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2021 | Book

Structural Characterization and Seismic Retrofitting of Adobe Constructions

Experimental and Numerical Developments

Editors: Prof. Dr. Humberto Varum, Prof. Dr. Fulvio Parisi, Prof. Dr. Nicola Tarque, Dora Silveira

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

Book Series : Building Pathology and Rehabilitation


About this book

This book provides the reader with a review of the most relevant research on the structural characterization and seismic retrofitting of adobe construction. It offers a complete review of the latest research developments, and hence the relevance of the field.

The book starts with an introductory discussion on adobe construction and its use throughout the world over time, highlighting characteristics and performance of adobe masonry structures as well as different contributions for cultural heritage conservation (Chapter 1). Then, the seismic behaviour of adobe masonry buildings is addressed, including examples of real performance during recent earthquakes (Chapter 2). In the following chapters, key research investigations on seismic response assessment and retrofitting of adobe constructions are reviewed. The review deals with the following issues: mechanical characterization of adobe bricks and adobe masonry (Chapters 3 and 4); quasi-static and shaking table testing of adobe masonry walls and structures (Chapters 5 and 6); non-destructive and minor-destructive testing for characterization of adobe constructions (Chapter 7); seismic strengthening techniques for adobe constructions (Chapter 8); and numerical modelling of adobe structures (Chapter 9).

The book ends with Chapter 10, where some general conclusions are drawn and research needs are identified. Each chapter is co-authored by a group of experts from different countries to comprehensively address all issues of adobe constructions from a worldwide perspective.

The information covered in this book is fundamental to support civil engineers and architects in the rehabilitation and strengthening of existing adobe constructions and also in the design of new adobe buildings. This information is also of interest to researchers, by providing a summary of existing research and suggesting possible directions for future research efforts.

Table of Contents

Adobe Constructions in the World: A First Overview
Adobe constructions date back thousands of years and are a significant fraction of the world’s built heritage, including UNESCO sites. Even though adobe dwellings are still built in some regions, a number of experimental and theoretical studies have delineated the vulnerability levels of these constructions. A significant concentration of adobe constructions in regions with moderate-to-high levels of seismic hazard has been observed as well, resulting in huge human losses during earthquakes. Therefore, the knowledge of the structural performance and seismic reinforcement of adobe constructions provides the basis for their structural vulnerability reduction, allowing disaster risk mitigation and community preparedness. This is also a strategic task to meet sustainability and community resilience goals in multiple countries, where guidelines for both existing and new adobe constructions must be implemented. This chapter provides readers with preliminary information on history, worldwide distribution, construction features and observed performance of adobe constructions for different demand scenarios. These topics are recalled and discussed in more detail in subsequent chapters.
Fulvio Parisi, Nicola Tarque, Humberto Varum, Julio Vargas-Neumann
Behaviour of Adobe Construction in Recent Earthquakes
The adobe masonry is classified as a quasi-brittle material. This is because the material fails under very low tensile stresses. Then, under the action of any type of loading (especially dynamic one), adobe masonry behaviour rapidly changes into nonlinear behaviour. However, adobe masonry resists moderate compressional loading. During earthquake actions, the adobe material starts to fail at the zones of stress concentration, such as corners of openings. Also, vertical cracks at the intersection of two orthogonal walls may appear. This is due to the absence of confinement elements that could guarantee a box behaviour on each floor. If walls continue breaking, then the most probable failure is due to the overturning of walls and the roof collapse. In this chapter, the most common types of failure of adobe buildings are shown and discussed based on field surveys carried out after some earthquakes.
Nicola Tarque, Erkut Sayın, Muhammad Masood Rafi, E. Leroy Tolles
Mechanical Characterization of Adobe Bricks
The mechanical characterization of adobe bricks is an important first step in the study of the behaviour of adobe masonry. For this reason, in the last decades, different authors have conducted research on the mechanical behaviour of adobes from various regions of the world. Despite the importance of mechanical characterization, there are still only a few standards and normative documents with clear indications for the mechanical testing of earthen materials and, in general, these indications are not thorough and vary among different countries. Consequently, authors tend to adopt different types of test specimens and procedures in their experimental work, thus obtaining results that are not directly comparable. The fact that the materials and procedures traditionally used are also not standardized, varying greatly from region to region, also contributes to the difficulty of comparing results from different studies. This chapter presents a review of the indications provided by codes, standards and other technical recommendations for the mechanical testing of adobe bricks, as well as a detailed review of procedures adopted, and results obtained by different authors regarding the mechanical characterization of traditional adobe bricks. This chapter focuses, in particular, on the behaviour of adobe bricks when subjected to simple compression. It provides an overview of the existing knowledge and identifies needs for future research and development.
Dora Silveira, Cristina Oliveira, Humberto Varum, Ioannis Ioannou, Lorenzo Miccoli, Nicola Tarque, Fulvio Parisi, Luigi Fenu, Mario Solís, José D. Rodríguez-Mariscal
Mechanical Characterization of Adobe Masonry
The characterization of the mechanical properties and behaviour of adobe masonry is fundamental for the understanding of the structural behaviour of adobe constructions. Thus, in the last decades, experimental studies focused on this topic have been carried out by different authors. Many of the existing experimental works, however, were carried out aiming to support broader studies focused on the seismic behaviour of adobe constructions and are not very detailed. Moreover, authors tend to adopt different procedures in their experimental work, since there are few indications in existing standards for testing adobe masonry. The wide variety in materials used, both for the adobes and mortars, further complicates this work, making it difficult to compare results obtained in different studies. This chapter provides an overview of the indications given by standards and other technical recommendations for the mechanical testing of adobe masonry. It presents a review of existing research on the mechanical behaviour of adobe masonry, addressing studies that focus on: (i) compression behaviour, (ii) shear behaviour, (iii) joint shear behaviour. It provides a global analysis of the existing knowledge, suggesting improvements for normative documents and identifying future research needs.
Cristina Oliveira, Dora Silveira, Humberto Varum, Fulvio Parisi, Lorenzo Miccoli, Mario Solís, José D. Rodríguez-Mariscal, Nicola Tarque
Quasi-static In-Plane Testing of Adobe Masonry Walls and Structures
The lateral seismic capacity and the in-plane failure pattern of adobe masonry may be understood by performing quasi-static experimental tests on full-scale adobe walls. Information regarding the maximum lateral capacity and the displacement ductility are normally obtained during these tests. Also, information about limit states could be obtained. Along the years, universities in Europe, Asia and Latin America have performed this type of tests and the results of some of these works are summarized in this chapter.
Nicola Tarque, Fulvio Parisi, Domenico Asprone, Andrea Prota, Dora Silveira, Marcial Blondet, Humberto Varum
Shaking Table Testing of Adobe Masonry Structures
This chapter presents the seismic simulation systems (shaking tables) as essential resources for experimental research on adobe masonry structures. An overview of selected relevant shaking tables existing in laboratories around the world gives an idea of the broad testing scope possible with this type of equipment. Its use in testing of adobe masonry structures goes back to 1986 at the University of California at Berkeley and to 1988 at the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru (PUCP). Shaking table testing has been considered the experimental technique that may closest reproduce the real behaviour of an adobe structure during earthquakes. After the description of a typical shaking table test procedure, based on more than thirty years of PUCP experience, some seismic simulation tests on adobe masonry structures performed in different countries are briefly described. Each case presents the basic characteristics of the shaking table and some qualitative results obtained to understand the seismic behaviour of adobe masonry structures.
Marcial Blondet, Nicola Tarque, Francisco Ginocchio, Gladys Villa-García
Non-destructive (NDT) and Minor-destructive (MDT) Testing Tools to Support the Structural Characterization of Adobe Constructions
Adobe constructions are widely used worldwide as low-cost vernacular buildings and also as monuments and historical constructions. Beside low cost these materials have excellent thermal and acoustic properties. Some challenges of this material involves durability and high vulnerability to seismic motions due to its relatively high weight and brittleness. To improve safety levels of existing adobe structures it is often necessary to strengthen or retrofit them based on a structural characterization. The structural characterization requires assessment of the in situ condition, geometry, engineering properties of existing adobe construction and buildings using minimal to no intrusion. In this chapter we present a general overview of commonly used NDT and MDT methods for the assessment of existing adobe construction to obtain information such as: detailed geometry information, damage mapping, and multi-scale mechanical and physical characterization. Additional to literature review summarizing different applications of NDT and MDT, this chapter presents four case studies related to projects in Peru recently performed by the research group led by the first author. The descriptions and results of NDT and MDT tests carried out at these case studies highlight how the use of several NDT and MDT methodologies complement each other and allow a suitable multi-scale characterization of existing adobe structural systems, that can successfully be used for the diagnosis, and design of intervention and retrofit measures as needed.
Rafael Aguilar, Mauricio Gonzales, Miguel A. Pando
Seismic Strengthening Techniques for Adobe Construction
Heavy damage to adobe constructions observed after earthquakes, experimental programmes and numerical simulations have demonstrated high vulnerability levels that require appropriate strengthening measures. Given that a large fraction of adobe constructions are located in less developed countries, there is a need for effective strengthening techniques that are low-cost and easy to install at the same time. In this chapter, a comprehensive selection of research studies is critically reviewed to provide useful information to researchers and professionals involved in the conservation and retrofit of adobe constructions.
Fulvio Parisi, Marcial Blondet, Andrew Charleson, Humberto Varum
Numerical Modelling of Adobe Structures
Numerical assessment of adobe structures allow several drawbacks of experimental testing to be overcome, either to carry out back-analyses or to predict the seismic performance of real constructions. Among a number of modelling strategies, this chapter presents the main features of the finite element method, discrete element method and equivalent frame method, discussing their implementation in the case of adobe constructions. Pros and cons of each modelling approach are identified in view of real-world applications. Recent developments are discussed and research needs are detected for future studies.
Fulvio Parisi, Dominique Daudon, Rogiros Illampas, Paulo B. Lourenço, Nicola Tarque
Research Developments and Needs on Seismic Performance and Strengthening of Adobe Masonry Constructions
The significant amount of studies on adobe masonry constructions, which have received growing interest from researchers and practitioners, allows preliminary conclusions on the state-of-the-art to be drawn. Besides, several research needs can be delineated to create the basis for knowledge development and implementation of seismic risk mitigation programmes. Past studies moved from material characterization to structural performance assessment through numerical simulation and experimental testing, as well as seismic strengthening. Future lines of research could focus on test standardisation, non-destructive and minor-destructive testing, full-scale testing to support structural modelling and strengthening, and numerical simulation through discrete element and equivalent frame methods.
Fulvio Parisi, Nicola Tarque, Humberto Varum
Structural Characterization and Seismic Retrofitting of Adobe Constructions
Prof. Dr. Humberto Varum
Prof. Dr. Fulvio Parisi
Prof. Dr. Nicola Tarque
Dora Silveira
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