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About this book

This book consists of peer-reviewed papers, presented at the International Conference on Sustainable Design and Manufacturing (SDM 2020). Leading-edge research into sustainable design and manufacturing aims to enable the manufacturing industry to grow by adopting more advanced technologies and at the same time improve its sustainability by reducing its environmental impact. Relevant themes and topics include sustainable design, innovation and services; sustainable manufacturing processes and technology; sustainable manufacturing systems and enterprises; and decision support for sustainability. Application areas are wide and varied. The book provides an excellent overview of the latest developments in the sustainable design and manufacturing areas.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Bringing Success and Value in Sustainable Product Development: The Eco-design Guidelines

The relationships between the creation of value for both the environment and consumers have been insightfully investigated by the authors in previous studies. The results achieved in these studies have allowed the authors to deduce some design recommendations and represent the basis for further analyses of the perception of eco-designed products through quantitative data. In this paper, a sample of indications intended to support designers in developing sustainable and successful products was fine-tuned. These indications, embodied in eco-design guidelines, have been partially deducted from the evidence that emerged in previous works and partially inferred through a specific elaboration of data regarding the value perception of eco-design strategies. The guidelines have been evaluated by (eco-)design practitioners, whose evaluation shows the high perceived relevance of the guidelines.

Lorenzo Maccioni, Yuri Borgianni

The Identification and Selection of Good Quality Data Using Pedigree Matrix

Most data-based studies require significant amounts of data to support their decision-making process. Apart from increasing data quantity, scientists tend to be aware of the quality of data that influences the robustness of the results. A Pedigree matrix method is presented to characterize the data quality aspects and quantify the quality rating. Five quality aspects (reliability, completeness, temporal, geographical and technological representativeness) are defined as the characteristics to describe how well the reference data is fit for the underlying study. Reference rules are made subjectively for allocating the quality rating, which enable the computer to select appropriate data effectively from among different data sources. The overall data quality rating is calculated reflecting the quality level and converted to the four-parameter Beta probability distribution for uncertainty quantification. This is complemented by the Monte Carlo simulation that identifies uncertainty hotspots, to further improve the quality of identified data. This study provides an effective way to identify the data of good quality through the definition of reference rules. Making such rules can help the users to effectively capture the descriptive information regarding the data quality, further assess the quality levels consistently. The four-parameter Beta distribution is used for quantitative transformation, since it is appropriate to represent expert judgement. Therefore, the definition of distribution parameters is flexible depending on the expert understanding of uncertainty. This strength extends the application of the method to different data systems. Further research can focus on the development of reference rules for different quality aspects, as well the integration of the Pedigree matrix in various data systems.

Xiaobo Chen, Jacquetta Lee

Understanding Customer Preference: Outline of a New Approach to Prioritise Sustainability Product Information

The communication of sustainability values shared between product developers and customers is an important catalyst for effective collaboration that inspires sustainable consumption. Despite the many tools developed for assessing and communicating the product’s sustainability performance, customers are facing difficulties in understanding product sustainability information. The knowledge gaps remain underexplored about how product sustainability information is perceived and how this impacts customer purchasing behaviour. This paper outlines a new approach, driven by both backcasting and forecasting thinking, for understanding and modelling customer preferences for product sustainability information. We report findings from a case study of a large workplace furniture manufacturer. The study explored the potential of (i) identifying prioritised sustainability attributes using sustainability design space (SDS) and (ii) applying machine learning to model customer preferences.

Sze Yin Kwok, Sophie I. Hallstedt, Veselka Boeva

Sustainable Supply Chain Management in Fast-Moving Consumer Goods Organizations

This research focuses on sustainable supply chains in the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector in China. The literature review covers sustainability, sustainable development, corporate social responsibility as well as the trends in the sustainable supply chain management. The methodology consists on qualitative semi-structure interviews with managers, employees and consumers knowledgeable in sustainable supply chain management in Chinese FMCG organizations. The findings show that large FMCG organizations have set sustainability goals to adopt a series of actions on managing their supply chain, while some small FMCG organizations do not have enough capability to implement them. Furthermore, the developing trend for the sustainable supply chain is toward the use of the advanced technologies for increasing competitive advantage. A discussion of results is provided in the light of recent literature findings as well as some future research avenues are proposed.

Yang Chen, Luisa Huaccho Huatuco

Test Stand for Metamaterials Dynamic Properties Examination

Experiments and computer studies on metamaterial issues allow to improve designing of entire devices using 3D CAD technology and finite element methods. Research and their effects are aimed at replacing the mechanisms by the elements made with additive technology. The technology enables using the same metamaterial producing the device or part with various internal structures. While maintaining identical dimensions, the internal structure of the device affects the properties, particularly dynamic properties. For this purpose, apart an appropriate computer model, the particular test is required for rapid and effective prototyping. Therefore, in the paper, the test stand consisted on: The signal generator, the vibration generator and laser vibrometer are proposed. The following is the post for preliminary experimental research.

Knitter Remigiusz, Blazejewski Andrzej, Krolikowski Tomasz, Zmuda Trzebiatowski Piotr, Zuchniewicz Jerzy

An Association Rule-Based Approach for Storing Items in an AS/RS

Warehouse management activities are critical from an organizational point of view since they can cause a sensitive loss of efficiency. When dealing with automated storage and retrieval systems, the allocation of items to a specific storage cell is a challenging issue since it is the unique modifiable variable due to the constructive characteristics of the warehouse. The vast amount of data available in this field allows the development of policies for an efficient allocation of the items through the development of data mining-based approaches. In this perspective, the current work proposes a roadmap for the allocation of items to the storage cells of an automated storage and retrieval system through the association rule mining. The procedure is, at first, generally described, and, then, applied to the case study of a shoe manufacturer.

Sara Antomarioni, Maurizio Bevilacqua, Filippo Emanuele Ciarapica

Infrastructure Sharing Model as a Support for Sustainable Manufacturing

Sharing Economy allows using cheaper and simpler methods of alternative resource usage for sustainable manufacturing. One of elements of Sharing Economy is Infrastructure Sharing. Its idea is based on the fact that there is a lot of production and research infrastructure, but due to the changes in terms of manufacturing companies’ and in research institutions’ needs these resources are used only in specific situations and vast number of infrastructure is not fully exploited. A review of the literature and trends observed on the European market shows that the phenomenon of Infrastructure Sharing requires a deeper reflection on this topic. The aim of the paper is to present a new model of Infrastructure Sharing dedicated to support sustainability of advanced manufacturing. The Infrastructure Sharing model formulated within International Synergic Crowd Innovation Platform has been developed to hinder the gap with identified problems with low infrastructure’s utilization. The paper presents the functionality of sharing unused capacities of production and research machines and equipment. Also, the implementation of the Infrastructure Sharing model within a dedicated pilot action is discussed. Stakeholders can use the new business model to increase infrastructure utilization rate and to help make the right investment decision in technology. Infrastructure Sharing offers the possibility to test infrastructure/technologies and gives the possibility to better utilize and commercialize technologies.

Joanna Helman, Maria Rosienkiewicz, Mateusz Molasy, Mariusz Cholewa

A Correlation Study Between Weather Conditions and the Control Strategy of a Solar Water Heating System

The paper presents the results of experimental research on the correlation between atmospheric conditions and control strategy in solar water heating systems. Methods for assessing sunlight conditions have been presented. The results in the form of harvested solar energy depending on weather conditions have been presented and the best control strategy for individual sunshine condition have been proposed.

Znaczko Paweł, Kamiński Kazimierz, Zuchniewicz Jerzy

Industry 4.0—Supporting Industry in Design Solutions—All-in-One Computer Cover

The paper presents an invention in the form of an all-in-one computer case designed in cooperation with a technical university under the Industry 4.0 program. All-in-one computer cases are widely used primarily in all areas that use personal computers. This kind of unit can also be used to operate the vehicle charging stations, parking lots, urban bike rental, etc. Compared to desktop units, all-in-one computers take up significantly less space on the computer stand. As a result of using components installed in laptops, they are characterized by higher energy efficiency and lower heat emission. The compact design of the equipment means that it can be moved to another place or taken on a trip at any time. All-in-one machines are currently widely used, offering equipment for both basic office work and advanced programs requiring considerable hardware resources.

Krolikowski Tomasz, Knitter Remigiusz, Blazejewski Andrzej, Zmuda Trzebiatowski Piotr, Zuchniewicz Jerzy, Bak Aleksander

Development of a Robotic System with Stand-Alone Monocular Vision System for Eco-friendly Defect Detection in Oil Transportation Pipelines

This paper presents development of a pipeline defect detection (PDD) system and designing main components of the system to reduce the risk of environmental pollution due to pipeline accidents. Main feature presented is a robotic system including a pipe navigation mechanism and a vision system. ExPIRo robot platform developed at the previous stage of the research is used as the moving mechanism for the robotic system with minor modifications. Vision system is developed by the integration of a camera module, a single board computer and a remote workstation. PDD system presented provides remote monitoring and analyzing features by utilizing the remote workstation for data storage. MATLAB-based image acquisition algorithm is performed on LATTEPANDA single board computer, whereas the defect identification algorithm is performed on HP Envy 6-1012TX Ultra-Book laptop. GUI developed for the system visualizes the stages of image analysis and displays result while updating the result of each image for defect identification purpose. External surface defects having significant appearance abnormalities are tested using the presented PDD system, images of pipe segments are captured, and defects are successfully identified.

Amith Mudugamuwa, Chathura Jayasundara, Han Baokun, Ranjith Amarasinghe

Analysis and Assessment of Bottom-Up Models Developed in Central Europe for Enhancing Open Innovation and Technology Transfer in Advanced Manufacturing

In this paper, new phenomena and models supporting innovativeness of manufacturing companies are discussed. Quadruple helix innovation model and a sharing economy concept are presented. A role of innovation as a crucial factor of sustainable manufacturing is addressed. The main aim of the paper is to analyse and assess selected bottom-up models and approaches developed for enhancing open innovation and technology transfer in industrial companies in Central Europe. Research methodology is composed of an analysis of the models which have been developed within three international projects co-funded from the Interreg Central Europe programme, namely SYNERGY, TRANS3Net and NUCLEI. Five IT tools are presented and investigated. Moreover, activities supporting their implementation process are indicated to underline the new, innovative and holistic approach of creating an effective cooperation environment, with particular emphasis on the area of advanced manufacturing.

Maria Rosienkiewicz, Joanna Helman, Mariusz Cholewa, Mateusz Molasy, Grit Krause-Juettler

A Simplified TRIZ Approach Involving Technology Transfer for Reducing Product Energy Consumption

The literature is full of attempts to integrate eco-improvement and problem solving methods. Practically, no generalist problem solving method is born with a specific green purpose; also, for this reason, every time we apply a method to improve a product, the solution found could not be more sustainable than the previous one. Among the most effective methods for problem solving, there is TRIZ, which, differently from others, has in its fundamentals, several concepts in line with environmental sustainability: It pushes to find solutions that optimize the use of existing resources without adding new ones and suggests to simplify the systems towards their “essential” structure (TRIZnicks would say “ideal”). This article is a further testimony of TRIZ’s potential also in the world of eco-design. It proposes a simplified TRIZ approach, to produce sustainable solutions, based on a few key points of the TRIZ methodology that are easy to implement even for a non-expert in the field. These fundamentals are integrated with a documental research module designed for the transfer of knowledge between different technological areas. The goal of the tech transfer module is to find in the early stages of the problem those who have already solved similar problems in different sectors and from here start building their own solution model. In our case, it has been applied to reduce the energy consumption in the use phase of an industrial dishwashing machine developed by Elframo company. The solution, which is currently under patent pending, has saved more than 90% of the energy.

Davide Russo, Christian Spreafico, Matteo Spreafico

Calculating Domestic Environmental Impacts: Challenging and Solutions for an Interactive Configurator

The domestic consumptions are commonly claimed to be more than 60% of global GHG emissions and between 50 and 80% of total land, material and water use. In the last few years, a lot of methods and tools to estimate those impacts have been proposed in the literature and diffused on public administration portals (e.g. European Commissioner for the Environment) and on private Websites. However, an overall analysis of all the factors that contribute to the consumption of an entire home and the development of a support tool is still lacking. This paper discusses the main parameters to be considered for the analysis and the methods for calculating the environmental impacts, and it proposed a supported tool, in the form of an interactive configurator. It allows the user to enter the main data about her/his own home, the constituting components (e.g. appliances) and her/his habits and behaviours (i.e. ways of use), and then, after the processing, it provides the results, in terms of environmental impacts (kg of equivalent CO2) of the entire home and the constituting components, by also showing possible more sustainable alternatives.

Christian Spreafico, Davide Russo

Additive Manufacturing of Continuous Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Components

Additive manufacturing is a rapidly growing manufacturing process for which many new processes and materials are currently being developed. The biggest advantage is that almost any shape can be produced, while conventional manufacturing methods reach their limits. Furthermore, a lot of material is saved because the part is created in layers and only as much material is used as necessary. In contrast, in the case of machining processes, it is not uncommon for more than half of the material to be removed and disposed of. Recently, new additive manufacturing processes have been on the market that enables the manufacturing of components using the FDM process with fiber reinforcement. This opens up new possibilities for optimizing components in terms of their strength and at the same time increasing sustainability by reducing materials consumption and waste. Within the scope of this work, different types of test specimens are to be designed, manufactured and examined. The test specimens are tensile specimens, which are used both for standardized tensile tests and for examining a practical component from automotive engineering used in student project. This project is a vehicle designed to compete in the Shell Eco-marathon, one of the world’s largest energy efficiency competitions. The aim is to design a vehicle that covers a certain distance with as little fuel as possible. Accordingly, it is desirable to manufacture the components with the lowest possible weight, while still ensuring the required rigidity. To achieve this, the use of fiber-reinforced 3D-printed parts is particularly suitable due to the high rigidity. In particular, the joining technology for connecting conventionally and additively manufactured components is developed. As a result, the economic efficiency was assessed, and guidelines for the design of components and joining elements were created. In addition, it could be shown that the additive manufacturing of the component could be implemented faster and more sustainably than the previous conventional manufacturing.

Stefan Junk, Manuel Dorner, Claus Fleig

Scalability Analysis in Industry 4.0 Manufacturing

In the recent years, reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS) emerged as a new class of manufacturing systems aiming to adapt the production capacity in a quick, efficient and cost-effective way, through a set of six core features, i.e. modularity, integrability, scalability, convertibility, customisation and diagnosibility. This paper focuses on the scalability attribute, i.e. the ability of the manufacturing system to rapidly adapt to fluctuations of the market demand, providing metrics to evaluate the scalability of machines, in both discrete manufacturing and process manufacturing industries, which produce different types of goods. The proposed metrics are applied to an industrial case study from the discrete and the process manufacturing industries to highlight the different trend of the scalability attribute.

Riccardo Accorsi, Marco Bortolini, Francesco Gabriele Galizia, Francesco Gualano, Marcella Oliani

An Investigation of the Porosity Effects on the Mechanical Properties and the Failure Modes of Ti–6Al–4V Schwarz Primitive Structures

Porous structures fabricated using additive manufacturing demonstrate significant advantages due to their mechanical properties and light weight. However, their manufacture using selective laser melting still requires considerable research. This study investigated the mechanical properties and the failure modes of Ti–6Al–4V-built Schwarz primitive structures. Samples with five different porosities, ranging from 60 to 85%, were designed and fabricated; all samples had a length of 20 mm and consisted of 2.5-mm porous units. Compression tests were conducted to study their mechanical properties. The results show that their elastic modulus ranged from 1239.63 ± 23.69 to 3453.20 ± 105.95 MPa, and their ultimate strength ranged between 44.82 ± 0.22 and 266.31 ± 0.73 MPa. A camera used to record the failure processes revealed that Ti–6Al–4V Schwarz primitive structures exhibit brittle behaviour. Two failure modes were observed; diagonal shear was found in the 60–80% porosity samples, while unit brittle fracturing was observed in the 85% samples. This study contributes new knowledge about the design of Schwarz primitive structures and provides guidelines for choosing the appropriate porosity to meet different application requirements.

Shuai Ma, Qian Tang, Qixiang Feng, Jun Song, Ying Liu, Rossitza Setchi

Including Ergonomic Principles in the Design and Management of Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems

In recent years, the adoption of reconfigurable systems represents a primary strategy to improving flexibility, elasticity and efficiency in both manufacturing and assembly. Despite their automation level, such systems still require actions by human operators, e.g. assembly/disassembly auxiliary custom modules. These operations rise safety and ergonomic issues because of the human–machine interaction and cooperation. This paper follows this stream introducing a mathematical model for the design of reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMSs) requiring manual workers to perform repetitive tasks. The aim is to support the design of efficient and sustainable RMSs aiming at reducing the overall time required for parts, and auxiliary modules travel among the available machines and the time needed for the assembly and disassembly auxiliary module operations, improving the workers’ occupational health and safety. Given the characteristics of the reconfigurable machines, the assembly/disassembly auxiliary modules and the required manufacturing process, the model defines the best assignment of the auxiliary modules to the reconfigurable machines and the part flows. Each solution ensures an acceptable risk level for repetitive movements, as required by regulations on occupational health and safety.

Marco Bortolini, Lucia Botti, Emilio Ferrari, Francesco Gabriele Galizia, Cristina Mora

Non-conventional Warehouses: Comparison of the Handling Performances

This paper proposes a comparison of the handling performances of three non-conventional warehouses, i.e., Chevron, Diagonal Cross Aisle, and Fishbone, toward the traditional layout. A multi-scenario analysis is provided by using a tool developed in Visual Basic for Application environment. The goal is to compare the most relevant layouts, by using the same set of hypotheses, to assess their technical sustainability and convenience. The inputs are the storage area, the width of the aisles, and the dimension of the unit loads. The travelled distances are computed in the optimal configuration and by adopting a central pickup and delivery point. Key outcomes highlight that Chevron and Fishbone layouts present effective configurations for the majority of the shape factors (savings up to 23%), while the Diagonal Cross Aisle layout presents the highest saving for a depth ratio of 4:1 (26%).

Marco Bortolini, Francesco Gabriele Galizia, Mauro Gamberi, Francesco Gualano, Ludovica Diletta Naldi

Saving Lives and Saving the Planet: The Readiness of Ireland’s Healthcare Manufacturing Sector for the Circular Economy

Healthcare manufacturing is one of the leading creators of single-use products in Ireland and accounts for 11% of waste generated. Industry and businesses can play a significant role in tackling unsustainable production and consumption levels. Circular Economy (CE) practices could play a major role in the sustainability of health care and medical device manufacturing. This study aimed to develop an understanding of the current state of these company’s readiness for the Circular Economy. An online survey was carried out with key employees in this industry to understand their perception of CE and what might drive more circular models. This study found that there was very little knowledge of CE within this industry. Despite this, some aspects of CE had been implemented, driven by cost saving initiatives. The barriers to implementation identified included a lack of prioritization and funding to develop more sustainable models of production. It was also found that financial assistance (e.g. grants) together with policy and legislation could unlock opportunities to develop a more circular model. This study adds to the limited empirical literature on CE barriers and opportunities to manufacturing organisations operating in Ireland.

Carla Gaberščik, Sinéad Mitchell, Audrey Fayne

Effect of Milling Speed and Time on Graphene-Reinforced AA2024 Powder

Aluminium is the third most abundant material in the Earth’s crust and, along with its alloys, is essential in many engineering sectors, including aerospace, automotive, defence, marine, construction, and medicine, owing to its high damage tolerance, fatigue resistance, conductivity, corrosion resistance, and low density. Despite this, some mechanical properties of Aluminium do not yet satisfy increasing industrial demands. Reinforcing aluminium alloys with other elements is considered as a means of providing additional strength. This study aims to investigate the effect of milling speed and time on graphene-reinforced aluminium alloy powder, intended for use in selective laser melting (SLM), prepared using high-energy ball milling (HEBM). The experimental study indicates that using a slow milling speed (100 rpm) for up to 2 h does not affect the shape of the powder substantially, and the graphene nanoparticles (GNPs) do not adhere to the powder surface in a metal matrix composite (MMC). However, a faster milling speed (250 rpm) flattens and crumbles the powder, and adheres the graphene sheets to the alloying powder, due to the higher impact energy produced by centrifugal and Coriolis forces.

Mulla Pekok, Rossitza Setchi, Michael Ryan, Quanquan Han

Mechanical Behavior of NiTi-Based Circular Tube Chiral Structure Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

In this work, a new NiTi-based circular tube chiral (CTC) structure with compression-induced-twisting effect was proposed, inspired by the spiranthes cernua’s tendril, which was then manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM). The compressive deformation behavior and coupled twisting feature of NiTi-based CTC structure were disclosed in detail based on the experimental method and simulation approach. It was found that the twisting angle per axial strain λ achieved by the experiment and the simulation was roughly consistent with the result (1.5068°/%) based on the theoretical calculation within a small deformation. As the strain increased, the λ rapidly declined and finally stabilized at round 0.6°/%. Furthermore, the recoverable behaviors of the axial strain and the twisting angle after the unloading were also evaluated in views of the reversible martensitic transformation of NiTi alloys. After six cycles, the recoverable strain or twisting angle ratio could reach approach to 1. This work could be expected to provide a guiding significance to some degree for the development of functional components (such as smart actuators) with a stable and reversible twisting behavior applied in the aerospace field.

Chenglong Ma, Dongdong Gu, Jie Gao, Wei Chen, Yingjie Song, Rossitza Setchi

Energy Utilization Analysis and Optimization of Corrective Insoles Manufactured by 3D Printing

The foot orthotic insole market is forecast to surpass a value of 3.6 billion USD by 2021. This vast industry continues to rely on foam milling and other subtractive methods of manufacturing, which have proven to be wasteful and inefficient. Leaps in digital manufacturing have enabled the technology to enter a plethora of industries, with the promise of increased customization accompanied with reduced waste generation. Despite boasting these valuable traits, the explosive proliferation of 3D printing in conjunction with mounting pressure to incorporate sustainable practices, means that research must be focused on maximizing the material and energy efficiency of the technology. This paper employs a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach for the optimization of two prefabricated insoles, adjusting percentage infill and layer height to obtain data regarding the effects of these parameters on print time, filament usage volume, and energy consumption. Key conclusions formed from the study were that infill density is the dominant factor effecting material consumption and power usage, whereas layer height has the greatest influence on production time. The data presented in this study has the potential to aid not only in the development of mass producible additive manufactured (AM) insoles, but also to advance the understanding of the environmental impact of AM technologies.

M. J. Kirby, Rachel Johnson, A. Rees, C. A. Griffiths

Effect of Remelting Process on Surface Quality and Tensile Behaviour of a Maraging Steel Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

Selective laser melting (SLM) of 18Ni-300 maraging steel is of substantial interest due to its wide application as a mould material in automotive sectors. Selective laser remelting (SLRM) is often employed during SLM, which offers the potential to improve quality of the metallic parts fabricated by SLM. This study investigated the effect of the remelting process on the surface quality and tensile strength of 18Ni-300 maraging steel manufactured by SLM. The experimental results demonstrated that the remelting process was found to contribute to a smoother surface morphology on the top surface and no obvious observed difference in the side surface morphology. The SLM-built and SLRM-built samples exhibited the Ra roughness values of 3.11 ± 0.31 μm and 3.44 ± 0.48 μm, respectively, which showed no significant difference. The Ra values on the side surface increased from 7.76 ± 0.25 μm to 11.57 ± 3.44 μm after remelting. This was because more powder particles were exposed to molten pools during remelting. In addition, the yield strength increased from 890 ± 27 MPa to 938 ± 36 MPa after the remelting process, whereas the ultimate tensile strength remained at the same level. The SLM-built and SLRM-built samples achieved the ultimate tensile strength values of 1068 ± 12 MPa and 1070 ± 19 MPa, respectively. Moreover, both processing conditions showed a ductile fracture mode. These significant findings indicate the possibility of combining SLM and selective laser remelting to produce better performing 18Ni-300 maraging steel components.

Jun Song, Qian Tang, Qixiang Feng, Shuai Ma, Quanquan Han, Rossitza Setchi

Event-Driven Knowledge Engineering as Enabling Technology Towards Configuration of Assistance Systems in Industrial Assembly

Industrial assistance systems are increasingly used in modern production facilities to support employees, in order to cope with varying assembly processes, increased complexity and to reduce mental and physical stress. However, programming and configuring such systems, to provide assistance in a given assembly process context, is a challenging task and usually requires extensive programming knowledge. This paper presents an approach, combining human event recognition together with a semantic knowledge processing framework in order to enable intuitive programming and configuration. The presented method includes learning of assembly process knowledge, based on human demonstration. We demonstrate the applicability of this approach in two use cases: process learning and transfer, and user guidance for manual assembly.

Matthias Plasch, Sharath Chandra Akkaladevi, Michael Hofmann, Christian Wögerer, Andreas Pichler

Computational Validation of Injection Molding Tooling by Additive Layer Manufacture to Produce EPDM Exterior Automotive Seals

During the design and development of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) exterior automotive seals, prototype components can only manufactured through production tooling platforms by either injection molding or extrusion. Consequently, tooling is expensive and has long lead times. This paper investigates whether additive layer manufacture is a viable method for producing tooling used in injection molding of exterior automotive seals in EPDM. Specifically, a novel rapid tooling is a method that combines additive layer manufacture (ALM) with epoxy reinforcement. Computational validation is performed whereby the mechanical properties of the tool are evaluated. The research has concluded that the novel tooling configuration would be suitable for prototyping purposes which would drastically reduce both costly and environmentally detrimental pre-manufacturing processes. This work has laid the foundations to implement rapid tooling technology to the injection molding of prototype EPDM parts.

I. Evans, A. Rees, C. A. Griffiths, Rachel Johnson

Impact of Nonplanar 3D Printing on Surface Roughness and Build Time in Fused Filament Fabrication

Nonplanar 3D printing is a recently emerged approach to increase surface quality and part strength in additive manufacturing. In this paper, the impact of a nonplanar printing method utilized for the fused filament fabrication (FFF) technique on the resultant surface roughness of printed parts is presented. In particular, the influence of different inclination angles and part orientation on the obtainable surface quality was investigated by comparing a traditional planar printing strategy with a nonplanar finishing solution. A pyramidal geometry was utilized to assess the effect of inclination angle as well as part orientation and relative printhead movement on the surface characteristics. The results show a decrease in obtainable surface roughness for inclination angles up to 25°, while higher angles cause rougher surfaces when compared with results of planar 3D printing strategy. This can be explained by the way the nonplanar nozzle movements interact with previously deposited filament strands by deforming them due to the size of the nozzle and geometry of the 3D printed part. As a consequence, solutions for an improved nonplanar printing technique using Delta FFF printers are suggested that will be investigated in the future work.

Ahmed Elkaseer, Tobias Müller, Dominik Rabsch, Steffen G. Scholz

In-Process Digital Monitoring of Additive Manufacturing: Proposed Machine Learning Approach and Potential Implications on Sustainability

Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies have recently gained significance amongst industries as well as everyday consumers. This is largely due to the benefits that they offer in terms of design freedom, lead-time reduction, mass-customization as well as potential sustainability improvements due to efficiency in resource usage. However, conventional manufacturing industries are reluctant to integrate AM within their established process chains due to the unpredictability of the process and the quality of the final parts that are printed. Conventional manufacturing process have the advantage of decades of research in developing process knowledge and optimization, which culminates in accurate process predictability. This gap in process understanding is one that AM will need to cover in a short time. AM does have the benefit of being a digital manufacturing process and with the adoption of advanced Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) techniques in production lines, there may not have been a better industrial age for its implementation. This paper presents a case for actively developing AM processes using ML. Then a method for in-process monitoring of the printing process is presented and discussed. The main benefit from using the proposed system is an increase in the efficiency and final quality of the parts printed, as a result of which there is an increased efficiency in resource usage due to preventing material loss due to failed builds and defected parts.

Amal Charles, Mahmoud Salem, Mandaná Moshiri, Ahmed Elkaseer, Steffen G. Scholz

Stakeholder-Driven Conceptualization of Open Innovation Approaches in the SYNERGY Project

Since the late 90s, the way companies acquire novel ideas and bring resulting products to the market is in a paradigm shift moving towards open innovation concepts and making use of crowd-based approaches. This in particular affects the industrial technologies sector with its fast-moving advancements in the areas of Additive Manufacturing, Micro- and Nanotechnology and Industry4.0. Open innovation concepts together with stakeholder-driven engagement processes provide solutions for all parties involved in the innovation process—from research to intermediaries up to industrial realization. This paper reports an overview of the milestones of the open innovation evolution and describes the interactive engagement format established and carried out within the frame of the Interreg Central Europe (CE) project SYNERGY (CE1171) involving related stakeholder target groups in the conceptualization of an open innovation platform for state-of-the-art technologies. Creative formats like design thinking and crowdsourcing approaches were introduced to and applied by representatives from higher education and research, SMEs and industry and start-ups to create a catalogue of features required for the open innovation platform.

Janin Fauth, Clarissa Marquardt, Giulia Di Bari, Nicola Raule, Johanna Lisa Ronco, Steffen G. Scholz

An Empirical Study of Visual Comfort in Office Buildings

Visual comfort is an important indicator of both occupant satisfaction and work performance. The main goal of this study is to present the visual comfort-related factors that influence occupant satisfaction. To achieve this goal, a detailed literature analysis was conducted to determine the main factors that can be used to evaluate the effect of visual comfort on the satisfaction of office workers. Afterward, interviews were conducted with 12 facility managers, and related work orders created by the facility management teams were investigated to determine visual comfort-related complaint types. Based on the collected data, a hierarchical structure of visual comfort factors was created. Finally, 308 office workers were surveyed to determine (1) the number of respondents with complaints related to each visual comfort factor, (2) the level of importance of the visual comfort related factors, and (3) office worker’s satisfaction levels for each factor. The findings reveal that the largest gap between the perceived importance and satisfaction appears in daylighting and visual privacy. The designers, facility managers, and renovators need to think of design strategies to provide more privacy and access to daylight to occupants in their working environments.

Isilay Tekce, Deniz Artan, Esin Ergen

Heterogeneous Dual-Frequency IoT Network for Vital Data Acquisition

The IoT solutions for health informatics are suffering from restriction of using one frequency which makes the network is unable to communicate via different frequencies. Also, this limitation of using a single frequency fixes a single communication range between nodes without the capability to vary the covering rang. This could consume high power if the system has to transmit data on long distance due to the need to use signal repeater node/s. This paper reports the development of a new heterogeneous design of IoT network via unsymmetrical frequencies in order to sense, process, exchange and visualize two vital signs. The sensing and processing phases are performed via a convenient design of noninvasive vital data acquisition nods. These data acquisition nodes of vital signs are integrated into an embedded system with the IoT nodes in order to provide effective, accurate and real-time health monitoring for vital signs. The design of IoT broker node enables real-time analysis and concatenation of two vital signs. In addition, the broker facilitates the communication between nodes to each other over multi-frequencies in order to cover variant distances and thus to optimize the usage of power. Moreover, the proposed software of the IoT broker is able to address run-time issues of network nodes in real time without the need to reset the whole network.

Mahmoud Salem, Islam El-Maddah, Khaled Youssef, Ahmed Elkaseer, Steffen Scholz, Hoda Mohamed

Sustainability Assessment of Rapid Sand Mould Making Using Multi-criteria Decision-Making Mapping

Capabilities of additive manufacturing (AM) for rapid tooling are well known in recent times. Rapid sand moulds are advantageous over traditional sand moulds in terms of cost, manufacturing time, flexibility, etc. This paper identifies metrics related to mould manufacturing and categorises them into four categories (cost, time, quality and environmental sustainability). A methodology based on the deterministic Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) multi-criteria decision-making algorithm is used to map at high resolution the influence of such categories on to the decision-making space when comparing AM with conventional sand mould making. Results show that AM is almost always clearly advantageous overall (excluding some very limited corner cases) for the examined case.

Emanuele Pagone, Prateek Saxena, Michail Papanikolaou, Konstantinos Salonitis, Mark Jolly

NeoPalea: Compostable Composite Material for Packaging Applications

The problem of packaging waste is deeply felt at international level, because each year hundreds of millions of tons of packaging are produced. While significant improvements have been made in the recycling of metal, wood, paper and cardboard packaging, plastic packaging still represents an open issue. The EU implemented regulatory actions to manage packaging and packaging waste by defining short-to-medium-term targets in terms of recycling rate. In such a context, the paper deals with an innovative composite material dedicated to the production of tertiary packaging, named NeoPalea. The proposed material is based on a combination of natural fibers and biodegradable biopolymers. It was prototyped to verify the performance as a potential substitute of the polymers currently used for packaging. The preliminary results obtained are encouraging.

Leonardo Conti, Federico Rotini, Matteo Barbari, Marco Togni, Giuseppe Rossi

Using FFF and Topology Optimisation to Increase Crushing Strength in Equestrian Helmets

International standards ensure that equestrian helmets achieve high performance. Recently, one such standard (PAS 015) was revised to include a lateral deformation requirement, ensuring helmets can withstand the potential crushing forces associated with equestrian. This increased performance needs to be achieved against a minimal mass penalty, which is an important consumer consideration. This paper explores how shell design optimisation can improve crush resistance, validated using additive manufacturing and mechanical testing. This approach achieved a 73% increase in crush force, for only an 11% mass increase.

Shwe Soe, Michael Robinson, Khaled Gaisin, Rhosslyn Adams, Tony Palkowski, Peter Theobald

Polish Public Transport Fire Safety Study

An increase in the number of passenger cars on Polish roads causes, among others, traffic difficulties, increased noise level and atmospheric air pollution. The solution to these problems may be an increase of public transport in the share of the passenger transport. Factors that can affect the decision to opt out of passenger cars for public transport may be economic, environmental, but they also include greater safety, including fire safety. Statistical data indicate that fires of passenger cars in Poland constitute over 80% of the number of fires of all means of transport, while fires of means of public transport constitute approx. 3%. Fire safety of means of transport depends largely on the properties of combustible materials constituting structural elements and furnishing. Requirements and criteria for material assessment are specified in standards and legal acts. They depend on the type of transport. So there are different requirements for coaches and different ones for trains or passenger ships. Findings of flammability tests of public transport furnishing indicate that not all materials can meet the requirements of fire safety regulations and incorrectly selected may pose a threat to the health and life of people in the vehicle.

R. Dobrzyńska

The Effect of Heat Treatment of AlSi10Mg on the Energy Absorption Performance of Surface-Based Structures

Additive Manufacturing of cellular lattice structures offers opportunities to fine-tune the mechanical response by altering geometric variables. It is known that heat treatment cycles provide an effective way of altering mechanical properties while relieving residual stress. By exploiting the combined influence of these two variables, this study demonstrates the possibility of optimising energy absorption in AlSi10Mg honeycomb lattice structures, manufactured using selective laser melting. This finding indicates that heat treatment and powder quality have a significant influence on the mechanical response of the honeycomb. Additionally, this highlights the opportunity to establish an energy absorption diagram, via mapping the relative performance of variable lattice geometries and heat treatment cycles. At the same time, the consistency of powder quality can be tightly controlled.

Michael Robinson, Quanquan Han, Heng Gu, Shwe Soe, Rossitza Setchi

Blockchain-Enabled ESG Reporting Framework for Sustainable Supply Chain

Nowadays sustainability has received global attention in supply chain. To evaluate the sustainability level, environmental, social, and governance (ESG) reporting is widely adopted especially for the listed companies. However, due to the lack of data authentication, consistency, and transparency, the ESG-based sustainability evaluation is still inadequate. To address those challenges, this paper proposes a blockchain-based ESG reporting framework for facilitating the sustainability evaluation of listed company. Firstly, a fact-telling blockchain gateway is designed to facilitate the raw data authentication issues. It plays the role of light node to transfer the data of smart infrastructure/devices to the blockchain network, which satisfies both privacy and transparency. Secondly, a versioning smart contract mechanism is developed to verify the consistency between the raw data and the final ESG report. Thirdly, a token-based sustainability evaluation mechanism is used to evaluate the behaviors of listed company in the sustainable supply chain. The discussion analyzes the benefits and potential obstacles of utilizing the proposed framework in the ESG reporting preparation, generation, and publication. The results of this study contribute a reliable approach to facilitate the sustainability-level evaluation of listed company.

Xinlai Liu, Haoye Wu, Wei Wu, Yelin Fu, George Q. Huang

Low-Sulphur Marine Fuels—Panacea or a New Threat?

As a result of increasing air pollution, global actions have been taken to improve air quality. One of these measures is the reduction of SOx emission from ships. This group of transport means has used (until the end of 2019) fuel with a maximum sulphur content of up to 3.5%. The article describes fuels with low sulphur content currently approved for use (with sulphur content below 0.5 and 0.1% for Emission Control Area). This amount is 500 times greater than the permissible sulphur content in car fuel (up to 3500 times greater by the end of 2019). Low-sulphur marine fuels include blend fuels the use of which raises doubts. What threats does their use pose? The most significant problems associated with limiting the sulphur content of marine fuel have already been identified. These include the incompatibility and instability described in the article. Are there any others? The publication is an attempt to resolve this issue.

Agnieszka Ubowska, Renata Dobrzyńska

Effect of Build Bed Location on Density and Corrosion Properties of Additively Manufactured 17-4PH Stainless Steel

Additive manufacture (AM) has revolutionized the manufacturing industry by developing a method of manufacture that allows for rapid prototyping, increased design freedom, and flexible production. Despite this, additively manufactured components exhibit a greater susceptibility to corrode. The corrosion properties of additively manufactured 17-4PH stainless steel (SS) are explored in this paper as a function of build bed location. A combination of advanced electrochemical techniques and density measurements has been used to determine this effect. All additively manufactured parts tested in this paper underwent corrosion via a localized pitting mechanism, and the degree of corrosion appears to be independent of build bed position. A key finding from this paper pertains to the variation in component density with build bed position, which is proposed to be related to the distance from powder distribution.

Rachel Johnson, I. S. Grech, N. Wint, N. P. Lavery

Control Systems Architecture with a Predictive Identification Model in Digital Ecosystems

The paper describes basic architectural principals and main control system components using predictive identification models in digital ecosystems. We introduce the architecture for both Time-Driven and Batch-Driven and Alert-Driven modes for configuration of predictive identification models. In our work we discussed the main principals of Digital Ecosystems architecture with Alert-Driven control based on Associative search methods, regarding the main architectural components of each Ecosystem layer and its requirements for stability, reliability and scalability of such systems. In addition, the method of a predictive model development based on Data Mining approach with Associative Search is presented.

Alexander Suleykin, Natalya Bakhtadze

Research on the Green Evaluation System of Manufacturing Process

In view of the current domestic most of the problems of “three highs” iron and steel enterprise, to comprehensive multi-level evaluation of iron and steel enterprise, contribution rate of the resources and the environment, this paper proposes a process for manufacturing iron and steel enterprise based on gray correlation analysis method of the green evaluation method, to systematically study the greening level of iron and steel enterprise. First, according to the manufacturing process of iron and steel enterprises, a multi-level green evaluation index system is established, and then the actual production data in the enterprise is processed using the gray correlation analysis method to obtain the optimal values and build a matrix. According to the gray system theory, the gray correlation coefficient matrix is calculated, and finally according to the size of the correlation, green sex compared to the enterprise. In this paper, an example is applied to make an empirical study on this method. The results show that this method is effective and can provide an objective scientific basis for the green evaluation of iron and steel enterprises.

Pengcheng Yan, Gang Zhao, Na Zhang, Xin Huang, Xiaolong Luo, Shujun Yu

A Life Cycle Comprehensive Cost-Based Method for Active Remanufacturing Time Prediction

In order to solve the problems of low-process efficiency and high remanufacturing cost caused by uncertainty of service time and damage degree of mechanical and electrical products, a prediction method for active remanufacturing timing of mechanical and electrical products oriented to full life cycle comprehensive cost is proposed. Firstly, based on the analysis of service characteristics of mechanical and electrical products, the concept of comprehensive cost of mechanical and electrical products including three dimensions of energy cost, environmental impact cost and economic cost is proposed. Secondly, based on the life cycle approach, the prediction model of active remanufacturing time is established by analyzing the impact of products on comprehensive cost in different stages of the life cycle. Thirdly, the multi-objective problem is transformed into a single-objective problem by linear weighting method to find the optimal solution which is the best time for active remanufacturing of products. Finally, the research and analysis of a certain type of engine have verified the effectiveness and feasibility of the above method.

Xin Yao, Hua Zhang, Wei Yan, Zhigang Jiang

Analysis of Coal Gas Resource Utilization and Energy Flow View Model in Iron and Steel Enterprises

During the production and operation of iron and steel enterprises, a large amount of very important by-product gas resources such as blast furnace gas, coke oven gas and Linz–Donawitz process gas are produced. In order to realize the efficient use value of gas resources, focus on two aspects of its comprehensive utilization and optimization methods. Firstly, according to the different characteristics of by-production gas in iron and steel enterprises at present, the optimal use way is analyzed to promote the conversion of by-production gas from the main fuel utilization (or even direct emission) to the moderate resource utilization, so as to realize the improvement of comprehensive utilization rate. Secondly, according to the characteristics of gas energy flow system, an energy flow view description model is established and the linear optimization model of gas energy flow density is given; then, the feasibility of the optimized method is verified by simulation with actual data of a steel plant.

Xiao Li, Gang Zhao, Qi Zhou, Pengcheng Yan, Xiong Liu, Shujun Yu

Lightweight Design of Valve Body Structure Based on Numerical Simulation

In order to save costs and protect resources, and improve the green level of valve body design, a numerical design method was used to lightweight the valve body structure for an electric gate valve being developed by S Company. The original square valve body structure was designed as a cylindrical structure. SolidWorks was used to model the valve body structure in three dimensions. The flow simulation was used to perform flow path extraction and flow field analysis on the valve body. Fluid–structure interaction analysis was performed on the optimized valve body, and mechanical performance analysis was performed. The analysis results show that the mass of the valve body is reduced by 728 kg, the optimization rate is 20.8%, the allowable stress requirements are met, and the lightweight design of the valve body is OK.

Qi Zhou, Gang Zhao, Xin Huang, Na Zhang, Xiaolong Luo

Research on Quantitative Evaluation of Green Property of Iron and Steel Enterprises Based on BP Neural Network

To objectively evaluate the resource efficiency and environmental impact of iron and steel enterprises, it is necessary to comprehensively evaluate the greenness of their manufacturing process. In this paper, based on the green evaluation index of iron and steel enterprises, a two-level green evaluation system derived from the manufacturing process is established, and a green evaluation and prediction model of the manufacturing process are established. Firstly, the data in the actual production process of iron and steel enterprises are normalized. The first 75% of the data is taken as the training set, and the last 25% as the test set. Then, the data set is imported into the constructed BP neural network for training. Finally, through the analysis of the training results, it can simulate the experts to evaluate the diagnosis and predict the optimized manufacturing process.

Junsong Xiao, Gang Zhao, Pengcheng Yan

Research on Green Design of Valve Products Based on Response Surface Method

In order to realize the green design requirement of 550 mm gate valve in a valve system of an enterprise, the response surface method was used to optimize the body structure by single factor objective. Body wall thickness, height of stiffener, and thickness of stiffener as the objective factor, gate parameterized model is set up, using the finite element analysis software to optimize the former body strength that is numerically simulated, and based on DOE target optimization design for the parameters of optimized body coupling analysis, get the body by the maximum equivalent stress is 103 MPa. The results show that the strength of the improved valve body can apply to the requirements of the actual working condition, and the consumption of raw materials of the product is greatly reduced compared with the original design, which meets the requirements of the green design of valve products.

Xiong Liu, Gang Zhao, Xiao-long Luo, Na Zhang, Xin Huang

Integrated Electronic Systems for Acquisition of Customers for Transport and Logistics Services

Nowadays different electronic systems are used to acquire customers for transport an logistics services. The article aims to analyze these systems and examine the opinions of transport and logistics company owners concerning the possibilities of using integrated tools. Its primary objective was an attempt at obtaining an answer to the questions that concerned, among others: the impact of integrated electronic systems on processes related to customer acquisition, and the main benefits that the companies may derive from use of freight exchange services. To this end the selected freight exchanges were characterized. The survey questionnaire was developed, that was applied to marketing research among those owners of TSL companies, that use the services of freight exchange platforms in Latvia. The research revealed that owners of transport companies were willing to adopt the use of integrated electronic systems in the process of customer acquisition. The selected functions of such systems were also determined, with the preferences of their potential users.

A. Wiktorowska-Jasik, L. Filina-Dawidowicz, A. Cernova-Bickova, D. Możdrzeń, D. Bickovs

Mechanical Performance of Polylactic Acid from Sustainable Screw-Based 3D Printing

Screw-extrusion-based 3D printing or fused granular fabrication (FGF) is a less widespread variant of filament-based 3D printing for polymers. An FGF printer can be fed directly from polymer granules for improved sustainability. Shorter manufacturing routes and the potential of using recycled pellets from waste plastics are key features of FGF in the circular economy framework. A modified version of a standard Prusa i3 plus printer, which was equipped with a Mahor screw extruder, is used to test the mechanical performance of polylactic acid (PLA) processed with different layer infill and printing speed. Rheological and thermal analyses are carried out to characterise the material. The energy consumption of the FGF printer was measured during the fabrication of Dumbbell specimens. Tensile test results are consistent with other investigations presented in the literature. A higher printing speed promotes FGF eco-efficiency without a detrimental effect on the material strength, whereas lower printing speed should be preferred for increased material stiffness.

Paolo Minetola, Luca Fontana, Rossella Arrigo, Giulio Malucelli, Luca Iuliano

Organization and Implementation of Intermodal Transport of Perishable Goods: Contemporary Problems of Forwarders

During performance of transport processes of perishable goods, forwarders may face different challenges and problems that could influence transportation efficiency. The objective of the article was to analyze the contemporary problems associated with the organization and implementation of perishable goods transportation involving intermodal transport technology. The case study of frozen goods transportation performed by freight forwarders operating in Poland was considered. The research was conducted using marketing research methods. The survey questionnaire was developed, and forwarders’ opinions concerning the issues occurring during organization and implementation of transport process using road and maritime transport were analyzed. In the result of the conducted research, it was stated that transport of perishable goods is more challenging for forwarders than transport of other types of cargo. The most problematic is organization of transport within set time period. One of the biggest issues connected with implementation of maritime transport is securing of correct operation of the containers’ refrigeration unit. Frequent traffic disturbances are seen to be main challenges for forwarders in road transport of goods. Results of the present research may be of interest for transport and forwarding companies that specialize in transport of perishable goods using intermodal transport technology, as well as their customers.

L. Filina-Dawidowicz, S. Stankiewicz

Analysis of Electric Power Consumption by the Heat Pump Used in the Spray Booth

The paint shop is one of the most energy-consuming locations in the cars production process. The highest energy consumption in paint shops is related to heating the exchanged air. Currently, recuperators are used to recover waste heat in paint booths. The values of the temperature change coefficient in the recuperators are so low that the temperature of the air discharged into the atmosphere behind the recuperators is still positive. This happens even for negative outside air temperatures. There are solutions for installing heat pumps for spray booths used for heat recovery or dehumidification. The paper presents a quick method of assessment of electric power consumed by heat pump working in spray booth. The proposed method enables preliminary estimation of electric power consumption by the heat pump and further estimation of the energy efficiency of the entire spray booth. It is based on a simplified model containing an equation averaging the energy efficiency of air heat pumps.

Piotr Nikończuk, Wojciech Tuchowski

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