Skip to main content
main-content
Top

About this book

This book consists of select peer-reviewed papers from the International Conference on Sustainable Environmental Engineering and Science (SEES) 2019. The main focus of the book is to propose sustainable technologies to address the growing environmental challenges. The contents cover several topics of relevance such as air pollution, solid waste management, wastewater treatment, industrial pollution, and suggests eco-friendly and cost-effective techniques to tackle them. Given the range of topics covered, the book will be useful to researchers and professionals working in the multidisciplinary area of sustainability.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Design and Simulation of Vertical Handover Algorithm for Intelligent Transport System Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

Abstract
In this paper, we propose how to select the optimal network from the available radio networks in case of vehicular communication, for a particular voice application. Selection of network is done by analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy TOPSIS method. Basically, AHP is extending to do group decision analysis and solving both qualitative as well as quantitative problem. The TOPSIS logic is rational and understandable. The concept allows the search for the best alternatives for each of the criteria represented in a simple mathematical form. The main goal of our work is to propose the establishment of an uninterrupted communication through intelligent transportation system (ITS). An important challenge in moving beyond third-generation wireless networks (B3G) is to integrate the different types of networks used for wireless communication. The main purpose of this work is to design a new vertical handover algorithm on different radio networks for intelligent transport systems (ITS). The most difficult solutions for collaboration are vertical handover (VHO), the decision of mobile nodes to handover in a variety of ways of networks. In this paper, we describe how VHO can be supported in B3G network architecture considered within multiple heterogeneous radio access technologies (RATs). In general, it can be stated that the network selection problem within the VHO decision should be managed by the mobile user when available networks are not coordinated, i.e., a user can decide that which one is the best network. In this paper, we also discuss how radio network can switch depending upon the speed of the vehicle.
Kankan Ghosh, Rabi Adhikary

Particulate Matter Emission Assessment and Future Outlook Through Air Dispersion Model for Sustainable Development Planning in an Inland City in Central Maharashtra, India

Abstract
Globally, air pollution has been the major environmental and health-related issue which is being studied individually as well as in community scale toward sustainable mitigation measures. The particulate matter pollutants are an immensely concerned topic for health management in any urban city. In India, air pollution in respect with particulate matter is always of great importance due to its major adverse health impacts on health and high concentration in our environment. The Kolhapur city of Maharashtra falls under those cities with an elevated trend in mortality and morbidity due to air pollution. The different sources of pollution need to be controlled based on model predictions. The present study provides a bottom-up approach to figure out the contributions from various sources followed by air dispersion model forecast and ground truthiness in receptor locations to outline source specific mitigation measures for sustainable growth.
Sweta Kumari, Adhikari Srikanth, Ashish Patil, Anirban Middey, Aariz Ahmed, Navneet Kumar

Assessment on Prevention of Groundwater Contamination

Abstract
Freshwater plays an important role in this world. The main source for freshwater of the world is groundwater. In day-to-day life, groundwater is used as a major resource for drinking water. Nowadays, it is observed that the groundwater quality and quantity are heavily deteriorated in most of the industrialized and intense-populated areas. In most of the cases, human being is responsible for environmental disaster. The groundwater quantity and quality should match to the drinking water requirement and other usage purpose. Otherwise, it may cause many problems in day-to-day life. Here, we are trying to describe the reason of pollutions for groundwater and the prevention methods to deal with such problems.
Aishik Sett, Tuhin Nayak, Madhusmita Mishra

Sensitivity Study on the Classical Biofilm Model Using a Simplified Solution Method

Abstract
The classical biofilm model depicts correlation between the substrate concentration in influent and effluent as well as at liquid--biofilm interface, substrate flux, biomass density, specific surface area, hydraulic retention time, solid retention time, etc. This correlation is represented by a set of algebraic equations, which are implicit in nature. Solution of this biofilm model appeared to be complicated, tedious, time-consuming, and also approximate. The extent of influence of each process variable on the performance of a biofilm system is an important issue for optimization purpose. In view of that, a simplistic solution of the classical biofilm model has been proposed which enables one to estimate the model output quickly and also accurately under any given set of input variables. Thus, the crucial process variables like input substrate concentration (S0), biomass density (Xf), hydraulic retention time (Ə) and specific surface area (a) are varied suitably within their feasible ranges in the present study. Finally, all the relevant outputs like substrate concentration in effluent and at liquid--biofilm interface (Se and Ss), substrate flux (J) and effective as well as steady-state biofilm thickness (Le and Lf) were plotted against the respective input variables to investigate their sensitivity.
Baibaswata Das, Sushovan Sarkar

Risk of Extinction of Species in an Ecological System: Estimation and Analysis

Abstract
Many animal and plant species have become extinct or at the verge of extinction in the last few decades due to unplanned activity and indiscriminate use of biological resources. The disappearance of such species has potential impact on the ecological system. Thus the extinction status of rare and endangered species is getting importance so that conservation policy can be framed in order to maintain the ecological balance. In this paper we formulate a process of determining two important extinction related issues viz. probability of extinction and time to extinction. Discrete Time Markov Chain model is utilized to find the time to extinction and probability of extinction. A particular prey-predator model is taken under consideration to justify the theoretical findings by simulation process.
Bapi Saha, Rupak Bhattacharjee, Debasish Majumder

An Experimental Study on Integrated Power-Free Shock Electrodialysis for Desalination

Abstract
The removal of TDS and other solids from the saltwater was experimentally investigated by using shock electrodialysis by supplying a direct current (DC). Shock electrodialysis (SED) is a newly developed technique for water desalination. In the case of saltwater, the effect of reaction time or electrolysis time, EC, and current density were examined. The TDS which contributed to the EC in the aqueous phase was removed by silica gel which acts as microporous voids under the application of voltage through an aluminum electrode. The initial characteristics of saltwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, TDS, turbidity, and salinity were examined. The removal of dissolved solids in the aqueous phase was done by using aluminum electrodes. The performance of the process evaluated in terms of total solids, electrical conductivity, salinity reduction, and power consumption was also monitored. The results show that around 68.72% of TDS removal took place at a maximum removal condition of 20 V and at a reaction time of 5 min. Electrical conductivity was reduced from 55 to 18.19 mS/cm. An optimum voltage was found to be 13.64 V at a reaction time 15.40 min. Electrical conductivity was reduced to 26.9 mS/cm from 55 mS/cm, TDS was reduced to 16,490 mg/L from 33,550 mg/L, and power consumption was 14.90 W. Brine water was rejected having an electrical conductivity of 73.66 mS/cm and the power generated was 14.67 mW from 924 cm2 of electrode area for an optimized reaction time of 20 min.
Bhaven N. Tandel, Bibin K. Suresh

Brassica Juncea (L.) Czern. (Indian Mustard): A Potential Candidate for the Phytoremediation of Mercury from Soil

Abstract
Soil contamination caused by the deposition of mercury (Hg) is a global problem. Hg is released to the environment through the coal burning in thermal power plant and various anthropogenic sources and contaminates soil. Hg is taken up by plant roots from contaminated soil and transferred to aerial parts. Through bioaccumulation in the plant, Hg moves into the food chain, resulting in potential health and ecological risks. Coal combustion in thermal power plants is the major anthropogenic source of Hg in environment and India emits approximately 240 tonnes/year (in year 2010--2013). Indian coals are reported to have higher Hg contents than coals from other countries, with values ranging from 0.11 to 0.80 mg/kg. The world average Hg concentrations reported in coal and fly ash are 0.01--1 and 0.62 mg/kg, respectively. The mass of Hg accumulated globally in the soil is estimated to be 250--1000 Gg (1 Gg = 1000 tonnes). Phytoremediation method has been proved to be the best approach for removal of Hg from soil because this method is environmentally friendly and cost effective. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of Brassica juncea plant for the removal of Hg from contaminated soil. A laboratory-scale pot study was conducted by spiking the Hg using solution of HgCl2 in three different concentrations (10, 50, and 100 mg Hg/kg of soil). B. juncea was grown for 90 days and plant samples were collected after the exposure of 30th, 60th, and 90th days. Hg uptakes in plant (roots, shoots and leaves) and soil were digested as per USEPA standard methods and measured in Coal Vapor AAS.
Deep Raj, Subodh Kumar Maiti

Stabilization of Expansive Soil Using Saw Dust

Abstract
For any structure, the sub structure, i.e. the foundation is of utmost importance and has to be sturdy enough to mount the load of the total structure. In order to make the foundation strong, soil plays a vital role. To work on soil, we need to have sufficient knowledge of their factors and properties that influence its behaviour. Problems are generally created by expansive soils for lightly loaded structure than highly loaded structures. When the soil consolidates under load and volumetric changes occur due to seasonal moisture variation, such problems get manifested through shrinkage, swelling and non-uniform settlement. In this paper, the data obtained from experimentation in the laboratory on expansive soils treated with saw dust are presented. A detailed study has been carried out to know the improvements in certain properties of expansive soil by changing the percentage of saw dust. The experimental results from standard proctor compaction test, Atterberg’s limits tests, CBR, direct shear tests carried out on expansive soil mixed at different proportions of saw dust are presented and discussed in this paper. The results show that the index parameters are getting changed with the addition of saw dust.
Gargi De, Shamim Raja, Avishek Mukherjee

Analysing the Influence of Groundwater Exploitation on Its Quality in Kolkata

Abstract
The present research is an attempt to study the relationship between groundwater quality and groundwater level, if any, for the city of Kolkata. The groundwater level in the city is on the fall, and due to over exploitation of groundwater resources, the level of it is receding in the city. A trough has been formed in the central and northern part of the city due to over exploitation of the resources. With increase in groundwater usage, the quality of it is being impacted. The water quality parameters for the present study included total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, chloride and total hardness as these were considered to be important for the city based on literature review and field study. The parameters were collected from West Bengal Pollution Control Board Web portal and were then linked to groundwater level to analyse the relationship between the same. It is seen that the parameters assessed for the year 2010, 2012, 2014, 2016 and 2018 show a mixed trend and the groundwater level in the city is falling and if further depletion of groundwater takes place the resource will be at stake.
Bernadette John, Priyanka Roy, Subhasish Das

Efficacy Evaluation of Conventional Water Treatment Process and THMs Modeling in Drinking Water of Five Cities in India

Abstract
The presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking waters poses a high risk to a human’s health. The study aimed to monitor the level of THMs and to develop a mathematical model to predict the same in the water supply system of five cities (Varanasi, Dhanbad, Raipur, Bhubaneswar, and Kolkata) of India. The concentration range of total THMs (TTHMs) (348 and 414 μg/L) was observed approx. 2 times higher than the prescribed guideline value of Bureau of Indian standard. Raw water contained a comparatively higher amount of THMs precursors than treated water. The adopted conventional treatment technology in the existing unit was found marginal for removal of these THMs precursors (TOC 34% and DOC 37%). A machine learning predictive model viz. Support vector machine (SVM) was developed using MATLAB 9.5. Validation results confirmed the prediction precision of SVM models is good, which can provide immense help to WTP manager for the pre-knowledge of THMs in the water for its better management and control.
Jaydev Kumar Mahato, S. K. Gupta

Study of Water Quality Index to Ascertain the Suitability of Surface Water for Domestic Purposes

Abstract
The criteria of water needed for drinking and irrigation can be evaluated by determination of the water quality. Water from various sites from north 24-parganas, West Bengal, India, were collected and subjected for comprehensive physico-chemical analysis. The following six parameters have been considered, namely pH, alkalinity, total hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS), chlorides and dissolved oxygen (DO). The present study aims to study water quality index (WQI) of the urban water bodies. WQI gives a composite number to determine the suitability of water for public and domestic use. It also serves as an important tool in various pollution abatement programs and management of water quality. Three different sites were selected for our present study and the WQI of the sites S-1, S-2, and S-3 were calculated. All the three sites indicated very poor water quality which showed that the physico-chemical characters are under severe pressure. The serious deterioration of WQI collected from all the three sites was attributed due to the immense impoundment on the rivers as well as increase in anthropogenic activities.
Joyoti Biswas, Rinku Supakar

Evaluation of Anthropogenic-Driven Water Pollution Effects in an Urban Freshwater Resource Using Integration Pollution Index Method

Abstract
Water pollution and environmental degradation of freshwater resources is a burning issue of our times. Global freshwater reserves are facing a severe crisis due to unforeseen problems which are majorly anthropogenic in nature. Conservation of freshwater resources is an urgent need in the current times. Drinking water specifically needs proper conservation attention as our consumption patterns have gone haywire. Regular monitoring of urban and rural water resources is thus essential. The current paper throws light on the analysis of water samples of Joda Talab, Ambikapur, a prolific city of Sarguja district in Chhattisgarh, India. The water samples were collected from the three sites during the pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons of 2018–2019. Ten different parameters characterizing the water quality were measured and the Integration Pollution Index (IPI) for the parameters was evaluated. The parameters measured were the turbidity (N.T.U), color (Pt/Co scale), pH, electrical conductivity (µS/cm), total alkalinity (mg/L), chloride concentration (mg/L), nitrate concentration (mg/L), magnesium concentration (mg/L), TDS (mg/L), and sulfate concentration (mg/L). The nature of the correlation between the individual parameters and population density was also analyzed. Our study throws light on the anthropogenic stress caused as a result of point and non-point sources of pollution. Wetland centric unplanned urbanization and an astronomical rise in population levels are considered to be some of the major causes behind the contamination of surface water bodies in the Indian subcontinent. Addressing such problems is necessary for the sustainable conservation of freshwater ecosystems in a time when potable surface freshwater supplies are becoming increasingly scarce. This research suggests that the decision makers as well as the local administration should be more aware of the recent pollution increase in surface water bodies and frame the policies and practices such that these water resources are protected from further environmental degradation.
Avinash Pratap Gupta, Joystu Dutta, Manish Kumar Shriwas, Rajesh Yadav, Tirthankar Sen, Madhur Mohan Ranga

Improved Sequential Approach for Hybrid Bioleaching of Metals from E-Waste

Abstract
The continual and unprecedented consumer demand for the electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) coupled with their accelerated product obsolescence rate due to the rapid advances in technology has led to an increased generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) or electronic waste (e-waste) worldwide. Printed circuit board (PCB), the core component of e-waste, is considered as secondary metal reservoir owing to its rich metallic content including base, toxic, and precious metals. E-waste recycling is an important aspect not only from the point of waste treatment for environmental protection but also from the recovery of metals for economic development. Being an emerging technique, bioleaching employing mostly acidophilic microorganisms for metal extraction from e-waste is time consuming despite higher efficiency. A hybrid process comprising of both chemical and biological leaching involving combination of safer, non-toxic ligands, and bioleaching microbes has shown enhanced metal extraction from waste PCBs albeit time consuming. In this context, a sequential strategy consisting of maximum biological production of ferric iron in the first step followed by hybrid bioleaching of metals from high-grade PCB of obsolete desktop has been devised in the present study to overcome the impediment of higher time requirement. The ferric iron (Fe3+) production was maximized via biological oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe2+) by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in 250 mL of shake flasks containing 100 mL of optimized 4.5 K media with initially adjusted pH of 2 at 170 rpm and 30 °C. As corroborated from the maximum Fe3+ concentration and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), complete biological oxidation of Fe2+ was observed at 60 h using initial concentration of around 4 g Fe2+/L. Subsequently, the comminuted PCB in the particle size range of 0.038–1 mm was added to the same shake flasks at an e-waste pulp density of 10 g/L along with 0.2 M citric acid to imitate hybrid condition to assess the extraction efficiency of the targeted metals, i.e., Cu, Zn, and Ni. Results revealed that a maximum of 85% Cu, 71% Zn, and 54% Ni extraction was achieved at an excellent time duration of 96 h of PCB addition. Results from the present study, thus, highlight the practical feasibility of improving the hybrid bioleaching technique for metal recovery from e-waste following the sequential approach.
Kavita Kanaujia, Subrata Hait

Green Energy Based Low Cost Smart Indoor Air Quality Monitoring and Purifying System

Abstract
This work deals with cost-effective Internet of Things (IoT)-based portable air quality and purifying system for a limited confined space, viz inside a room/car. Indoor air quality has become a major concern especially in India; it needs to be elevated because of its potential risk to human health. As a result, we are trying to develop an easy-to-adopt technique for detecting the pollutants in air around us and control the impurities as much as possible by using a portable filtering system. It is specially designed for indoor applications only and the main pollutants/hazards lie with dust particles, carbon monoxide(CO), nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, secondhand smoke, LPG, etc. In our system, we accommodate a group of sensors those can detect the above-mentioned pollutants. The detection or the monitoring system is directly connected with the sensors outputs and have a local display along with a remote monitoring and control system enabled by IoT. The controlling unit is consisted of series connected HEPA filter and activated charcoal filter along with ATmega328P microcontroller. To swift the process of filtering, a BLDCM fan is used to suck the air from surroundings at high RPM. The whole system is powered by a 12 V–10 W solar power.
Madhurima Chattopadhyay, Neha Surbhi, Jaynee Rawal, Shahla Khursheed, Sakshi Agarwal, Shimona Francis

Degradation of Phenol Using Batch-Fluidization Process by Transition Metal Impregnated Red Mud as Modified Catalyst in Heterogeneous Fenton Process

Abstract
Red mud is a solid waste from the aluminium-based industries. The amount of red mud dumped in the environment can be reduced by recycling it for a new application for economic benefits to industries. The conventional Fenton process consists of ferrous ions as a catalyst and it can be substituted with transition metals such as aluminium, cobalt, chromium, manganese and cerium. Phenols are regarded as priority organic pollutants in the wastewater, and hence, treatment of phenolic compounds before its disposal to the receiving ends is very much needed for the environmental concern. The objective of this study was to prepare modified catalysts and investigate the degradation of phenol in aqueous solution in a batch-fluidization process. The modified catalysts were characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD and FTIR. A comparative study among modified catalysts and factors affecting the performance was investigated.
Manisha, Prabir Ghosh

Application of Low-Cost Air Quality Monitoring Sensor to Assess the Exposure of Ambient Air Pollution Due to PM2.5 and PM10

Abstract
Recent high ambient concentration of particulate matter (PM), such as air pollutants, has its multimodal effects on the environment and human health especially for the least developing countries because of the high cost associated with monitoring it. The aim of this study is to introduce a low-cost air quality monitoring (AQM) sensor to assess human exposure to support the health impact assessment and environmental policy formulation. A low-cost AQM sensor using light scattering technology, AirVisual (AV) pro was used in four sites in Dhaka city of Bangladesh in a period of five and a half months spreading from Feb 2019 to Aug 2019. Validation of the equipment was done comparing it with two equivalent equipment-HIM-6000 portable air quality monitor and BAM-1020 continuous particulate monitor. The correlations between the AV pro and BAM-1020 were found fairly strong (R2 = 0.77) at the US Embassy in Dhaka. The correlations between the AV pro and HIM-6000 were found also very strong (R2 = 0.91) at Mirpur Cantonment. This study defines the four heterogeneous environments in Mirpur–12, Mirpur Cantonment, Baridhara, and Darus Salam to conduct extensive statistical analysis of spatial, seasonal, diurnal, and temporal variations of air pollution. The results showed that Mirpur–12 to be the most polluted zone (mean PM2.5 = 122.62 µg/m3, mean PM10 = 186.84 µg/m3) after application of low-cost AQM sensor. It also revealed changes in PM concentrations in terms of time, meteorological condition, and place. Maximum PM concentration occurs when the traffic volume is high in the morning and evening and reduces from pre-monsoon to monsoon. This paper also highlights the utility and vulnerability of a low-cost monitoring sensor like AV pro to measure the PM concentration. With the above analysis, further studies are needed to prove the relationship between health impact assessment and human exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 concentration via low-cost sensors.
Md. Noman Munshi, S. M. Nihab Ahsan, Md. Shafinur Rahman, M. Tauhid Ur Rahman

Estimation of Greenhouse Gases in the Ambient Air

Abstract
At present scenario, estimation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission in the ambient air has becomes a major concern. Emission of GHG has the direct linkage with ambient air pollution and also poses global environmental threats and challenges. Though several scientists are working to mitigate the emission of GHGs but till date no mitigation/management plan has been implemented in global scale. The emission of GHGs are in general from multiple sectors like energy, industry, waste management plant, agricultural sector etc. The major GHGs are methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). In the present study GHG (CH4, CO2 and N2O) fluxes have been reviewed from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), constructed wetlands (CWs) and irrigated rice fields (IRF) in India and compared with other countries like Australia, Europe and China. The emission of CH4, CO2 and N2O fluxes from WWTP in Australian condition varied in an average from 0 to 111, 0 to 769 and 0 to 3 ton/year respectively whereas in Indian condition CH4 and N2O fluxes varied in an average from 0 to 6, and 0 to 0.01 ton/year. The higher emission of CH4 and N2O in Australia might be due to higher capacity of WWTP and advance biological treatment plant as compared to India. In Indian and China climatic condition the emission of CH4, CO2 and N2O fluxes from IRF varied from 107 × 104 to 110 × 104, 2116 × 104 to 6096 × 104 and 4 × 104 to 5 × 104, 644 × 104 to 1202 × 104, 205 × 104 to 1208 × 104 and 29 × 104 to 41 × 104 ton/year respectively. The higher fluxes of GHG w.r.t CH4 and N2O might be due to continuous flooding in China, application of nitrogen fertilizers in large scale in the rice field, and likely to be due to overburden pressure for production of rice as compared to India. CWs are the well-known natural CH4 producer in the atmosphere. The emission of CH4 from CWs in India and Europe varied from 46 to 1103 and negative to 38,000 mg/m2/day respectively. CH4 emission depends on tropical coastal wetland condition and type of surface flow in the wetland. India is fewer producers to GHGs as compared to other countries. Appropriate management plan will further reduce the emission of GHGs as well as ambient air pollution.
Papiya Mandal, Naveen Kumar, Ajey Kumar Patel

Indoor Air Pollution at Restaurant Kitchen in Delhi NCR

Abstract
This paper enlightens the emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants in the indoor environment of restaurant kitchen in Delhi, National Capital Region (NCR). The common cooking fuels used in the restaurant kitchen are coal based tandoor and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This study investigated the emissions of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and gaseous pollutants (CO and CO2) at sources of tandoor and LPG in the month of July 2019. The distance between samplers and source were around 2–3 m. Particulate matter (PM) samples were collected by using Mini Vol Air Metrics sampler on Whatman 47 mm size of glass fiber filter paper for the period of 8 h and analyzed by gravimetric method. The flow rate maintained for collection of PM was 5 lpm. Gaseous pollutant like CO and CO2 were collected for the period of 8 h and analyzed by NDIR method. The average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in both Tandoor and LPG were 803 ± 256 and 412 ± 147 and 461 ± 60 and 290 ± 64 µg/m3 respectively. The average concentration of CO and CO2 in both Tandoor and LPG were 5 ± 2 and 1636 ± 113 and 3 ± 1 and 1688 ± 236 in mg/m3 respectively. The temperature and relative humidity in both Tandoor and LPG varied from 33 to 38 °C and 49–70% and 32–35 °C and 72–90% respectively. Till date no standard has been formulated in India for indoor air pollutants. The average concentrations of particulate and gaseous pollutants inside the restaurant kitchen were higher for coal based tandoor as compared to LPG. The present study revealed that indoor air pollution in the restaurant kitchen was influenced by cooking fuels and meteorological parameter.
Poonam Kumari, Papiya Mandal

Determination of SCS Runoff Curve Number and Landuse Characteristics of Khowai River Catchment, Tripura, India

Abstract
Precipitation and runoff can be undoubtedly considered as one of the most significant parameters contributing considerably to the hydrological cycle of a region. Runoff estimation is regarded as the primary aspect in different hydrological considerations. Estimation of the storm water runoff is particularly essential for the effective design of different components in storm water management, and also in the analysis of landuse and landcover pattern changes. The research primarily aims at determining suitable Curve-Number (CN) value for Khowai River basin located in North Tripura, India. The Soil-Conservation-Service-Curve-Number (SCS CN) technique is commonly used for estimating the stormwater runoff of unaged catchment areas. Five land use types (i.e. forest, agricultural land, pasture, wasteland and hard surface) had been reclassified from over 20 land use types and delineated using ERDAS IMAGINE-2010 software. The Hydrologic soil group (HSG) in Khowai catchment area was found to be mainly covered with HSG B. It was also noted that small percentage of areas are covered with HSG C and HSG D type soil. The antecedent-moisture-condition (AMC) II was used in the determination of curve number due to the complex rainfall information. The CN for the Khowai catchment area was extracted and determined from the National-Resources-Conservation-Service (NRCS) curve number tables for runoff. The CN values were then also verified by the precipitation and discharge data of the catchment under study. The subsequent results reveal that CN in the Khowai catchment area varies from 37 to 80, whereby the higher CN-values indicate, the higher runoff potential. It was found that most of the Khowai catchment area was covered by high to very high CN-values and showed an expanding trend in the area. These results provide key information for the next step of runoff estimation and simulation for the Khowai River catchment basin.
Prasun Mukherjee, Anubhab Das, Rajib Das

Degradation of Plastics Causing Pollution Using Bacteria for Improvement of Freshwater Fish Cultivation

Abstract
Plastics are defying the natural cycle as most plastic items can take more than 400 years to decompose since they are characteristically inert and resistant to microbial attacks. Worldwide, researchers came up with the data in 2017 that mankind has contributed to approximately 8.3 billion tons of plastic, and thus, the annual plastic production is supposedly going to triple by the year 2050. On the other side, freshwater aquaculture system has been shrinking rapidly because of indiscriminate use of plastics generated from on-growing urbanization coupled with industrialization. When plastics are disposed without future consideration, it becomes the major cause of the outbreak of water pollution, causing depletion in the level of underground water sources and thus increasing the danger level for aquatic–marine life. Most critically, plastics, like polyvinyl chloride, or PVC, are extremely toxic for natural health as well as the environment because they release considerable amount of mercury, dioxins, and phthalates, which could choke health to hazards. Against this background, implementation of a particular bacteria in order to clean plastic debris adds a path-breaking tool to bioremediation. A bacterium called “Ideonella sakaiensis” is solely responsible for completely degrading polyethylene terephthalate, or PET, within a period of 6 weeks. While sequencing the genome of this bacterium to find the main biochemical contributors to the pathway of the PET hydrolytic activity, an enzyme known as PETase came into picture which is secreted by this bacterium. The enzyme creates an intermediate compound called MHET, which is absorbed by the cell and further hydrolyzed by a second enzyme. This second enzyme called MHET hydrolase eventually converts MHET into two environmentally benign monomers such as terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol. The organism then uses these obtained monomers to facilitate its growth in this process. In order to investigate harmful effects of plastic-polluted water on aquatic life after introduction of Ideonella sakaiensis, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen content (D02), carbon dioxide content, ammonia and sulfur values have also been estimated before and after introduction of Ideonella sakaiensis. E.coli formations were used as indicators of bacterial pollution, if any, in the tank. Average temperature (67.3 °F), pH level (7.38), alkalinity (67.3 mg/L), and dissolve oxygen level (4.12 mg/L) have been found suitable for sustainable aquaculture practices. Percentage of ammonia (0.003) and nitrate (0.207) is also not congenial for good fish production. However, the presence of Escherichia coli (E.coli) inside the tank may be enough to state that the water present has been contaminated either by some domestic sewage or by plastics.
Priyadarshini Mallick, Jaydev Misra

Assessment and MLR Modeling of Traffic Noise at Major Urban Roads of Residential and Commercial Areas of Surat City

Abstract
In a developing country like India, traffic noise pollution is becoming a severe problem due to inefficient public transport in urban areas. The number of personal vehicles is increasing due to the lack of convenient public transportation. The study of urban road traffic noise is an important issue. Traffic noise prediction models are playing a very important role in the decision making and proper implementation of rules and regulations for a certain area. This research work was carried out to develop a traffic noise prediction model for two rigid and one flexible pavement road of Surat city using multiple linear regression. Significant factors affecting traffic noise such as classified traffic volume count, road width, and average building height were selected as input parameters for a detailed survey. Models have been developed using the data of three roads separately and one final model has also been developed using the data of all three roads. According to the data obtained from the detailed survey, it is found that the minimum equivalent traffic noise level is exceeding the permissible limits on all roads. Among the prediction in three urban roads, the predicted output result from the MLR model showed poor correlation with an average absolute % error of 2.065 and an R2 value of 0.25. But with the combined road there is a slight improvement in the statistical values, viz. average absolute % error 2.27 and R2 = 0.51. This also proves that dependent variable equivalent noise (Leq) is not linearly dependent on independent variables, classified traffic volume count, road width, and average building height. To overcome this problem, road traffic noise prediction models may be developed using evolutionary computing tools like genetic algorithm, neural networks, etc.
Ramesh B. Ranpise, B. N. Tandel, Chandanmal Darjee

A Review on the Advanced Techniques Used for the Capturing and Storage of CO2 from Fossil Fuel Power Plants

Abstract
This paper presents an overview of research related to carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) from fossil fuels power plants. Nowadays, the CO2 emission in the atmosphere increases, and it causes the climate changes deadly. According to the United States of Department of Energy’s (USDOE) Carbon Sequestration Program, CO2 captured and storage (CCS) is receiving considerable attention as the potential GHG mitigation option for fossil fuels power plant. The GHG CO2 emits from the burning of fossil fuels like coals, which are the main source of power generation. Due to the high burning efficiency of coal, it is irreplaceable in power plant. There are mainly three technological ways for CO2 capture from power plant: Post-combustion, pre-combustion, and oxy-fuel combustion. This paper gives a complete review on the recent technologies used for the capturing and storing of CO2 emission from fossil fuels that can be recycled for the generation of energy.
Ria Shaw, Sumanta Naskar, Tanmay Das, Anirban Chowdhury

Assessment and Characterization of Air Pollution Due to Vehicular Emission Considering the AQI and LOS of Various Roadways in Kolkata

Abstract
In recent years, rapid urbanization causes a serious effect on human life and its environment. Due to urban air pollution, particularly most of the cities of India are being extremely suffered. Transportation sectors contribute a major share to environmental pollution (around 70%). The rate of emission of harmful gases from vehicles also depends upon traffic use, characteristics, traffic congestion, type of vehicles, manufacturing year, road condition, traffic facility, etc. The most common manual named Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) has developed the capacities standard and Level of Service (LOS) measure for various transportation facilities. The LOS of various roadways decreases due to increasing vehicular congestion, which also affects Air Quality Index (AQI) parameter. This causes the gradual deterioration in the quality of air in the environment. The ministry of environment and forests launched a National Air Quality Index (AQI) which will put out real-time data about level of pollutants in the air considering eight major pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO, O3, NH3, and Pb) and also inform people about possible impacts on health. This paper actually deals with the air pollution considering the AQI and LOS parameters by qualitative analysis using ordered logistic regression method in the study area Kolkata, West Bengal. It represents the categorization similarity as well as the major factors affecting the categorization of the LOS and AQI parameters. The required traffic data were collected for the analysis.
Rupam Sam

Advent of Graphene Oxide and Carbon Nanotubes in Removal of Heavy Metals from Water: A Review

Abstract
Heavy metals like lead, arsenic, cadmium, chromium and mercury are often found in freshwater sources, and their dissolution is due to many natural and artificial factors. These heavy metals are known to be bio-accumulants and non-biodegradable in nature and hence can cause a number of diseases in humans. Their removal has, hence, become an issue of prime concern in the field of water and wastewater engineering. Recent studies have shown the potential of carbon-based nanomaterials in uptake and removal of these metals by the process of adsorption. This study has focused on the two major carbon-based adsorbents, namely graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes. The major researches carried out with the help of these nanomaterials in removal of heavy metals have been highlighted in this literature along with their adsorption capacities. This paper will help the readers to select the appropriate nanomaterial for removal of the required heavy metal from water with respect to the ambient reaction parameters.
Satyajit Chaudhuri, Spandan Ghosh

Removal of Arsenic V+ contaminant by Fixed Bed Column Study by Graphene Oxide Manganese Iron (GO-Mn-Fe) Nano Composite-Coated Sand

Abstract
Nowadays, nanoparticles are widely used to remove heavy metals specially arsenic. The removal of arsenic (V) has been significantly impacted by this nano material, which is a composite of manganese di iron oxide (Fe2MnO4) and monolayer sp2 hybridized graphene oxide. Iron and manganese ligand are functionalized in Graphene oxide by a robust process of one pot synthesis method. This GO-Mn-Fe nano composite has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET). Smaller size, high surface area makes this nanoparticle is more attractive for arsenic-contaminated water treatment. A fixed bed column breakthrough study was done to determine the adsorption capacity of Graphene oxide manganese iron (GO-Mn-Fe) nano composite. The arsenic (V) metalloid adsorption was examined by different breakthrough curve Adams–Bohart, Thomas and Yoon–Nelson model. The Thomas model showed the superior coefficient of determination (R2) than another model.
Spandan Ghosh, Soumya Kanta Ray, Chanchal Majumder

Water Quality of the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers: An Impact Assessment on Socioeconomic Lives at Ganga–Brahmaputra River Basin

Abstract
The Ganga–Brahmaputra river basin, the second highest hydrologic area in the world, has substantial economic value which is mostly dependent on waters of these two rivers. The large number of people of the Ganga–Brahmaputra basin is depended on agriculture, fishery, livestock and fisheries. The river water not only plays an important role in economic development of the region but may also bring challenges through floods, pollution, water-borne diseases, etc. Moreover, the water quality of the Ganges and Brahmaputra has been progressively deteriorated because of the rising urbanization and industrialization practices over the years. The growing usage of agrochemicals, disposal of raw domestic sewage, improper sanitation facilities, boating for tourism purposes, washing utensils and clothes, religious ritual activities, etc., have worsened the quality of water in both the rivers. Several research studies had carried out to assess the water quality of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers over the years. In our study, we analyze the outcomes of previous research studies on water quality of the stretches of Brahmaputra river (in Assam) and the Ganges river (namely Hooghly in West Bengal), respectively, during 2016–17. This research study had used several common physico-chemical parameters such as hydrogen ion concentration (pH), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved oxygen (DO) to measure the water quality for selected locations. The results of previous investigations highlighted that Brahmaputra and the Ganges river water were contaminated and not fit for drinking purposes but might be utilized for agricultural activities. Therefore, the implementation of appropriate pollution control measurements can improve the water quality of the Ganga–Brahmaputra river basin. Simultaneously, the proper execution of efficient, rational and equitable river water management approaches may act as the engine for socioeconomic development in the region.
Subhankar Dutta, Sumanta Nayek

Physico-Chemical and Heavy Metal Analysis of Effluent Wastewater from Rold Gold Jewellery Industries and to Review on Its Safe Disposal Using Phytoremediation Approach with Special Emphasis on Hydrilla Verticillata, an Aquatic Plant

Abstract
Machilipatnam, the headquarters of Krishna District, is well known for its rold gold jewellery which has a great demand from different parts of the country. The major problem associated with this industry is the discharge of toxic materials and heavy metals through effluent wastewater. The wastewater is characterized by a strong colour and is heavily polluted with high chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), inorganic impurities (calcium, sodium, sulphates, phosphates, nitrates, chromium, copper, cyanide, iron and nickel), dissolved and suspended solids. Because this wastewater is hazardous to human health and as well the environment, it is important to manage it safely. Among various remediation techniques, phytoremediation is a green approach and is widely employed for treating polluted water and soil by growing plants. Aquatic plants play major role in the remediation of contaminated water bodies because of their ability to uptake heavy metals and trace elements in large quantities. In the present paper, the effluent wastewater collected from the treatment plant of jewellery park is analysed for various physico-chemical parameters and for the presence of certain heavy metals. The paper also reviews on the ability of different aquatic plants in bioremediating effluent wastewater from electroplating industries with a special focus on Hydrilla verticillata.
Lanka Suseela, M. Swarupa Rani, Kota Ashok Kumar

Monitoring of Land Use/Land Cover Changes by the Application of GIS for Disposal of Solid Waste: A Case Study of Proposed Smart Cities in Bihar

Abstract
Disposal of solid waste has turned into a severe issue in major urban areas in India nowadays. Most of the municipalities have failed to solve such a situation. A major statement of the issue is the normal sights of wastes that regularly undermine the streets closed due to traffic. The appearance of the cities along with the well-being of the people residing there is highly influenced by the risk presented by this situation. Waste disposal issues continue to rise due to improper collection of the waste and its processing/disposal following the rules in place. In some cases, the issue could be followed to absence of an appropriate site for transfer and treatment of these wastes. The solid waste disposal depends upon the selection of proper site and numerous other issues like sustainability and social acceptance. The objective of this paper is to show how GIS is utilized in finding a proper site for the disposal of wastes. It illustrates the spatio-temporal dynamics of land use/land cover changes of proposed smart cities of the state of Bihar namely Biharsharif, Patna, Muzaffarpur and Bhagalpur. These studies exhibit the current situation of solid waste management in these cities of Bihar although numerous components are necessary while choosing a site for proper disposal of municipal solid waste being generated, communication routes, land use/land cover and geomorphological changes. All these features have been consolidated in this study to choose the fundamental site that meets the specific conditions. In general, map layers are determined, and final outputs clearly indicate appropriate site for the disposal of solid waste. LANDSAT-TM and DEM images used in this study and their results are overlapped with the inferred layer of the built-up area and the final disposal site. It also provides comprehensive monitoring of key performance measurements, mainly due to the identification of factors connecting diagnostic and improvement steps. Based on the case study, a quality analysis could be carried out and its principles shown in the solid waste management (SWM) practice. The obtained results clearly show all the favourable locations that can be possibly used as the best suitable area for the proper disposal of solid waste being generated in these areas. It is therefore concluded that the performance assessment of SWM is an important element in ensuring compliance and implementing the sustainability strategy plan.
Aman Kumar, Ekta Singh, Rahul Mishra, Sunil Kumar

Eco-efficiency Tool for Urban Solid Waste Management System: A Case Study of Mumbai, India

Abstract
Carbon emissions in urban solid waste treatment are a main cause for the change in climate which, according to the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), accounts for almost 5% of ozone-depleting substances worldwide. The gases and fluids that are being released cause many ecological effects like environmental change and acidification particularly in the major metropolitan cities in India like Mumbai. Therefore, managing the solid waste properly is one of the major concerns of almost all the cities in India. The aim of the present study is to analyse the eco-efficiency for managing urban solid waste in Mumbai region. The assessment model is developed on the basis of adapting Eco-Efficiency Analysis (Eco-Eff) methodology that helps in the formulation of solid waste management (SW) criteria. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been considered for portraying and recognizing proficient techniques and proposing improvement criteria for appropriate treatment of these wastes. The ecological profile of both i.e the original situation and the virtual (proposed improvement measures) were compared all together to identify the net benefits connected with the changed inputs. This evaluation framework is useful for the assessment of system alternatives and adapting the changes for decision-making. The model was implemented in the context of Mumbai which explicitly tackles sustainability in its organizational strategic plan. The development of the model depends on an adaptation of the technique that would allow a comparison of the proposed key objectives with the available data on solid waste management. This technique showed the overall decrease in environmental impact utilizing profitable strategies as the major objective towards improving waste management. The segregation proportion and the techniques utilized for treatment are key markers of optimization steps. Comparing the intervals with the prior efficiency of the system and the proposed performance, it is finally concluded whether the eco-efficiency score obtained is neutral or good. On the basis of the assessment of the performance of the optimization measure proposed, it is quite possible that its value would demonstrate a better management of solid waste being generated in this area.
Ekta Singh, Aman Kumar, Rahul Mishra, Sunil Kumar
Additional information