databases and explored the impact of national culture, governance effectiveness, human development and income inequality on COVID-19 outcomes. Surprisingly, HDI and effective governance indicators were significantly but modestly related to national COVID case and deaths per million outcomes, but in unexpected directions. Implications for future research are discussed.
Barry A. Friedman, Marissa Wheeler

The Role of Wi-Fi Positioning Systems in Safety Against COVID-19

Internet of things (IoT) has brought attention in the field of Indoor Positioning Systems (IPS). The advancement of technology with the rise of new smart devices has triggered those technologies to flourish in the last few years. The Received Signal Strength Identificator (RSSI) measurements can be utilized in a business environment where multiple access points (APs) are installed in order to provide Location Based Marketing and indoor navigation services. Such places include shopping malls, train stations, airports, stadiums and many more. The rise of COVID-19 has brought many changes in consumers’ life such as the mandatory use of face masks for indoor environments and keeping a distance of 2 m at least from each other. IPS have assisted end-users of Location Based Services (LBS) with alerts and with the automation of contact tracing in case of infection since the recent pandemic. We have utilized a Wi-Fi Positioning System (WPS) dataset from Waldo Library of Western Michigan University and implemented statistical analysis to find ways to increase the accuracy of WPS in order to assess its suitability for indoor location-based services and protection against Covid-19. The results displayed an 81.5% improvement on the accuracy of the WPS. Since WPS can provide 1–5 m accuracy depending on the environmental conditions these results reveal the appropriateness of these techniques for developing safe distance indoor systems that will support both business and safety services and provide safety for population in indoor environments.
Theodoros Oikonomidis, Konstantinos Fouskas, Maro Vlachopoulou

Covid-19 Pandemic’s Influence on Popular/Folk Culture and Tourism in Greece: Shaping the Future and Beyond

Popular/folk culture, mainly expressed through music and dance performances, was always very important for human societies. In addition to offering entertainment and being a tourist attraction, it can convey different messages according to the context, such as aesthetic/artistic, cultural, religious/spiritual and/or social aspects. Therefore, it is strongly linked to local identity and tourism, thus being an invaluable resource for local communities that needs to be preserved. Pandemics and their consequences pose a huge risk for this community asset, affecting not only the artists practicing it, but the entire associated culture and tourism industry. In this paper, we study how the recent covid-19 pandemic has affected the Greek popular/folk music scene and give insights on new ways and solutions, mainly based on modern information technologies, to mitigate these negative impacts.
Charis Tsalpara, Irodion Soulopoulos, Ioannis Sklias, Nikos Grammalidis

The Weakness of Mass Tourism in the Covid-19 Period and the Contribution of Architecture

According to the World Tourism Organization, tourism is the largest industry in the world. The tourist activity with elements that refer to the mass model of tourism, emerges in many cases as the key activity for the economic development of a place. This phenomenon is constantly recorded during the last decades worldwide and not only in the wider Mediterranean but also in Greece. In this context and to serve as many guests as possible the quality of accommodation services was sacrificed on the altar of the ephemeral. Huge hotel units were built and areas of natural beauty were destroyed. Also, the primary sector was abandoned and rural areas were turned into tourist destinations. The need to move from mass tourism to quality tourism has been highlighted for many years and for many different reasons. The failure of this model and the shift to quality or alternative tourism has already begun. However, the current global crisis regarding the pandemic due to the COVID-19 has once again highlighted the weaknesses of this tourism model. The purpose of this paper is to investigate and assess the current situation and the reasons that led tourists may prefer small accommodation, apartments and houses to the standards of alternative tourism. It also aims to highlight the lack of flexibility in the event of a crisis, both in planning and programming, and to highlight another reason for the transition from mass to alternative tourism.
Dionysia Fragkou

COVID-19 Effects in People’s Daily Life, Social Media’s Role and the Power of Emotions and Mind

Recently the world community was faced with a health problem unprecedented for the inhabitants of the planet. A virus unknown to the general public struck societies with greater speed and force than a conflict or a world war. The thousands of victims continue to be added to the daily medical reports with profound social and economic consequences. Residents publish news daily updates about surveillance and active cases on websites and social media may lead to (mis)information which in turn may cause problems of phobias depression and anxiety among general population forming risk perceptions. Fake news sharing has become uncontrolled in today’s digital world. This paper highlights the role of social media on creation of fear, the human’s role and implications for communities that need to pay more attention to social and mental health problems and minimize the proliferation of misinformation.
Maria Poli

Restaurants Industry in the Covid-19 Era: Challenge or Opportunity?

The rapid and destructive spread of Covid-19 has transformed the restaurant industry worldwide with customers, organizations and supplies striving to survive. Within nine months since the beginning of the pandemic outbreak, the restaurants changed business models, perceptions and habits in order to adapt to the new Normal. This paper focuses on exploring the impact of Covid-19 on Greek restaurants and defining the challenges and trends that pandemic brings forward. The paper followed qualitative methodology in the form of interviews with the use of purposive sampling. Results illustrate that Greek restaurants experience viability issues due to the pandemic similar to the ones that restaurants worldwide face. However new types of restaurants, products and services seem to make their appearance due to the pandemic. Nevertheless, this status is still evolving and governments, employers and employees struggling to define it in order to respond.
Magda Peistikou

Virtual Communities in COVID-19 Era: A Citizenship Perspective

As Covid-19 numbers growth around the world, more of people’s’ daily and work lives shifted to online. Social media platforms became important tools for both people and organizations to stay connected while maintaining a physical distance. In this context, new virtual communities appeared and their role as aggregator was reinforced. The rise and fall of these virtual communities’ lead to questioning the motives and behaviors of their participants since the proactive and sharing behaviors were present. In this research, three different virtual communities’ activities were analyzed trying to unveil the patterns of behavior considering a citizenship perspective. Results pointed out that the drivers of members’ activity vary along the time, following a fast life-cycle growth when the community is only linked to the COVID-19. The findings also point to the fact the in certain cases, these communities can erode due to groupthink, challenging virtual communities’ managers to find more compelling and engaging strategies.
Josélia Fonseca, Teresa Borges-Tiago, Flávio Tiago, Sandra Silva

Underwater Cultural Heritage Tourism and Diving Tourism Alternatives in the COVID-19 Era

Although many efforts have been made, still mass tourism is intense in Greece and is prevailing. The factors that explain the development of this form of tourism are the natural environment, the cultural wealth, the good climate, the kind hospitality and the rich history. This type of tourism has been greatly analyzed in previous studies, but nowadays yet another negative impact can be added to the list. COVID-19 protocols of social distancing require the reinvention of tourism as a niche market and not as a mass activity. The very recent adoption of a new legal framework concerning recreational diving activities in Greece has generated an increased demand for the development of diving tourism in the country. From a policy of restriction to the permission of recreational diving, the process of valorizing, representing and managing underwater archaeological heritage in Greece has been a recent development. The emphasis is on capitalizing on culture and heritage while at the same time appealing to a new target market. The paper explores the health and hygiene protocols of COVID-19 as they can be applied to the diving market which was already hygiene sensitive and thus demonstrates maturity in the enforcement of such protocols. The paper acknowledges and emphasizes the importance of taping into underwater cultural heritage as an extra asset for the Greek tourism market. Offer innovative ways of observation and interaction with the underwater cultural heritage of Greece can include land observatories and simulated diving experiences and create a framework for experiencing underwater cultural heritage while at the same time respecting and following new COVID-19 protocols.
Maria Vrasida

Organization of Local Community Health Network During Infections Such as COVID-19

This article presents the operation of a Primary Health Care (PHC) network aiming to protect Public Health, support patients, and enhance the citizen as a member of the family and the local community, from the rsisks of epidemic crises such as Covid-19. The citizen needs to be supported by the PHC networks at the local level to face physical and mental needs at the critical situation of infections like Covid-19. Connecting Public Health to PHC is a critical issue. Particularly, local health teams’ improvement to work on prevention and immediate treatment organized a virtual integrated network. To succeed, the PHC network presumes the following operating conditions: (a) recording of the epidemiological profile of the population in the local community; (b) interconnection of services and completion of the Individual Electronic Health Records; (c) health group reference points for citizens. The primary aim is to provide health services covering the individual’s social, biological, physical, and medical needs. The role of the Care Coordinator ensures the immediate treatment by utilizing the technology and reduces the risks of mismanagement and delays. The system succeeds in identifying cases of people who are in need of services and have not realized it, utilizing health education actions, prevention, management new technology in order to support local community in all dimensions of health, aiming to provide care personalized low cost and high quality.
George Pierrakos

Immunity Passports and Entrepreneurial Opportunities in the COVID-19 Era

The recent pandemic of COVID-19 has brought forth the notion of Immunity Passports and has sparked up a heated debate about the socioeconomic necessity behind their use versus the moral, ethical and social implications that may arise from a possible widespread implementation thereof. Despite this animated controversy, this paper aims at pinpointing the future perspectives on the scientific and economical level as well as the entrepreneurial opportunities that the adoption of Immunity Passports may create. After a clear definition of the term, a short description of the current state-of-the-art in terms of their development and a clear separation of the facts from fictitious assumptions about their potential medical outcomes, the paper concentrates on providing a general outlook on the opportunities that may arise from the creation of such biodiagnostic tools along with analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats (SWOT). Special emphasis is also given on two critical economic sectors that may serve as exemplifications par excellence on the entrepreneurial opportunities and the innovative disruption that Immunity Passports may bring about. Implications are discussed.
Eleni Makarona, Androniki Kavoura

The Impact of Covid-19 in E-Commerce. Effects on Consumer Purchase Behavior

Consumer purchase behavior is a process highly influenced by the stability (economic, social, political) of the surrounding environment. Nevertheless, in times of crisis, like the COVID-19 health crisis, there are observed violent shifts in consumer behavior, as consumers respond to the crisis in various ways. Thus, it is valuable for both researchers and businesses to identify these shifts in time. A key indicator for the most sought-after products and services are their respective searches online. Google Trends provides useful insights regarding online searches of specific keywords on the Google Search Engine and has been successfully utilized for research purposes previously. Publicly available data is utilized to forecast the future demand by performing statistical analysis on the available data from previous periods. Although a rising route is expected for search terms concerning technological breakthroughs and the digital universe, what is truly important and noteworthy is the underlying hint and hidden information behind this data. The main question that this research tackles is, are there any signs/indications of a grave effect to consumer behavior and albeit a shift in consumer demand when utilizing consumer interest as a steppingstone? For answering this question, we examine two main categories of household supplies: (i) Seasonal Goods and (ii) Non-seasonal goods and examine if Google Trends data is capable of providing accurate and usable predictive results. Implications as discussed for whom?
George Dionysiou, Konstantinos Fouskas, Dimitrios Karamitros

Rethinking Management and Promotion of Tourist Destinations Amidst COVID-19: Good Practices and Challenges

The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has set a massive impact on the tourism industry through border closures, lockdowns and collapse of air travel. This conceptual research focuses on how tourism destinations strive to manage the health crisis and promote tourism amidst COVID-19. To achieve this, it analyses health crisis management in previous pandemic like situations, through the measures and problems that were dealt with as lessons learnt; highlights the impacts of COVID-19; identifies current practices and challenges of selected countries such as USA, Italy, Singapore, Japan, Greece, China, and Spain. Countries chosen for this research are either reliant on tourism or have dealt with the pandemic in many ways resulting in altered numbers of cases and deaths. The study adopts a qualitative approach, in analysing data derived from different sources such as official websites, social media campaigns, news and destination press releases on governmental actions of different countries and literature related to crisis management. Firstly, by identifying responses and measures taken to plan, support and promote tourism amidst COVID-19. Followed by thematically analysis using pre-decided themes of ‘good practices and challenges’ for tourism. The findings indicate the different good practices adopted by governments in assisting to manage this crisis and promoting the destinations through several campaigns to revive. It highlights challenges in planning, development and promotion amidst COVID-19 and proposes an integrated strategy for better crisis management.
Aneesh Goel, Zilmiyah Kamble, Sorabh Tyagi, Vishnu Ganesh, Hasan Mamuwala, Nyein Nyein San

Social Media During the COVID-19 Era in 5* Hotels in Attica, Greece

The rapid proliferation of coronavirus put public health in danger, and affected the global economy, while making the tourism industry suffer its worst recession. The imposition of strict restrictions on citizens’ free movement by the majority of the countries, as an effort to stop or slow down the new Covid-19 cases, has resulted in a rapid decline in the turnover of tourism businesses since April 2020. With the tourist transportation services demand facing an unprecedented decrease, the tourism industry has to deal with difficulties which can even push many businesses to collapse. The hospitality industry proved to be vulnerable as visitors were susceptible to risk and therefore sought safety. During the Covid-19 pandemic, hotels turned to social media to achieve timely and direct communication with their customers. This study aims to record and analyze the use of social media by the total of 5* hotels of Attica region during the coronavirus pandemic. A qualitative research was undertaken, and a social media posts analysis was conducted. The frequency, topic and purpose of the posts were detected and interpreted. The results show that hotels used social media to adopt a more humane attitude by sharing a sense of hope and care. Implications for actions and initiatives that need to be undertaken in the future are discussed.
Alexios-Patapios Kontis, Ioanna Kourkoulou, Eirini Vlassi

Redefining and Redesigning Modernity in the COVID-19 Era: The Case of Xenia Hotels in Greece

The decades after second world war between 1950 and 1980 were characterized as the years of the great development for Greece and they were accompanied as expected, by a rapid urbanization and construction booming. During the same period the Greek society transformed socially, economically with women entering dynamically in the working class and tourism numbers rising exponentially. During the same period the modern movement in architecture expressed in the most accurate ay the emphasis on functionality, simplicity and flexibility in the forms and has been a landmark for designers ever since. The Greek National Tourism Organization commissioned at the same time the Xenia project, which included a number of modern hotels with emphasis on the location and architectural excellence. In present times societies and countries globally are called upon to face yet another challenge which is related to public health and safety and provide sustainable resilient options for the future. The main aim of this research is to explore the potential for modern buildings to reform and reshape in order to respond to the new challenge. The modern form is by definition flexible and sets the needs of the user or in this case the tourist, as a priority for the design. The challenge of this paper is to redefine the flow and functional diagrams of characteristic building of the modern period in order to respond to the post COVID 19 needs and protocols. For the purpose of this study 3 typologies of Xenia Hotels in Greece were chosen as characteristic examples of the modern period architecture in Greece. Their functional diagrams were redesigned to comply with the new emerging hygiene needs and the implication are discussed.
Loukia Martha, Maria Vrasida, Chara Agaliotou
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