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About this book

This book is intended to help engineers analyze service condition and potential mechanisms of surface degradation. This will enable engineers select suitable materials for improved service-life and performance of engineering components. The book comprises 7 chapters, and is well illustrated with schematics, photographs, microstructure, XRD patterns, EDAX mapping, and technical data tables. The book focuses on the influence of materials and methods of surface engineering on structure, properties, and wear-performance of engineering components. It begins with the need to study the subject of surface engineering, scope of surface engineering, and classification of techniques of surface engineering. The book covers conventional material system (steel, cast iron, stellite, WC-Co, PCDs, etc.) and new materials like multilayer structures, functionally gradient materials (FGMs), intermetallic barrier coatings, and thermal barrier coating. The book covers most conventional as well as advanced surface engineering techniques, such as burnishing, shot peening, flame and induction hardening, laser and electron beam hardening, plasma and TIG melting, carburizing, nitriding, cyaniding, boronizing, vanadizing, ion implantation, laser alloying, chemical vapor deposition, PE chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, weld overlays, laser cladding, hot dip galvanizing, hot dip lead tin coating, hot dip aluminizing, hot dip chromizing, electroplating, electroless plating (Ni-P and Ni-B), mechanical plating, roll bonding, explosive bonding, and hot isostatic. The book also includes an introductory chapter on friction-stir processing of aluminum and titanium alloys. Further, it discusses studies on structure, mechanical and wear properties of weld surfacing, flame spray coating, HVOF sprayed coating, laser cladding of ferrous metals, nickel and cobalt based alloys and their composites in as-sprayed and heat-treated conditions. The book provides a comprehensive overview of various destructive and nondestructive techniques used for characterization of engineered surfaces. The materials in the book will be useful to undergraduate and graduate students. In addition, the contents of this book can also be used for professional development courses for practicing engineers.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Surface Engineering

This chapter provides introduction to the subject of surface engineering including need of surface modification, and classification of surface modification techniques. The scope of surface engineering covering design of surface modification, modification of surface properties using suitable technique, characterization of modified surfaces and implementation, standardization of the approach of surface modification for given application have been described. Further, role of surface properties, namely surface energy, surface composition, mechanical properties and surface roughness on friction and wear behavior has also been elaborated. Typical applications, advantages and limitations of the surface engineering.
Dheerendra Kumar Dwivedi

Chapter 2. Surface Damage: Causes and Mechanisms

The loss of material from the functional surfaces is caused by various mechanisms. Fundamental mechanisms of wear, namely adhesive wear, abrasive wear, erosive wear, surface fatigue wear, and corrosive wear, have been described. Additionally, properties of the surface material important to control a specific type of wear have been explained. Methods commonly used for measuring the wear loss have been presented.
Dheerendra Kumar Dwivedi

Chapter 3. Materials for Controlling the Wear

Apart from the surface roughness and wear conditions, the properties of material of the component in consideration affect the wear and friction behavior appreciably. Surface properties of component including mechanical properties (hardness, fracture toughness, fatigue resistance), stacking fault energy, thermal stability at high temperature, and affinity with atmospheric gases control the operational wear mechanism and wear rate. Effect of microstructure on wear and friction behavior has been discussed. A range of ferrous materials (alloy steel, cast iron, stainless steel) and non-ferrous metals such as nickel and cobalt base alloys used for various wear resistant applications has been described. Concept of functionally graded materials (FGM) and thermal barrier coating (TBC) materials has also been presented.
Dheerendra Kumar Dwivedi

Chapter 4. Surface Engineering by Changing the Surface Metallurgy

Improvement in mechanical and tribological properties of functional surfaces of the components using transformation hardening, re-melting, and controlled plastic deformation-based approaches has been presented in this chapter. Rationale behind the change in properties has been discussed in light of metallurgical changes being realized through above approaches. Transformation hardening based methods of surface modification such as flame hardening, induction hardening, laser hardening have been described. Additionally, laser re-melting, burnishing, and shot peening methods of surface modification have also been presented.
Dheerendra Kumar Dwivedi

Chapter 5. Surface Engineering by Changing the Composition

Improvement in mechanical and tribological properties of the functional surfaces is sometimes achieved by changing chemical composition of near-surface layers with or without subsequent heat treatment. In this chapter, diffusion-based methods like carburizing, nitriding, boronizing, and cyaniding will be presented along with plasma- assisted carburizing and plasma-assisted nitriding. Additionally, vacuum-based surface modification techniques like physical vapor deposition (PVD), sputtering, ion implantation, ion beam-assisted deposition, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have also been described.
Dheerendra Kumar Dwivedi

Chapter 6. Surface Modification by Developing Coating and Cladding

To enhance the tribological life of substrate, the development of a layer of good quality material (having required set of properties) on the substrate is an effective method. The layer can be deposited in the form of films, coatings, hardfacings, and claddings using variety of the processes such as weld surfacing, laser cladding, thermal spraying, electroplating, and electroless plating. In this chapter, fundamental of these aspects has been presented.
Dheerendra Kumar Dwivedi

Chapter 7. Characterization of Engineered Surfaces

The tribological performance of modified surfaces of the substrate is affected by a) soundness, b) metallurgical, and c) mechanical properties. Need of characterization of the modified surfaces is given in the beginning of the chapter. Techniques of measuring the depth of modified zone, surface roughness, non destructive testing for evaluation of the integrity of modified surfaces have been presented. Methods for hardness and bond strength testing are elaborated. Additionally, techniques for examining the chemical composition, metallurgical properties, and wear behavior have also been described along with typical set of parameters.
Dheerendra Kumar Dwivedi


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