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2023 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

Surrogate Measures of Automated Vehicle Safety

Author : Erik K. Antonsson

Published in: Road Vehicle Automation 10

Publisher: Springer Nature Switzerland

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Abstract

Surrogate measures of traffic safety replace collision statistics as a means of assessing the safety of a roadway, intersection, vehicle, or mobility system. Effective and consistent surrogate measures of traffic risk and safety that will be useful to ADS stakeholders — including AV developers, traffic infrastructure developers and managers, regulators, legislators, and the public — will have a number of essential characteristics, including monotonicity and scalability.
Trailing indicators, such as collision statistics, are a poor methodology for improving safety, In addition, the use of trailing indicators incurs pain and loss on society, and is not an ethically acceptable approach. Leading indicators, based on non-collision interactions, include: Traffic Conflicts, Time-to-Collision (TTC), Post-Encroachment Time (PET), Instantaneous Safety Metric (ISM), harsh accelerations and turns (generally measured by an inertial measurement unit (IMU)), AV Control System Disengagements, and near-misses or near-crash events.
Surrogate measures, reviewed here, gather, process, and in some cases predict traffic movement, or control system behavior, and produce a (sometimes quantitative) score reflecting the riskiness or safeness of the behavior of vehicles in traffic.

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Footnotes
2
13 CCR §227.50 Reporting Disengagement of Autonomous Mode:
For the purposes of this section, “disengagement” means a deactivation of the autonomous mode when a failure of the autonomous technology is detected or when the safe operation of the vehicle requires that the autonomous vehicle test driver disengage the autonomous mode and take immediate manual control of the vehicle, or in the case of driverless vehicles, when the safety of the vehicle, the occupants of the vehicle, or the public requires that the autonomous technology be deactivated. (b) Every manufacturer authorized under this article to test autonomous vehicles on public roads shall prepare and submit to the department an annual report summarizing the information compiled pursuant to subsection (a) by January 1st, of each year. [41]
.
 
Literature
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25.
go back to reference Perkins, S.R.: Traffic conflicts technique procedures manual. General Motors Research Publication, Warren, MI, Technical report GMR-896, August 1969 Perkins, S.R.: Traffic conflicts technique procedures manual. General Motors Research Publication, Warren, MI, Technical report GMR-896, August 1969
27.
go back to reference Heinrich, H.W.: Industrial Accident Prevention. McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc, A Scientific Approach. New York & London (1931) Heinrich, H.W.: Industrial Accident Prevention. McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc, A Scientific Approach. New York & London (1931)
Metadata
Title
Surrogate Measures of Automated Vehicle Safety
Author
Erik K. Antonsson
Copyright Year
2023
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-34757-3_10

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