Skip to main content
main-content
Top

About this book

This book is the first comprehensive review of the subsurface monitoring theory and practice. It presents all aspects of a subsurface monitoring system SM-NI to be organized in impacted areas of nuclear industry enterprises. The content of the book covers the whole set of the SM-NI projecting and implementation issues – from the theoretical and regulatory framework, through the description of the sources of impact on geological environment to examples of use the SM-NI to solve environmental problems on the main types of environmentally significant nuclear industry enterprises. Development of the SM-NI was based on long-term research studies including modeling of pollutants transport in the geological environment.

The book is intended for a wide range of nuclear industry employees and specialists in environment protection and radiation safety of nuclear industry enterprises. It might be useful for ecologists, students and postgraduates concerned about environment protection in the field of nuclear technology

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Subsoil Monitoring at Nuclear Industry Enterprises: Basic Provisions

Abstract
The chapter provides the basics of the SM–NI system—the need for the system, the theoretical foundations of monitoring, and types of observations. Environmental monitoring systems were developed and implemented within the SC “Rosatom” to obtain reliable information on the current and future impact of its enterprises on the environment, including the subsoil. In accordance with the SM–NI concept, we have adopted the purpose of any kind of environmental monitoring is to obtain the necessary and sufficient information for environmental management. The main tasks and activities within the functional blocks of the SM–NI conceptual scheme are outlined. Observed environment parameters, subsystems, and types of the SM–NI observations are considered.
Mark Glinsky, Vladimir Vetrov, Alexander Abramov, Leonid Chertkov

Chapter 2. Impact of Nuclear Enterprises on the Subsoil

Abstract
The chapter discusses different types of impact on the subsoil and the environment from various enterprises of the nuclear industry—from uranium ore mining to RW management. Particularly dangerous and technically aggregated industrial objects within nuclear enterprises are considered as sources of technogenic impact on the subsoil. What we consider in this chapter are five groups of production facilities that belong to the most environmentally hazardous NFC stages (in brackets—number of production facilities types): uranium ore mining and processing enterprises (5); radiochemical production (3); production of nuclear fuel (1); nuclear power plants (4); radioactive waste management (5). For each type of production facilities, we consider different types of impact on the subsoil: r/a contamination; hydrochemical, hydrodynamic, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical, and seismic impacts.
Mark Glinsky, Vladimir Vetrov, Alexander Abramov, Leonid Chertkov

Chapter 3. Organization of the SM–NI System

Abstract
In accordance with the adopted classification, we distinguish five groups of enterprises including 17 typical objects that are part of nuclear industry enterprises at different stages of the NFC (see Сhap. 2). Main requirements are put forward to ensure the necessary environmental and economic efficiency of the SM–NI system and for justification of its functional and organizational structure. The SM–NI Center manages the SM–NI system at SC “Rosatom” enterprises and summarizes monitoring results for submission to the SC and its enterprises management. All details of organization and conducting the SM–NI are discussed—from the network of observation points to monitoring programs for all 17 typical objects and 5 types of observations. In accordance to the general conceptual framework for monitoring, the chapter concludes with the discussion of the general approach to environment assessment and development of environmental measures based on SM–NI results.
Mark Glinsky, Vladimir Vetrov, Alexander Abramov, Leonid Chertkov

Chapter 4. The SM–NI Analytical Information System

Abstract
Information block—the analytical information system, AIS—is one of the main functional elements of the SM–NI system (see Сhap. 3) solves the following tasks: the maintenance of databases; analysis and processing of observation data, drafting of help and analytical reports; providing input data for filtration and migration modeling; exchange of information between the central server of the SM–NI system and enterprises. The chapter provides a description of the AIS–SM–NI functional structure, which consists of five interconnected subsystems. The main principles of the AIS–SM–NI development are an open architecture and application of the latest information technologies. The system operates within the local area network at the SM–NI Center, as well as within a network of geographically distributed subscriber points. The recommended software structure is described.
Mark Glinsky, Vladimir Vetrov, Alexander Abramov, Leonid Chertkov

Chapter 5. The SM–NI Software

Abstract
The general task of modeling within the SM–NI is epignous and forecast calculations of the controlled object environment impact. The first step in the modeling methodology is the development of the so-called generic hydrogeological model (GHGM), on the basis of which the main types of the monitored object mathematical models are developed—exploration, geofiltration, geomigration, and permanent hydrogeological models (PHGM). The AIS–SM–NI model block takes the form of a specially developed program package (PP) that combines a set of models describing physical, chemical, filtration, and thermal processes into a common AIS–SM–NI software. Computer programs and PPs are described and currently used in Russia for mathematical modeling of underground heat and mass transfer processes including the PP “NYMPHA” designed to work on high-parallel supercomputers of domestic production.
Mark Glinsky, Vladimir Vetrov, Alexander Abramov, Leonid Chertkov

Chapter 6. Case Studies: Use of the SM–NI at Nuclear Industry Enterprises

Abstract
Five large enterprises of leading NFC concerns were selected as examples of the SM–NI use in the nuclear industry: PA “Mayak”; PC Siberian Chemical Combine; Novovoronezh NPP; PC State Research Center—Research Institute of Nuclear Reactors; Kirovo-Chepetsk Department of the FSE “RosRAO.” The results of the SM–NI at these nuclear industry enterprises are presented. For each enterprise, man-made and natural factors that govern parameters and indicators of monitoring are considered: physical and geographical conditions; geological structure, hydrogeological pattern; location and parameters of impact sources on the subsoil; observations types and relevant observation networks; the SM–NI results. Special attention was paid to the use of monitoring data for assessing and forecasting the subsoil state. For some of the reviewed companies, analyzing and summarizing SM–NI results were brought to the recommendations for the development of environmental measures.
Mark Glinsky, Vladimir Vetrov, Alexander Abramov, Leonid Chertkov

Backmatter

Additional information