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About this book

This book presents a state-of-the-art compilation focusing on both technological and policy aspects of sustainable energy production and consumption, which deals with issues like the need for and planning of smart cities, alternative transport fuel options, sustainable power production, pollution control technologies etc. The book comprises contributions from experts from all over the world, and addresses energy sustainability from different viewpoints. Specifically, the book focuses on energy sustainability in the Indian scenario with a background of the global perspective. Contributions from academia, policy makers and industry are included to address the challenge from different perspectives. The contents of this book will prove useful to researchers, professionals, and policy makers working in the area of green and sustainable energy.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Role of Gas-Fuelled Solutions in Support of Future Sustainable Energy World; Part I: Stimuluses, Enablers, and Barriers

Tackling the challenges of energy poverty and changing living conditions in line with the growing population, and doing so in a sustainable manner, is recognised as being of utmost importance for the world today. The main goal of this study is to illuminate the fact that providing energy to an ever-growing population of the globe during a period of transition, and so doing in a responsible manner, requires a sustainable energy mix of fossils and renewables. Given the fact that the energy solution of tomorrow has to combine various fuels and technologies, different solutions will be needed for different regions, as determined in line with various factors, including the availability of resources and specific needs. Consequently, the role of gas-fuelled solutions as part of the transition towards future sustainable energy world needs to be illuminated from a technical, economic, social, political and geographical point of view. The discussions and conclusions presented in the chapter support the expectation of the increased use of natural gas as a part of the global transition towards a low-carbon energy society. From a carbon-neutral energy perspective, however, the use of biogas and renewable-based hydrogen as replacement for natural gas, in the long-term perspective, could be expected. In this way, natural gas will be an important complement to renewable energy during the transition period. Infrastructure and energy conversion technologies developed for natural gas need to be designed in such a way so as to be able to cope with the transition towards biogas and renewable supported hydrogen. Moreover, small-scale combined heat- and electricity-production and distributed generation could be a potential gas-fuelled solution, providing an improved fuel utilisation factor and, as a result, reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. Taking into account the challenges of the increasing demand for reliable and affordable energy, as well as global climate change, it is concluded that common understanding needs to be established amongst all the players, including society, industries, strategists, decision-makers, politicians and environmentalists, so as to reach a new level of commitment and partnership.
Amir Safari, Soheil Jafari, Mohsen Assadi

Role of Gas-Fuelled Solutions in Support of Future Sustainable Energy World: Part II: Case Studies

Following Part I of this study, this chapter highlights each region in the world as having its own solution and approach to considering natural gas as a fuel of choice for smooth transition towards a sustainable energy world. Although energy sustainability is recognised as a global challenge, many of the issues inherent in this domain are site-specific. Therefore, it is necessary to identify suitable local solutions whilst taking into account resources, infrastructure, economic aspects, as well as the local/national energy policies. This means that there is not one solution that fits all cases; therefore, tailor-made solutions devised in mind of different circumstances need to be considered. The case study presented in this chapter compares different countries, i.e. industrial vs developing and those with national resources vs import dependent countries, with the aim of illuminating the fact that final choices and approaches that are seen to have a major impact on global warming due to CO2 emissions from fossil fuels might look very different. In this part of the study, focus is centred on the utilisation of natural gas as the ideal partner complementary to renewables in a future sustainable energy mix, in support of different regions’ policies. In this way, security of supply as a foundation for industrial development and the continued functioning of a modern society have to be maintained independent of the energy mix applied in each country. Different scenarios are presented and analysed in the case study, with attention paid towards discussing and illuminating the possible ways in which natural gas may be seen as a transition fuel from a global perspective so as to pave the way for the realisation of carbon-neutral or carbon-free energy solutions for the future. Since the examples presented cover four different categories of country (India, Iran, Norway and UK), combined characteristics may be recognised as representative for a large number of countries, thus making the generality of the conclusions rather strong.
Amir Safari, Nandini Das, Soheil Jafari, Oluf Langhelle, Joyashree Roy, Mohsen Assadi

Role of Carbon Capture and Storage in Meeting the Climate Mitigation Target

Scientific studies over the years have clearly indicated warming of global climate due to rising concentration of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Continued emissions are certain to lead to catastrophic consequence. Deliberating on this very important issue of sustainability of the entire earth for a long period, the global community finally reached consensus during the Paris Climate Agreement in 2015 to limit the temperature rise to 2 °C by 2050 and even try to achieve a lower temperature rise. Amongst other options like adoption of renewables on a much larger scale, fuel switching, and increasing power system efficiency; carbon capture and storage is perceived to be another feasible option for meeting this global climate mitigation target. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) essentially means chemically capturing CO2 from power plants running on fossil fuels, especially coal, transport and then store it permanently in some geological formation beneath the earth. As per the estimate of International Energy Agency, 12% of the total greenhouse gas emissions totaling about 94 Gt of cumulative CO2 emissions have to be stored into the subsurface geological formations up to 2050. Considerable research and development work backed by experience gained through demonstration and commercial projects, the technology is mature now. Although the first CCS project commenced operation more than twenty years back, the progress has been slow over the years due to many techno-economical factors and other policy issues. However, in the recent years, there has been significant progress in actual deployment of the technology with more than 21 large-scale running projects and projects under advanced construction. Furthermore, a number of projects are in the pipeline. The total installed capacity of all these projects is approximately 70 Mt of CO2 per year. Although CCS is a proven technology now, notwithstanding the recent growth in deployment, the rate of adoption is still not in track to meet the global target set for 2050.
Pratik Dutta

Micro-Scale Combined Heat and Power: Contributor to Sustainable Energy Solution

Researchers investigate the performance of a micro-scale combined heat and power (CHP) system in bioenergy application. The focus has been on the micro gas turbine (MGT) technology as a high-efficient and fuel-flexible distributed generation (DG) system. The combination of MGT and bioenergy seems to be a bridge solution into a sustainable energy future. A wide-ranging performance analysis was conducted to assess the technical limitations and opportunities of micro gas turbines operating with biomass-derived gaseous fuels. For realization of the distributed CHP, tools for monitoring and diagnostics that are easy to apply would be needed. For this purpose, the application of artificial neural network (ANN) for monitoring of a MGT was investigated using the extensive data obtained from an existing test rig. The prediction results showed that the ANN model could serve as an accurate baseline model for monitoring applications.
Homam Nikpey Somehsaraei, Mohsen Assadi

Life Cycle Cost and Benefit Analysis of Low Carbon Vehicle Technologies

The transportation sector is currently responsible for about a quarter of global energy demand and emissions. To limit temperature increase to two degrees Celsius, the International Energy Agency projects that about 21% of emissions reduction should come from transport. In recent years, various alternative technology vehicles have emerged, in response to climate targets. Unfortunately, the sustainable energy wave has made it easy for marketing campaigns to influence and shortcut decision making for deployment of new technologies in some countries. This chapter discusses a life cycle-based cost-benefit analysis framework to serve as decision-support for policy makers in lieu of emerging alternative vehicle technologies. The proposed tool evaluates based on two main impacts: net ownership costs and net external benefits. Within each are more specific cost- and emission-related impacts which are assessed using the AFLEET and GREET tools of the Argonne National Laboratory, and using inputs from published studies. The tool is used to evaluate the effects of shifting to alternative energy vehicle technologies for new and in-use vehicles. The approach is demonstrated via a case study in the Philippines. Results favor LPG as a replacement for in-use, gasoline-powered passenger cars, diesel for new passenger cars, and diesel hybrid electric for public utility jeepneys. The data also reflects the good health and social benefits of electric vehicles, but high fueling infrastructure investment costs deter its deployment.
Neil Stephen Lopez, Jimwell Soliman, Jose Bienvenido Manuel Biona

Systematic Analysis for Operability and Retrofit of Energy Systems

This chapter presents a systematic analysis framework for design operability and retrofit of energy systems. This analysis framework consists of Disruption Scenario Analysis (DSA), Feasible Operating Range Analysis (FORA) and debottlenecking analysis for an energy system design. In the proposed DSA, equipment failure scenarios are examined to determine the operability of an energy system design. Meanwhile, FORA determines the feasible operating range of an energy system, taking into account the interdependency between utilities produced and represents a range of net utility output that can be delivered within design and performance limitations. Such range allows designers to determine whether an operating energy system requires debottlenecking and retrofitting. In the event where debottlenecking of an existing energy system is required, the proposed framework incorporates step-by-step debottlenecking procedures. To illustrate the proposed framework, biomass energy system (BES) design is used as a illustrative case study. In the case study, the BES is analyzed to determine if it would require retrofitting in order to increase its heat production to 1.5 MW. Based on the results from the analysis, it is found that additonal 50% and 100% increase in anaerobic digester and fired-tube boiler capacity respectively are required. This addiotional capacities yield a favorable benefit-cost ratio (BCR) value of 1.95 which indicates that the benefits from increased heat production is greater than the costs of increasing equipment capacities, hence, making this a viable retrofit action.
Viknesh Andiappan, Denny K. S. Ng

A Parametric Performance Analysis of a Novel Geothermal Based Cogeneration System

This work is an attempt to propose and analyze a geothermal based multi-generation system. The proposed cogeneration system consists of different sections, namely: organic Rankine cycle, geothermal wells, absorption heat transformer, domestic water heater and proton exchange membrane electrolyzer. To assess the cycle’s performance, thermodynamic models were developed and a parametric study was carried out. For this purpose, energetic analysis are undertaken upon proposed system. Also, the effects of some important variables such geothermal water temperature, turbine inlet temperature and pressure on the several parameters such as energy efficiencies of the proposed system, water production, net electrical output power, hydrogen production, are investigated. It is shown that, by boosting geothermal water temperate, COP of the AHT increases and flow ratio decreases. Additionally, increasing absorber temperature leads to the reduction of energy utilization factor.
Kiyan Parham, Mohsen Assadi

Augmented Heat Integration in Multipurpose Batch Plants Using Multiple Heat Storage Vessels

Energy minimisation in batch plants has garnered popularity over the past few decades, leading to direct and indirect heat integration techniques being formulated for multipurpose batch plants through the utilisation of mathematical formulations and insight-based methods. Some mathematical formulations utilise predetermined scheduling frameworks which may result in suboptimal results, whilst other formulations only use one heat storage vessel which may cause limitations in the plant. The work presented in this chapter is aimed at minimising energy consumption in multipurpose batch plants by exploring both direct and indirect heat integration through multiple heat storage vessels. It investigates the optimal number of heat storage vessels as well as design parameters, i.e. size and initial temperature of vessels. The cost of the heat storage vessels is considered within the model. The model is applied to two case studies resulting in significant increase in profits.
Thokozani Majozi

Corporates’ Role in Addressing Energy Security: A Mahindra Perspective

Energy security plays a crucial role in any economy. For a developing country like India with rapidly increasing demand for energy it takes a multi-dimensional role with its economic, social and environmental facets to the issue. In this article we examine the status of energy security in India and the government and corporate response to this crisis and ends with an appeal to corporates to play a larger role in changing the narrative on energy.
Anirban Ghosh

National Mission on Bio-Diesel in India (2003): An Assessment Based on Strategic Niche Management

Rapid economic growth, rising connectivity and increased mobility means increased demand for transportation fuel. Like the rest of the world, India’s hydrocarbon demand in the mobility domain continues to rise and is a major cause for concern given the implications concerning greenhouse gas emissions. Assuming the country’s energy demand maintains its present trajectory, it is predicted, that by 2030 India will have to import about 94% of its crude oil consumption. The Indian government introduced the National Mission on Biodiesel in 2003 and subsequently promulgated the National Policy on Biofuels in 2009. The policy proposes an indicative target of 20% blending of biofuels—both bio-diesel and bio-ethanol, by 2017. The availability of feedstock crops, the presence of a large sugar industry and favourable climatic conditions for plants like Jatropha carcus is conducive for producing bio-fuels in the country. Despite these policy initiatives, in 2017 it was clear that the bio-diesel is yet to become a popular alternative fuel in the mobility sector in India. The present paper deploys the strategic niche management framework to understand the policy attempts and observed lag in this experiment of bio-diesel mission. Within the framework of transitions literature, the study aims at presenting the findings from the process tracing study of the Indian experimentation on bio-diesel since inception. It investigates as to what extent the experiment has been embedded in the incumbent mobility regime. This study can offer an insight into the uniqueness of challenges in up-scaling any experiment that aims at transforming the hydrocarbon dominated mobility sector in India.
Duke Ghosh, Joyashree Roy

Biomass Gasifier Integrated Hybrid Systems as a Sustainable Option for Rural Electrification

‘Ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all’ is a prime objective listed in the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. Uninterrupted power supply is an essential requirement for urban as well as rural areas. In developing countries, steps are being taken to ensure 100% electrification. The total number of un-electrified villages in India is 3361 based on recent statistics. Many such villages are located in regions where grid extension could be uneconomical. Renewable energy based electrification systems offer a sustainable solution though they have the limitation of being dependent on a dilute and intermittent source. Integrated or Hybrid Energy Systems which combine multiple energy sources improve the situation. A hybrid system incorporating a diesel generator or any other dispatchable source of power along with a photovoltaic system would be preferable as compared to a purely photovoltaic based system. However, diesel based generators have the inherent limitations of being costly and unsustainable. Biomass gasifier integrated hybrid systems can be adopted in such cases where locally available biomass feedstock can be utilized for the system operation. Certain studies on system planning have been undertaken for biomass gasifier based hybrid energy systems in the past, specific to rural applications in developing economies. The salient features of biomass gasifier integrated hybrid systems for rural electrification from the design and operational point of view are discussed in this chapter. In India, biomass gasifier systems having a cumulative capacity of 18 MW are being used for meeting electricity needs in rural areas. Considering the potential of biomass energy source, its utilization in isolated power generation has been minimal in India. A study on the cost optimal design and performance assessment of biomass gasifier integrated hybrid systems is a vital step in this context. A case study involving the detailed design of biomass gasifier integrated hybrid energy system for a typical rural location in India following the design space approach is also presented in this chapter.
Arun Palatel

Mahua and Neem Seeds as Sustainable Renewable Resources Towards Producing Clean Fuel and Chemicals

The aim of the present study is to find out the feasibility of two non-edible oil seeds as a feedstock to produce fuel and value added products using thermochemical conversion technique. Mahua (Madhuca longifolia), and Neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds were characterized based on their characteristics. Kinetic analysis was carried out by using Horowitz and Metzger models. TGA confirmed that maximum degradation occurred in second stage (150–430 °C). Higher calorific value was observed 22.19 MJ kg−1 and 26.88 MJ kg−1 for Mahua and Neem respectively. Further both seed contain higher volatile matter and negligible sulfur content. All the above physicochemical characterization confirmed that these seeds have the potential to produce fuels and chemicals. Kinetic analysis confirmed that the extractive free seeds required higher activation energy to initiate reaction compared to raw seeds. Thermal pyrolysis of both seeds were carried out in a semi-batch reactor at optimized conditions (450 ± 10 °C temperature, 80 °C min−1 heating rate and 80 mL min−1 N2 flow rate). The yield of pyrolytic liquid was found to be 34.50 and 56.65 wt% for Neem and Mahua seeds respectively. It was found that oil obtained have higher viscosity as well as calorific value which indicated their use as boiler fuel. GC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of valuable chemicals in pyrolytic liquid which may be further purified to obtain pure chemicals. The results of this work is encouraging and affirmed that both these seeds can be excellent renewable resources to produce fuels and chemicals using pyrolysis.
Ranjeet Kumar Mishra, Kaustubha Mohanty

Biomass and Solar: Emerging Energy Resources for India

The role of energy has been central in day to day life. Non-renewables sources such as fossil fuels have been exploited to an extent that unless we find new reserves, it will be difficult to sustain the energy demand for future. Conversely, renewable forms of energy, such as biomass and solar, have shown to provide alternatives. India houses around 17% of the world’s population and is bound to play a deterministic role in driving the global energy demands in near future. Responsible usage of fossil fuels while compounding the role of renewable energy sources would pave the pathway to sustainable growth without burdening the environment. In this direction, the present chapter has deliberated the potential of two important renewable energy sources, i.e., biomass and solar. The authors have discussed the current state of technology development for converting the energy from these renewable sources to usable forms such as electricity, fuels, etc. Further, a detailed account of different policy initiatives taken up by the Government of India towards the promotion of their usage has been provided. In addition, the life cycle assessment (LCA) following a systems approach have been highlighted in the chapter as a mean to ensure the sustainable energy systems meeting the requirements of future. Lastly, the chapter has given insights on likely paths to optimize the usage of renewable energy sources.
Yogesh Shinde, Deepak Dwivedi, Poonam Khatri, Jitendra S. Sangwai

Planning to Mainstream Distributed Electricity Generation from Renewables

Decentralised renewables in India have evolved over the years, from solar lanterns to solar home lighting systems and further from multi-purpose power packs to mini and micro grids powered by various renewables to the modern-day smart grids to optimise the integration of DER. Does DER (distributed electricity generation from renewables) have a future in a scenario with 100% grid connectivity? What niche applications of DER can provide substantial developmental benefits? How will the roles of various models of DER evolve and how may these be integrated sustainably? These are some of the questions that this chapter addresses with a view to essaying a plan to sustainably integrate DER as a reliable mode of electricity service provision/expansion in grid-connected and/or stand-alone modes employing renewable forms of energy. The focus is on ways to tap the strengths and address the limitations of various forms of distributed electricity generation. The chapter explores hybridisation, grid connectivity, smart metering and load planning and management as important technical elements of the way forward.
S. P. Gon Chaudhuri, Rekha Krishnan

Virtual Power Plants: How Far Is India from This Reality

Integration of renewable energy, which is distributed and intermittent by nature, calls for harnessing the inherent flexibilities in the supply and demand side. Experiences across the world have shown that Virtual Power Plant is an important intervention in tapping redundancy and bringing it logically through the market mechanism into the utility’s scheduling process. With a major push towards de-carbonization in capacity addition, we may find Virtual Power Plants in India faster than expected. Is the country prepared for it?
Tanmoy Mondal, Deb A. Mukherjee

Laminar Burning Velocity of Biomass-Derived Fuels and Its Significance in Combustion Devices

Biomass is considered to be an alternative and renewable energy resource for the sustainable development in future. The most conventional way of deriving energy from biomass is through direct combustion of the fuel. However, the combustion devices directly burning biomass are highly inefficient and result in emission of significant pollutants. Generation of secondary fuels, called biofuels, from biomass and their utilization in various applications can circumvent these limitations. The second generation biofuels can be derived either in liquid or gaseous forms and can be used in devices like engines and burners. When the fuel is burned with oxidizer as a premixed flame, e.g. in a spark ignition engine or on a premixed burner, the laminar burning velocity plays a major role in the propagation or the stabilization of the flame. The structure of the fuel and its reaction kinetics influence the laminar burning velocity. Laminar burning velocity also depends on the equivalence ratio, pressure and temperature of the reactant mixture. In recent times, research is being conducted on laminar burning velocity of biomass-derived fuels or their blends with petro-fuels and oxidizer mixture. Information regarding this fundamental combustion characteristic is essential in designing combustion devices burning biofuels or for retrofitting fossil-fuel based devices using biofuels. The present chapter aims towards reviewing the literature of laminar burning velocity of biomass derived fuels and also explaining the significance of laminar burning velocity in some important combustion applications.
Atmadeep Bhattacharya, Amitava Datta

An Unsteady Model to Study the Effects of Porosity and Temperature in All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery with Mass Transfer and Ion Diffusion

The crossover of vanadium ions through membrane in vanadium redox flow battery after many cycles leads to capacity loss of the cell. Different membrane materials show different diffusion behavior which results in variation in the cell potential response. The diffusion coefficients of the membrane is temperature dependent, therefore, concentration profile varies with temperature. The model has considered the effects of crossover of vanadium ions through membrane and mass transfer. The present model predicts the capacity loss for different membrane materials. The simulation results show that reaction rate constants and diffusion coefficients depend on temperature and these affect the cell performance. The results show that for Selemion AMV and Selemion CMV membranes capacity loss increases linearly at different temperatures and porosity with increase in number of cycles. In the case of Nafion 115 membrane the capacity decays up to 77 cycles and then it stabilizes.
H. M. Sathisha, Amaresh Dalal

Energy Efficient Future Generation Electronics Based on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems

Three major developments in three decades are quietly changing the whole spectrum of ‘electronics’ (as it is conventionally known) making it ready for a major revolution. At the heart of this lies the ‘electronics based on strongly correlated electron systems’. The broad canvass of ‘strongly correlated electron systems’—especially the ones assuming importance for future generation electronics—covers primarily transition metal ion based complex oxide compounds exhibiting superconductivity at a record high temperature (cuprate superconductors); gigantic change in electrical resistivity under tiny magnetic field (CMR manganites); and coexisting ferroelectric and magnetic orders within a single phase with an extraordinary cross-coupling (multiferroics). Thanks to these developments, apart from charge of an electron, its spin and orbital degrees of freedom are now being shown to offer tremendous manoeuvrability for developing not just electronic but spintronic and orbitronic devices as well. Larger coherence length and stability of spin and orbital spectra can be exploited for bringing functionalities hitherto unknown. Using up and down spins and different patterns of orbital occupancy of the electrons, it is now possible to design and develop spintronic and even orbitronic devices by exploiting esoteric effects such as spin-transport, spin-tunnelling, spin-Hall, spin-Seebeck or switching of orbital orders under optical illumination. These nanoscale devices are energy efficient and ultra-sensitive. They are expected to perform more complex jobs in a vast arena which includes even bio-electronics. In this article, we introduce the area of strongly correlated electron systems and explore the advancements already made and possibilities emerging in developing future generation electronic-spintronic-orbitronic devices based on complexities which till now stubbornly defied complete understanding in spite of intense efforts worldwide—a classic example of which is the mechanism of high temperature cuprate based superconductors.
Abhijit Chanda, Sudipta Goswami, Dipten Bhattacharya
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