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About this book

This book is addressed to Master and PhD students as well as researchers from academia and industry. It aims to provide the key definitions to understand the issues related to interface modifications in natural fibre based composites considering the particular supramolecular and micro- structures encountered in plant fibres. A particular emphasis is given to the modification and functionalization strategies of natural fibres and their impact on biocomposites behaviour and properties. Commonly used and newly developed treatment processes are described in view of scaling-up natural fibre treatments for their implementation in industry. Finally, a detailed and comprehensive description of the tools and methodologies developed to investigate and characterize surfaces and interfaces in natural fibre based composites is reviewed and discussed.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction on Natural Fibre Structure: From the Molecular to the Macrostructural Level

Natural fibres are complex hierarchical bio-assemblies built-up of several biopolymers. In this chapter, the main features related to biopolymers organization within natural fibres are described. Then, the specific surface properties and porous structure of natural fibres that are key parameters as regard to fibre and interface modifications are detailed.
Nicolas Le Moigne, Belkacem Otazaghine, Stéphane Corn, Hélène Angellier-Coussy, Anne Bergeret

Chapter 2. Interfaces in Natural Fibre Reinforced Composites: Definitions and Roles

Natural fibres are a real opportunity to replace conventional synthetic fibres in composite applications. However, even if they have several advantages in comparison to synthetic fibres (lightness, carbon balance, price…), their moisture sensitivity, their poor compatibility with polymer matrices and their low thermal stability and flammability makes their modification by chemical or physical treatments essential. In this chapter, the multiple and multi-scale interfaces in natural fibre based composites is described. The importance and role of the fibre/matrix interface on mechanical performances and durability, and main strategies to enhance the interfacial adhesion is discussed. Finally, an opening towards new functionalities that could be achieved by fibre and interface modifications is addressed.
Nicolas Le Moigne, Belkacem Otazaghine, Stéphane Corn, Hélène Angellier-Coussy, Anne Bergeret

Chapter 3. Modification of the Interface/Interphase in Natural Fibre Reinforced Composites: Treatments and Processes

The modification of surface properties of synthetic reinforcement fibres to modify composite interphase performance is mostly achieved by chemical functionalization techniques in aqueous media, and in some cases in organic media. In particular, surface treatments of glass fibres are carried out by the use of complex aqueous chemical systems, known as sizings, including one or more organofunctional silane coupling agents, a film former and other additives, i.e. cationic or non-ionic lubricants, anti-static agents, surfactants, wetting agents, chopping aids, and antioxydants). Natural fibres does not yet benefit from such a technological and scientific background. Thereby, many strategies of bulk and surface modifications are currently developed to implement natural fibres in composite materials applications. In this chapter, the different pre-treatments and functionalization treatments and related processes developed to modify natural fibres and interfacial properties in biocomposites will be exposed.
Nicolas Le Moigne, Belkacem Otazaghine, Stéphane Corn, Hélène Angellier-Coussy, Anne Bergeret

Chapter 4. Characterization of the Fibre Modifications and Localization of the Functionalization Molecules

As pointed out by George et al. (Polym Eng Sci 41(9):1471–1485, 2001), a clear understanding of the complex nature of surfaces in lignocellulosic substrates is needed to optimize modification procedures and thus to increase the usefulness of lignocellulosic biomass as a constituent of composite materials in technical applications. Surface chemistry and topographical features of the fibres are key parameters that influence chemical bonding and mechanical interlocking with polymer matrices, and hence govern the wetting and adhesion/adherence processes in natural fibre reinforced composites. This chapter proposes a comprehensive description of the different approaches used to characterize natural fibres modifications.
Nicolas Le Moigne, Belkacem Otazaghine, Stéphane Corn, Hélène Angellier-Coussy, Anne Bergeret

Chapter 5. Characterization of the Interface/Interphase in Natural Fibre Based Composites

There are currently no standardized methods to assess the quality of the interface/interphase in natural fibre reinforced composites. Nevertheless different approaches have been developed and are widely used by the scientific and industrial communities. This last chapter proposes a review of the experimental techniques modelling approaches used to investigate the interface/interphase in natural fibres composites and quantify the interfacial adhesion.
Nicolas Le Moigne, Belkacem Otazaghine, Stéphane Corn, Hélène Angellier-Coussy, Anne Bergeret

Backmatter

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