Skip to main content
Top

Hint

Swipe to navigate through the chapters of this book

2018 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

Student Learning Benefits of a Mixed-Reality Teacher Awareness Tool in AI-Enhanced Classrooms

Authors : Kenneth Holstein, Bruce M. McLaren, Vincent Aleven

Published in: Artificial Intelligence in Education

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

share
SHARE

Abstract

When used in K-12 classrooms, intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) can be highly effective in helping students learn. However, they might be even more effective if designed to work together with human teachers, to amplify their abilities and leverage their complementary strengths. In the present work, we designed a wearable, real-time teacher awareness tool: mixed-reality smart glasses that tune teachers in to the rich analytics generated by ITSs, alerting them to situations the ITS may be ill-suited to handle. A 3-condition experiment with 286 middle school students, across 18 classrooms and 8 teachers, found that presenting teachers with real-time analytics about student learning, metacognition, and behavior had a positive impact on student learning, compared with both business-as-usual and classroom monitoring support without advanced analytics. Our findings suggest that real-time teacher analytics can help to narrow the gap in learning outcomes across students of varying prior ability. This is the first experimental study showing that real-time teacher analytics can enhance student learning. This research illustrates the promise of AIED systems that integrate human and machine intelligence to support student learning.
Literature
1.
go back to reference Alavi, H.S., Dillenbourg, P.: An ambient awareness tool for supporting supervised collaborative problem solving. IEEE TLT 5, 264–274 (2012) Alavi, H.S., Dillenbourg, P.: An ambient awareness tool for supporting supervised collaborative problem solving. IEEE TLT 5, 264–274 (2012)
3.
go back to reference Aleven, V., McLaren, B.M., Sewall, J., Koedinger, K.R.: A new paradigm for intelligent tutoring systems: example-tracing tutors. IJAIED 19(2), 105–154 (2009) Aleven, V., McLaren, B.M., Sewall, J., Koedinger, K.R.: A new paradigm for intelligent tutoring systems: example-tracing tutors. IJAIED 19(2), 105–154 (2009)
4.
go back to reference Aleven, V., Roll, I., McLaren, B.M., Koedinger, K.R.: Help helps, but only so much: research on help seeking with intelligent tutoring systems. IJAIED 26, 205–223 (2016) Aleven, V., Roll, I., McLaren, B.M., Koedinger, K.R.: Help helps, but only so much: research on help seeking with intelligent tutoring systems. IJAIED 26, 205–223 (2016)
5.
go back to reference Alphen, E.V., Bakker, S.: Lernanto: using an ambient display during differentiated instruction. In: CHI EA (2016) Alphen, E.V., Bakker, S.: Lernanto: using an ambient display during differentiated instruction. In: CHI EA (2016)
6.
go back to reference Baker, R.S.: Modeling and understanding students off-task behavior in intelligent tutoring systems. In: CHI, pp. 1059–1068 (2007) Baker, R.S.: Modeling and understanding students off-task behavior in intelligent tutoring systems. In: CHI, pp. 1059–1068 (2007)
7.
go back to reference Baker, R.S.: Stupid tutoring systems, intelligent humans. IJAIED 26(2), 600–614 (2016) Baker, R.S.: Stupid tutoring systems, intelligent humans. IJAIED 26(2), 600–614 (2016)
8.
go back to reference Baker, R.S., Corbett, A.T., Roll, I., Koedinger, K.R.: Developing a generalizable detector of when students game the system. UMUAI 18(3), 287–314 (2008) Baker, R.S., Corbett, A.T., Roll, I., Koedinger, K.R.: Developing a generalizable detector of when students game the system. UMUAI 18(3), 287–314 (2008)
12.
13.
go back to reference Corbett, A.T., Anderson, J.R.: Knowledge tracing: modeling the acquisition of procedural knowledge. UMUAI 4(4), 253–278 (1995) Corbett, A.T., Anderson, J.R.: Knowledge tracing: modeling the acquisition of procedural knowledge. UMUAI 4(4), 253–278 (1995)
14.
go back to reference Desmarais, M.C., Baker, R.S.: A review of recent advances in learner and skill modeling in intelligent learning environments. UMUAI 22(1–2), 9–38 (2012) Desmarais, M.C., Baker, R.S.: A review of recent advances in learner and skill modeling in intelligent learning environments. UMUAI 22(1–2), 9–38 (2012)
16.
go back to reference Dillenbourg, P.: Trends in classroom orchestration. STELLAR 1, 5 (2011) Dillenbourg, P.: Trends in classroom orchestration. STELLAR 1, 5 (2011)
17.
go back to reference Hanington, B., Martin, B.: Universal methods of design: 100 ways to research complex problems, develop innovative ideas, and design effective solutions. Rockport (2012) Hanington, B., Martin, B.: Universal methods of design: 100 ways to research complex problems, develop innovative ideas, and design effective solutions. Rockport (2012)
19.
go back to reference Holstein, K., Hong, G., Tegene, M., McLaren, B. M., Aleven, V.: The classroom as a dashboard: co-designing wearable cognitive augmentation for K-12 teachers. In: LAK, pp. 79–88. ACM (2018) Holstein, K., Hong, G., Tegene, M., McLaren, B. M., Aleven, V.: The classroom as a dashboard: co-designing wearable cognitive augmentation for K-12 teachers. In: LAK, pp. 79–88. ACM (2018)
20.
go back to reference Holstein, K., McLaren, B.M., Aleven, V.: Informing the design of teacher awareness tools through causal alignment analysis. In: ICLS (in press) Holstein, K., McLaren, B.M., Aleven, V.: Informing the design of teacher awareness tools through causal alignment analysis. In: ICLS (in press)
21.
go back to reference Holstein, K., McLaren, B.M., Aleven, V.: Intelligent tutors as teachers’ aides: exploring teacher needs for real-time analytics in blended classrooms. In: LAK, pp. 257–266. ACM (2017) Holstein, K., McLaren, B.M., Aleven, V.: Intelligent tutors as teachers’ aides: exploring teacher needs for real-time analytics in blended classrooms. In: LAK, pp. 257–266. ACM (2017)
22.
go back to reference Holstein, K., McLaren, B.M., Aleven, V.: SPACLE: investigating learning across virtual and physical spaces using spatial replays. In: LAK, pp. 358–367. ACM (2017) Holstein, K., McLaren, B.M., Aleven, V.: SPACLE: investigating learning across virtual and physical spaces using spatial replays. In: LAK, pp. 358–367. ACM (2017)
23.
go back to reference Kai, S., Almeda, V.A., Baker, R.S., Shechtman, N., Heffernan, C., Heffernan, N.: Modeling wheel-spinning and productive persistence in skill builders. In: JEDM (in press) Kai, S., Almeda, V.A., Baker, R.S., Shechtman, N., Heffernan, C., Heffernan, N.: Modeling wheel-spinning and productive persistence in skill builders. In: JEDM (in press)
25.
go back to reference Kulik, J.A., Fletcher, J.D.: Effectiveness of intelligent tutoring systems: a meta-analytic review. RER 86(1), 42–78 (2016) Kulik, J.A., Fletcher, J.D.: Effectiveness of intelligent tutoring systems: a meta-analytic review. RER 86(1), 42–78 (2016)
30.
go back to reference Martinez-Maldonado, R., Clayphan, A., Yacef, K., Kay, J.: MTFeedback: providing notifications to enhance teacher awareness of small group work in the classroom. IEEE TLT 8(2), 187–200 (2015) Martinez-Maldonado, R., Clayphan, A., Yacef, K., Kay, J.: MTFeedback: providing notifications to enhance teacher awareness of small group work in the classroom. IEEE TLT 8(2), 187–200 (2015)
31.
go back to reference Mavrikis, M., Gutierrez-Santos, S., Poulovassilis, A.: Design and evaluation of teacher assistance tools for exploratory learning environments. In: LAK, pp. 168–172. ACM (2016) Mavrikis, M., Gutierrez-Santos, S., Poulovassilis, A.: Design and evaluation of teacher assistance tools for exploratory learning environments. In: LAK, pp. 168–172. ACM (2016)
34.
go back to reference Pelánek, R., Řihák, J.: Experimental analysis of mastery learning criteria. In: UMAP, pp. 156–163. ACM (2017) Pelánek, R., Řihák, J.: Experimental analysis of mastery learning criteria. In: UMAP, pp. 156–163. ACM (2017)
35.
go back to reference Prieto, L.P.: Supporting orchestration of blended CSCL scenarios in distributed learning environments. Unpublished doctoral thesis (2012) Prieto, L.P.: Supporting orchestration of blended CSCL scenarios in distributed learning environments. Unpublished doctoral thesis (2012)
36.
go back to reference Prieto, L.P., Sharma, K., Dillenbourg, P., Jesús, M.: Teaching analytics: towards automatic extraction of orchestration graphs using wearable sensors. In: LAK, pp. 148–157. ACM (2016) Prieto, L.P., Sharma, K., Dillenbourg, P., Jesús, M.: Teaching analytics: towards automatic extraction of orchestration graphs using wearable sensors. In: LAK, pp. 148–157. ACM (2016)
37.
go back to reference Ritter, S., Yudelson, M., Fancsali, S.E., Berman, S.R.: How mastery learning works at scale. In: L@S, pp. 71–79. ACM (2016) Ritter, S., Yudelson, M., Fancsali, S.E., Berman, S.R.: How mastery learning works at scale. In: L@S, pp. 71–79. ACM (2016)
38.
go back to reference Ritter, S., Yudelson, M., Fancsali, S., Berman, S.R.: Towards integrating human and automated tutoring systems. In: EDM, pp. 626–627 (2016) Ritter, S., Yudelson, M., Fancsali, S., Berman, S.R.: Towards integrating human and automated tutoring systems. In: EDM, pp. 626–627 (2016)
39.
go back to reference Rodríguez-Triana, M.J., Prieto, L.P., Vozniuk, A., Boroujeni, M.S., Schwendimann, B.A., Holzer, A., Gillet, D.: Monitoring, awareness and reflection in blended technology enhanced learning: a systematic review. IJTEL 9(23), 126–150 (2017) CrossRef Rodríguez-Triana, M.J., Prieto, L.P., Vozniuk, A., Boroujeni, M.S., Schwendimann, B.A., Holzer, A., Gillet, D.: Monitoring, awareness and reflection in blended technology enhanced learning: a systematic review. IJTEL 9(23), 126–150 (2017) CrossRef
40.
go back to reference Segal, A., Hindi, S., Prusak, N., Swidan, O., Livni, A., Palatnic, A., Schwarz, B., Gal, Y.: Keeping the teacher in the loop: technologies for monitoring group learning in real-time. In: André, E., Baker, R., Hu, X., Rodrigo, M.M.T., du Boulay, B. (eds.) AIED 2017. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 10331, pp. 64–76. Springer, Cham (2017). https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-3-319-61425-0_​6 CrossRef Segal, A., Hindi, S., Prusak, N., Swidan, O., Livni, A., Palatnic, A., Schwarz, B., Gal, Y.: Keeping the teacher in the loop: technologies for monitoring group learning in real-time. In: André, E., Baker, R., Hu, X., Rodrigo, M.M.T., du Boulay, B. (eds.) AIED 2017. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 10331, pp. 64–76. Springer, Cham (2017). https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-3-319-61425-0_​6 CrossRef
41.
go back to reference Schofield, J.W.: Computers and Classroom Culture. University Press, Cambridge (1995) CrossRef Schofield, J.W.: Computers and Classroom Culture. University Press, Cambridge (1995) CrossRef
42.
go back to reference Stang, J.B., Roll, I.: Interactions between teaching assistants and students boost engagement in physics labs. Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res. 10(2), 020117 (2014) CrossRef Stang, J.B., Roll, I.: Interactions between teaching assistants and students boost engagement in physics labs. Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res. 10(2), 020117 (2014) CrossRef
43.
go back to reference Tissenbaum, M., Matuk, C.: Real-time visualization of student activities to support classroom orchestration. In: ICLS, pp. 1120–1127 (2016) Tissenbaum, M., Matuk, C.: Real-time visualization of student activities to support classroom orchestration. In: ICLS, pp. 1120–1127 (2016)
44.
go back to reference Xhakaj, F., Aleven, V., McLaren, B.M.: Effects of a teacher dashboard for an intelligent tutoring system on teacher knowledge, lesson planning, lessons and student learning. In: Lavoué, É., Drachsler, H., Verbert, K., Broisin, J., Pérez-Sanagustín, M. (eds.) EC-TEL 2017. LNCS, vol. 10474, pp. 315–329. Springer, Cham (2017). https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-3-319-66610-5_​23 CrossRef Xhakaj, F., Aleven, V., McLaren, B.M.: Effects of a teacher dashboard for an intelligent tutoring system on teacher knowledge, lesson planning, lessons and student learning. In: Lavoué, É., Drachsler, H., Verbert, K., Broisin, J., Pérez-Sanagustín, M. (eds.) EC-TEL 2017. LNCS, vol. 10474, pp. 315–329. Springer, Cham (2017). https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-3-319-66610-5_​23 CrossRef
45.
go back to reference Yacef, K.: Intelligent teaching assistant systems. In: ICCE, pp. 136–140. IEEE (2002) Yacef, K.: Intelligent teaching assistant systems. In: ICCE, pp. 136–140. IEEE (2002)
Metadata
Title
Student Learning Benefits of a Mixed-Reality Teacher Awareness Tool in AI-Enhanced Classrooms
Authors
Kenneth Holstein
Bruce M. McLaren
Vincent Aleven
Copyright Year
2018
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93843-1_12

Premium Partner