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About this book

This book presents the state of the art in the processing, properties, and applications in various fields of science and technology related to graphene and its derivatives. It also discusses the limitations and drawbacks of graphene due to some of its intrinsic properties. Further, it provides a brief overview of graphene analogs, comparing the properties of graphene with those of other similar 2D materials.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Present Status and Prospect of Graphene Research

Abstract
Among various carbon allotropies, graphene has been considered the most attractive one, till date. After its discovery, graphene research has been gone through different phases. With tremendous progress in graphene research, various types of advanced graphene materials have been developed depending on the specific application. Different synthetic approaches have been employed to synthesize high-quality graphene materials. Recently, graphene has been successfully combined with other promising 2D materials to form multifunctional 2D hybrids. In this chapter, the recent progress on graphene research has been emphasized. The current trends of the synthesis, properties, application, and commercialization of graphene materials have been briefly discussed.
Sumanta Sahoo, Ganesh Chandra Nayak

Graphene-Based Advanced Materials: Properties and Their Key Applications

Abstract
Since the last 500 years, science is becoming more and more dominant in our civilization and continuously making the life of human beings more convenient. Along with the numerous fundamental discoveries and innovations, twenty-first century will be evoked as technological achievements for a long time. Among the many outstanding scientific achievements, the introduction of graphene can be considered as one of the most important breakthroughs for this century. This single-atom thin 2D carbon nanomaterial is the foundation of all graphitic structures. Owing to its amazing physical and chemical properties, graphene has found applications in many scientific and technological fields, from medical science to aerospace engineering. However, scientists of the various disciplines are working hard individually and in collaborations around the globe to utilize and explore application potentials of the graphene and its derivatives (graphene oxide, graphene quantum dot, graphene nanoribbon, functionalized graphene etc.). In this chapter, some novel discoveries and innovations closely related to the graphene-based advanced nanomaterials for the real-time applications have been reviewed in detail, especially in contest of high-performance polymer blends, nanocomposites for catalysis, water splitting and 3D printings. In addition, a brief outline for the fabrication of graphene-based polymer blends and nanocomposites has also been discussed with appropriate citations for the further reading.
Santosh Kumar Tiwari, Nannan Wang, Sung Kyu Ha

Graphene and Its Derivatives for Secondary Battery Application

Abstract
Graphene has prophesied itself as a potentially promising greenhorn with unique electronic properties. Attention toward graphene-based material is mainly attributed to its outstanding electrical, mechanical, thermal properties besides very large specific surface area and the tenability that can be achieved for various properties through functionalization and/or moderation. Due to the various unique properties possessed by the graphene sheets including the ease of synthesis and provision for surface functionalization, graphene and materials derived from graphene have been exhibiting great potential in the field of energy storage. This chapter accounts for a brief introduction to the graphene material followed by a brief discussion on the recent advances in the field of its derivatives. This chapter also accounts for the application of graphene and graphene-derived materials in the field of energy storage specifically batteries in various forms like lithium-ion, sodium-ion, lithium-air, and lithium-sulfur batteries.
Anukul K. Thakur, Mandira Majumder, Shashi B. Singh

Recent Progress in Graphene Research for the Solar Cell Application

Abstract
In the past few years, tremendous efforts have been devoted to the synthesis and application of graphene and its derivatives toward the development of graphene-based solar photovoltaics. With their extraordinary electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties graphene-based materials are considered as an ideal candidate for the fabrication of low-cost and scalable photovoltaic devices. In fact, graphene-based materials have been successfully implemented in all types of photovoltaics including Si-based Schottky junction solar cells to the perovskite solar cells. Although, graphene-based solar cells have not yet been commercially applied and most of them are still limited to the research and development phase, however, it has a great potential to replace conventional transparent conducting oxides. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the applications of graphene and its derivatives, namely graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide in the field of organic, perovskite, and dye-sensitized solar cells. The key challenges of the graphene-based solar cells are also addressed along with their promising future in flexible photovoltaics.
Raju Nandi, Soumyadeep Sinha, Jaeyeong Heo, Soo-Hyun Kim, Dip K. Nandi

Graphene and Its Modifications for Supercapacitor Applications

Abstract
Supercapacitors, also termed as electrochemical capacitors or ultracapacitors store charge using high surface area conducting materials. However, their extensive use is limited by the low energy density delivered and relatively high effective series resistance. In order to improve the specific capacitance, energy density as well as the power density, combining materials with requisite properties resulting in hybrids seems to be an attractive way out. Carbon forms one of the most prime materials to be used as supercapacitor electrodes. Structurally modified graphene through chemical functionalization reveals numerous possibilities for attaining tunable structural and electrochemical properties. Till now several chemical and physical functionalization methods have been explored in order to augment the stabilization and result in modification of the graphene. This chapter is concerned detailing the variety of chemical modifications routes of graphene reported so far, their effect on the electrochemical properties of graphene and the applicability of the developed material as a supercapacitor electrode material.
Mandira Majumder, Anukul K. Thakur

Functionalization of Graphene—A Critical Overview of its Improved Physical, Chemical and Electrochemical Properties

Abstract
Graphene, the 2D allotrope of carbon, is reported to be functionalized with a plethora of organic and inorganic species. This functionalization imparts significant improvement in the physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of graphene. The covalent and non-covalent functionalization of graphene with electron-rich organic moieties and heteroatoms is focused on different sections of this chapter. The focus is laid on the improvement in physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of graphene achieved through this functionalization. The enhancement in electrocatalytic activity of non-metal-doped graphene towards the oxygen reduction reaction, methanol oxidation reaction and photocatalysis is covered. Towards the end, the potential uses of functionalized graphene for selected applications like biosensors, fuel cells and dye-sensitized solar cells are also discussed.
Ramesh Kumar Singh, Naresh Nalajala, Tathagata Kar, Alex Schechter

Synthesis and Properties of Graphene and Graphene Oxide-Based Polymer Composites

Abstract
Graphene and graphene oxide-based polymer composites have remarkable interests over the last one decade due to their excellent mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. The nanometric synthesized fillers with polymeric matrix enhance the structural, morphological and functional properties of the composite materials, and this can be prepared by both ex situ/in situ processes. However, the presence of graphene and graphene oxide even at a very small amount of loadings can give major reinforcement to the final properties of the composites. In addition, graphene is one of the finest material of choice for electronic and energy storage applications in the form of polymer–graphene composites. This chapter reviews and explores the progresses of fabrication of graphene and graphene oxide-based polymer composites with different polymer matrixes such as poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), epoxy and polyurethane (PU) with special emphasis on their modification, surface alternation and their properties from the scientific literature.
Srikanta Moharana, Sushree Kalyani Kar, Mukesh K. Mishra, R. N. Mahaling

Application of Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) for Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells

Abstract
Rapid increase in performance of methyl ammonium lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has been observed in the last decade, reaching overall power conversion efficiency up to 23%. This made them the serious alternative to the silicon-based solar cells. However, there are still several challenges to address before commercialization of this kind of solar cell technology. For example, PSCs showed very poor tolerance against moisture, oxygen, temperature, and UV illumination. The graphene and its derivatives [in particular, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO)] demonstrate several key features that may address above-underlined issues prevailing in PSCs and also in organic photovoltaic solar cells (OPVs), leading to enhance the energy conversion efficiency of these third-generation photovoltaic devices. In this context, this review highlighted on the key features of graphene, GO, and rGO and also provides overview of very latest successful examples of their applications as TCO, electron transport layer or hole transport layer mainly in PSCs. Finally, the potential issues and the perspective for future research in graphene-based materials for PSC applications are presented.
Bhim P. Kafle

Graphene and Graphene Oxide as Nanofiller for Polymer Blends

Abstract
Due to its exceptionally outstanding electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties, graphene is being explored for a wide array of applications and has attracted enormous scientific and industrial interest. In this present work, recent research and development of the utilization of graphene and graphene oxide as nanofiller in the fabrication of nanocomposites with different polymer matrices are developed. Most production methods of graphene and the processing of Graphene/polymer blends are discussed. We also review the electrical, mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties of these blends and the influence of the intrinsic properties of these fillers (graphene and its derivatives) and their state of dispersion in polymer matrix on the properties.
Benalia Kouini, Hossem Belhamdi

Facile Room Temperature Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide as Efficient Metal-Free Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

Abstract
A continuous global demand for energy resources poses serious threats to the human race in forms of pollution that stimulates many natural hazards. To overcome such problems, fuel cell technology seems to be a viable solution. However, it remains a challenge to develop highly efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to achieve optimal performance for the fuel cells. Herein, we demonstrate a facile room temperature synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) via chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using sodium iodide (NaI) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). As-synthesized GO and RGO were employed as an efficient electrocatalyst for the ORR in 0.1 M KOH. The RGO shows higher ORR activity compared to GO due to its higher surface area and low charge transfer resistance. Thus as-synthesized RGO is found to be a viable metal-free electrocatalyst with higher current density, larger half-wave potential, and long-term operation stability for ORR via a four-electron pathway in alkaline media. The high performance of cost-effective RGO-based ORR electrodes is suitable to function as an alternative to platinum-based materials for energy conversion device applications.
Arpan Kumar Nayak, Akshaya Kumar Swain
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