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2023 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

15. Summary of Empirical Results and Discussion

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Abstract

Based on the conceptual foundation and theoretical findings of the previous chapter, hypotheses were derived. In order to test these, we applied a 2 (“multiple product endorsement”: low versus high) x 4 (“disclosure type”: (a) #honestopinion, (b) This is not a sponsored post, (c) Paid partnership with the [brand] and the control group (d) no disclosure) between-subjects experimental design.

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Footnotes
1
Cf. BURMANN (2018), pp. 237 et seqq.
 
2
Cf. STATISTA (2019c).
 
3
Cf. BOERMAN (2020), p. 199; EVANS ET AL. (2017); BOERMAN ET AL. (2017), p. 82; HOOFNAGLE/MELESHINSKY (2015), pp. 2 et seq.; MEYER (2019).
 
4
Cf. FERRER-CONILL (2016), p. 2; KAY/MULCAHY/PARKINSON (2020), p. 3.
 
5
Cf. FTC (2019); EASA (2018a); AUDREZET/DE KERVILER/MOULARD (2020), p. 600.
 
6
Cf. INSTAGRAM (2017 A); BOERMAN (2020), shows that the standardized disclosure (‘Paid partnership with [brand]’) increases the recognition in the case of sponsored post on Instagram Cf. BOERMAN (2020), p. 201.
 
7
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2019), p. 528.; MARTÍNEZ-LÓPEZ ET AL. (2020), p. 1809.
 
8
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), p. 211.
 
9
Cf. KLEIN/BECKER (2018), p. 3.
 
10
Cf. MOWEN/BROWN (1981) pp. 437 et seq.
 
11
Cf. MOWEN/BROWN (1981) p. 438.
 
12
Cf. MOWEN/BROWN (1981); TRIPP/JENSEN/CARLSON (1994), p. 540 et seq.; CHEN ET AL. (2013); KLEIN/BECKER (2018) MPE has a negative effect on trustworthiness, particularly for macro SMIs.
 
13
According to KLEIN/BECKER (2018), MPE improves the attractiveness of the SMI. The authors explain that this effect potentially occurs in their study as the SMI is associated with several high-status brands, which might transfer some of their brand reputation back to the endorsing SMI. Cf. KLEIN/BECKER (2018), p. 8.
 
14
Cf. MOEWEN/BROWN (1981), p. 437; CHEN ET AL. (2013), p. 851; KLEIN/BECKER (2018), p. 4.
 
15
Cf. FRIESTAD/WRIGHT (1994), pp. 1 et seqq.; KIM/KIM (2020) p. 3; BECKERT ET AL. (2020), p. 1168.
 
16
Cf. FRIESTAD/WRIGHT (1994), pp. 1 et seqq.; STUBB ET AL. (2019a), p. 112; REIJMERSDAL ET AL. (2020), p. 96.
 
17
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2016), p. 529.
 
18
Cf. BREHM (1989), pp. 72 et seq.
 
19
Cf. BREHM (1989), pp. 72 et seq.
 
20
Cf. VAN REIJMERSDAL ET AL. (2016), p. 1461; WOJDYNSKI/EVANS, (2016), p. 157; EVANS ET AL. (2017), p. 144; BOERMAN ET AL. (2015), p. 196; BOERMAN (2020), p. 108, KIM/KIM (2020), p. 3.
 
21
Cf. KELLY (1973), p. 113; HWANG/JEONG (2016), p. 529.
 
22
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2016), p. 529.
 
23
Cf. MOWEN/BROWN (1981) pp. 437 et seq.
 
24
Cf. TRIPP/JENSEN/CARLSON (1994), pp. 540 et seq. The authors focus on celebrity endorsers, not on SMI endorsers. For further information regarding this differentiation see SINNIG (2019), pp. 59 et seqq.
 
25
Cf. SINNIG (2019), pp. 11 et seqq.
 
26
Cf. SINNIG (2019), p. 31; ERDOGAN (1999), p. 293.
 
27
Cf. KLEIN / BECKER (2018), p. 8. Quantitative, online experiment, N = 1238. They observe three influencer types (micro, macro and celebrity) while considering an MPE vs. no MPE scenario, for advertising disclosure (no disclosure vs. hashtag vs standardized disclosure).
 
28
Cf. PARK ET AL. (2010), p. 2; BURMANN AL. (2017), p. 102; BURMANN AL. (2018), pp. 20 et seqq.; LIENEMANN (2021), pp. 28 et seqq.
 
29
Cf. CHOI/RIFON (2012), p. 643; LIENEMANN (2021), p. 101.
 
30
Cf. LIENEMANN (2021), p. 57.
 
31
Cf. GEUENS/DE PELSMACKER (2017), p. 86; SINNIG (2019), p. 100; LIENEMANN (2021), p. 102.
 
32
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2016), p. 533.
 
33
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2016), pp. 530 et seqq.
 
34
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), p. 213.
 
35
Cf. HERRANDO/MARTÍN-DE HOYOS (2022), p. 2.
 
36
Cf. HERRANDO/MARTÍN-DE HOYOS (2022), p. 8.
 
37
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), p. 218.
 
38
Cf. CARR/HAYES (2014), p. 43.
 
39
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2016), p. 531.
 
40
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2016), p. 531.
 
41
Cf. TATAGE (2017), p. 37.
 
42
Cf. SOKOLOVA/KEFI (2019), p. 10.
 
43
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), p. 218.
 
44
Cf. THIEFES (2021), p. 185.
 
45
Cf. PETTY/CACIOPPO (1986), p. 123.
 
46
Cf. MOSLER (2006), p. 1 et seqq.; SOKOLOVA/KEFI (2019), p. 2.
 
47
Cf. KIM/KIM (2020), p. 5.
 
48
Cf. BOERMAN (2020), p. 201.
 
49
Cf. KARAGÜR/BECKER/ KLEIN/EDELING (2021), p. 34.
 
50
Cf. MARTINEZ-LOPEZ ET AL. (2020), p. 1817.
 
51
Cf. BREHM/BREHM (1981), p. 72; STEINDEL ET AL. (2006), p. 205.
 
52
Cf. HERRANDO/MARTÍN-DE HOYOS (2022), p. 2.
 
53
Cf. HERRANDO/MARTÍN-DE HOYOS (2022), p. 8.
 
54
Cf. KLEIN/BECKER (2018), p. 7.
 
55
Cf. KLEIN/BECKER (2018), p. 3.
 
56
Cf. TRIPP/JENSEN/CARLSON (1994), p. 543.
 
57
Cf. ERDOGAN (1999), p. 296.
 
58
Cf. HERRANDO/MARTÍN-DE HOYOS (2022), p. 2.
 
59
Cf. SOKOLOVA/KEFI (2019), p. 9.
 
60
Cf. KI ET AL. (2020), p. 1.
 
61
Cf. SÁNCHEZ-FERNÁNDEZ/JIMÉNEZ-CASTILLO (2021), p. 1124.
 
62
Cf. LIENEMANN (2021), p. 118.
 
Metadata
Title
Summary of Empirical Results and Discussion
Author
Corina Oprea
Copyright Year
2023
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-41364-4_15

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