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2024 | Book

Sustainable Lean Construction

Select Proceedings of ILCC 2022

Editors: Anil Kashyap, N. Raghavan, Indrasen Singh, Venkatesan Renganaidu, Arun Chandramohan

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering


About this book

This book presents select proceedings of the Indian Lean Construction Conference (ILCC 2022) with adoption and implementation cases of lean concepts across Indian construction projects. The topics covered are lean culture and behavior, lean in sustainable and green technologies, lean supply chain management and offsite construction, lean in public sector, lean in modern construction techniques, etc. The book also discusses various properties and performance attributes of lean tools and techniques across various construction practices in infrastructure and real estate projects. The book is a valuable reference for researchers and construction professionals interested in Lean Construction.

Table of Contents

Construction of 80 m Steel Open Web Girder Over Gaddigodam Railway Span in Nagpur—A Lean Approach

The Nagpur Metro Reach-2 viaduct project is a unique project from many aspects. The project team overcame all kind of challenges including the global pandemic COVID-19 and was truly focused to achieve the given target. The project team used various innovative techniques, did detailed planning, adopted time saving approaches by adopting Lean approaches and team work to achieve the stiff target of completion of 3 months for the erection of 80 m open web girder over the railway tracks. The safety and quality parameters were given highest priority during the process of superstructure erection. Unique challenges and working on new methodology and continual guidance from specialists motivated the team to accomplish the job. Apart from presence of railway tracks and OHE lines, launching methodology and time constraint, transportation of oversized and heavy components of truss was one of the problems which was mitigated by prior checking of route by dry run of ODC trailer. The 80 m steel span launching included assembly of members over temporary structures in three parts, pulling of assembled part over railway tracks and assembly of balance members over temporary structures. Part 1 and Part 2 of the structure were assembled over temporary supports in parallel, thereby reducing the waiting time for successor activities. The project team analysed the total workflow and the cycle time in order to remove the waste to achieve the minimum time required for superstructure erection. The findings in this paper demonstrate that through effective application of Lean methods waste can be removed from the workflow and stiff completion targets can be achieved.

Sarbajit Roy Choudhury, Pradeep Kumar, Roshan Lal
Investigation of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Rebar Workers in South India

This study is aimed to identify the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in construction industry. The data collection is carried by Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire and direct observations. The survey is conducted for 113 rebar workers in various construction site of Virudhunagar district in India. The mean average of age and work experience of workers are 30.51 ± 8.09 and 7.74, respectively. From the statistical analysis, it is found that 43.4% of participants were exposed to MSDs in the past 12 months. The lower back (70.8%), knee (60.2%), shoulder (49.6%), wrist (48.7%) and ankle/foot (36.3%) are found to be have higher prevalence of pain. The workers in the age group ≥ 41 years (65.9%) and workers with experience > 10 years (68.3%) were suffering from high risk of MSDs. The male rebar workers participated in the study were found to be exposed to MSDs, environmental and ergonomic hazards.

P. S. Kothai, D. Ambika, G. S. Rampradheep, K. Preethi
Case Study on Value Stream Mapping for Precast Hollow Core Slab

The construction sector in India is gradually undergoing critical changes in several aspects and transcending for the better. One of the significant changes in the sector is using precast technology and ‘offsite’ manufacturing techniques to enhance the speed of construction and optimize process methodology to reap added benefits apart from the traditional onsite means of construction. Despite its advantages, this method can be improved further by conducting proactive research. One of the tools which can be used widely to improve the process is the use of ‘value stream mapping’, a prominent Lean construction tool. Value stream mapping (VSM) as a management tool helps evaluate waste within the workflow, which can eventually identify several improvements to the process. This adaptation is possible through appropriate process mapping. This study aims to map the process of the construction system covering precasting of hollow core slabs. The case study sites were visited to record activity cycles. The study’s primary objective is to map all relevant activities and further propose improvements to the process. Two maps were obtained for each activity, namely the current state—VSM and future state VSM, a map of the current state with improvements. This study demonstrated that it is possible to adapt the VSM in construction and highlights some of its key benefits.

Purvaa Hegde, V. V. K. Vishnu Nandan, G. Rahulkrishna, V. Raneesh Kumar, Prashanth Kumar Sreram
Assessment of Factors Affecting Productivity of Pilot Tube Micro-tunneling Operation Through Case Study

Pilot tube micro-tunneling (PTMT) has become a mainstream trenchless technique worldwide in high and mega-value projects and will continue to be, as it minimizes the dis-benefits of open-cut method involving traffic congestion, soil subsidence, relocation of existing services, noise and dust emission and safety hazards. As the number of successful projects increased, the confidence of the council, contractors, and consulting engineers also increased. However, the factors influencing the project's success are not completely clear among the industry parties. The factors were identified through literature and in-person interviews and were further assessed at the site of the Cuttack wastewater network large value project in Orissa in relation to how productivity is hampered and how it can be improved in relation to those factors through recent industry best practices. Currently, the quantitative factors are given more weight while decision-making, while this study shows that both qualitative and quantitative factors are equally crucial for productivity monitoring. Benchmarking how each factor influences the productivity at the site will always help achieve the project's success with maximum profitability.

Mohit Jain, Varun Kumar Reja, Koshy Varghese
Application of Operational Management Tools at Precast Yard

Achieving higher productivity and higher production rates can help in maximizing profits at the construction site. The current practices at construction sites carry large sources of waste and inefficiencies which is the major cause of a decline in productivity and decrease in production rate. Segmental bridge construction sites are not an exception. Therefore, this study aims to achieve higher productivity, overcome inefficiencies, and standardize best practices to achieve a higher production rate at segmental precast yard sites by adopting principles and tools of operational management. In this study, seven sources of waste are identified at the precast yard which directly or indirectly affect productivity. The importance of implementing other key concepts of operational management which include responsiveness versus crew productivity graph, and quartile analysis is illustrated. And further productivity measurement tools which include key performance indicators (KPIs), overall people effectiveness (OPEs), and overall equipment effectiveness (OEEs) are introduced to implementation in the construction industry, particularly in the precast yard.

Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Varun Kumar Reja, Koshy Varghese
Identification and Analysis of Lean Techniques in Indian Metro Rail Projects

Lean construction is now being implemented by several construction industries all over the world to increase the productivity of the projects. While endeavoring to implement lean principles, the construction industry is facing several challenges to decrease the occurrence of complexity. Urban transportation is becoming increasingly important in India, and it has become a prerequisite for economic and social success. Among urban transportation, metro rail projects are regarded as one of the most significant construction projects. There have been various studies on the technical and economic analysis of metro rail projects. But there are only a few studies on the application of lean techniques in metro rail projects to decrease the impact of complexity. The purpose of this research is to study the application of lean techniques in metro rail projects to reduce complexity and propose a conceptual framework. This study provides knowledge on the management of a metro project using lean techniques to reduce the occurrence of complexity. This research can be used successfully in metro rail projects to reduce complexity and waste, and increase productivity. The research results would help different stakeholders to put lean theories into practice.

Sruthilaya Dara, Aneetha Vilventhan
Application of Lean Principles to Improve Rebar Productivity in Heavily Reinforced Structures

The goal of any construction project is to meet the objectives with the optimised cost and within the prescribed time; it is, however, noted that most construction projects fall behind schedule and, therefore, use additional resources to meet relevant deadlines, which results in cost overruns. Techniques like lean construction have been applied in the construction industry over the years with varying levels of success. This report studies the application of lean construction techniques in construction projects with heavy reinforcement, specifically dealing with the accuracy of schedules and difficulties in estimating productivity. Many of the core lean concepts have predictability as their goal; predictable behaviour improves schedule quality, which improves cross-team coordination, which in turn leads to improvement in predictability. Firstly, in this paper, literature is studied to understand the current research related to reinforcement productivity and ways to predict it. Next, efforts are made to predict productivity based on parameters defined using reinforcement design parameters. The data is analysed to understand the reason for productivity loss seen in heavily reinforced structures based on the prediction models.

Amith G. Mallya, Varun Kumar Reja, Koshy Varghese
Application of Lean Technique in Warehouse Operations for Waste Reduction

The role of warehouse is very crucial in proper functioning of supply chain management system. It provides temporary storage for the goods before delivered to the end customer. In the past, it was used for storage purpose only, due to which it is considered as a cost center. But, nowadays various value-added activities like labeling, packaging, cross-docking, etc., are performed by the companies inside the warehouse. This helps in achieving better efficiency and improved customer service level within the supply chain. In this research paper, problems at various level of warehouse operations are identified at first stage. Then, at second stage, appropriate lean tools and techniques are identified and applied to eliminate them. This leads to waste reduction, enhanced productivity, and improved efficiency in the warehouse operations. Further, this research may provide insight to the companies about how to adopt and implement lean techniques into their warehouse management system effectively.

Ajay K. Sinha, P. Muralidhar
Customizing the Last Planner System Components to Plan and Monitor Typical Concrete Cycles

The last planner system (LPS) has been proven to be a beneficial technique in the lean construction sector for stabilizing workflow and improving the reliability of plans. To integrate LPS into the processes of an organization, its standardization and customization are prerequisites to meet the organization’s specific needs and seamless data management. Real estate development in tier-1 cities in India usually demands the fast-paced construction of multi-story buildings with typical floor layouts. On the other hand, in such high-rise construction projects, delays in the concrete cycles add up and can cause the project to be delayed. Thus, it is imperative to plan and monitor each concrete cycle in a systematic way that can yield a summary of productivity analysis, resource consumption analysis, and variations analysis, along with visual and root cause analysis. As these concrete cycles usually have a duration ranging from one to two weeks, two components of the LPS—make-ready planning and weekly look-ahead planning—are required to customize and emerge into one standard template. This study discusses the adopted framework to prepare standard templates for different formwork systems used on different project sites of Shapoorji Pallonji Engineering and Construction. The study also discusses key findings and novel benefits that could be realized by adopting the developed framework.

Parth Bhadaniya, Aritra Roy, Nitesh Vyas, Anand Aswale, Prashant Bhavsar, Sagar Gandhi, Girish Bonde
Identification and Reduction of the Manpower Waste in Construction Using Work-Sampling Analysis

Delays in a construction project are directly dependent on the extent of activities performed by the workers on the site daily that do not add value to the project deliverables. To address the time and cost overruns of a project due to these, workers must be closely observed to categorize their activities. An efficient observation-based lean tool that can be used for this is work-sampling analysis. This study aims to assess the use of tour and crew-based work sampling to determine the level of manpower waste in the ongoing construction site of a commercial 3B + G + 10 high-rise building in Bangalore, India. The aim also extends further to data analysis from the obtained video samples to determine the root causes of manpower waste in the project and corresponding strategies that were undertaken to eliminate the same. The study also discusses the extent of improvement in the project execution methodology after the root causes from the work-sampling analysis has been adequately addressed.

Megha S Pradeep, Parth Bhadaniya, Aritra Roy, Hemadri Reddivari, Balamurugan Nagrajan
Employing Linear Scheduling Method and Supply Chain Principles for Optimizing Storage Demand

This paper is based on the Statue of Equality—Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Memorial in Mumbai. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) conceptualized this project, which was awarded as a Design and Build (D&B) project to the Shapoorji Pallonji Engineering and Construction (SPE&C) company. According to preliminary drawings, the statue will stand 137.3 m tall, making it the world’s third-largest statue after the Statue of Unity and the Spring Buddha Temple. Because this is a one-of-a-kind project, the design and construction phases present unprecedented challenges. As the project is of a substantial scale, the space available for material storage and equipment mobility must be carefully managed. The project site being in the densely populated Dadar region led to logistic constraints due to a lack of adequate storage space. As the critical path method (CPM) has been proven to be less effective in modeling repetitive or linear projects, the linear scheduling technique is often used to represent such activities graphically. Thus, using the linear scheduling method (LSM), comprehensive logistic planning of all processes involved in the erection of structural steel ribs was prepared to devise a dynamic representation of storage requirements. The LSM prepared using the critical path network is then optimized to address the apparent bottlenecks by improving collaboration and employing supply chain management principles. Similarly, as this project involves multiple stakeholders having different roles in all phases of the project, a responsibility matrix was developed to map the risks to different stakeholders. This matrix would aid in identifying entities accountable for dealing with certain shortcomings during the project’s lifespan.

Mohammed Anees Patka, Aritra Roy, Parth Bhadaniya, Jeffin Jose, Vajid Shaikh, Umesh Salunkhe
Optimizing Timeline of Parallel Finishing Activities in High-Rise Building Projects Using Linear Scheduling

Optimization of schedule in a construction project contributes significantly in reducing waste in terms of time and cost. To achieve this, novel methods like LSM or linear scheduling methods should be adopted in construction projects involving repetitive activities. This study creates templates for optimizing the timeline of selected parallel finishing activities of a 2B + G + 32 & a 3B + G + 24 tower of a residential apartment complex located in Bangalore, India. The paper also presents sample data entries to the templates and linear scheduling graphs to demonstrate its working. Further, the reduction in duration for activity completion in both towers is discussed, and optimized linear graphs are presented for the same.

Megha S Pradeep, Parth Bhadaniya, Aritra Roy, Syed Adnan, Vishwanath Rao
Assessment of Last Planner® System Maturity and Engagement of Participants by Linguistic Action Perspective Approach—A Case Study

Its high time to monitor the implementation of the Last Planner® System (LPS) and the participant’s engagement at project sites to examine commitment management. As LPS highly involves collaboration and coordination among the project’s participants, there is a need to study the “People” element at every stage, which eventually helps the team to analyse and assess the organizational transformation. In this study, the authors used the “Linguistic Action Perspective” (LAP) or “Language Action” approach developed by Retamal et al. (Exploring the relationship among planning reliability (PPC), linguistic action indicators and social network metrics. IGLC 28—28th annual conference of the international group for lean construction 2020, pp 109–118, 2020) for assessment purposes. This paper follows a case study approach. The project’s scope is the construction of a medical college building and associated development works. The findings highlight that the organization should consider “Engagement” as an important component while implementing Big Lean tools like LPS and Big Room since it helps them to sustain the Lean implementation throughout the project. By emphasizing the importance of people’s commitment and engagement, the team will focus on the areas that need more improvement to analyse interpersonal relationships at work and to achieve productivity.

Ragavi Prabaharan, Karthikeyan Sundaralingam, Tamilnathan, Mohanbabu
Development of Deployment Framework to Overcome the Challenges in Sustaining Lean Implementation in Construction Projects—A Company’s Multi-site Case Study

Implementing Lean in construction projects is challenging for many project teams, but sustaining them is even more challenging, as the projects involve more human dynamics (different stakeholders). This paper describes a company’s multi-site case study in understanding the challenges to sustaining Lean in its projects and developing a deployment model to overcome the same. A survey was conducted on eight projects, and a total of 22 practitioners (Lean Mentors, Champions, and Facilitators) from each project attended it and revealed the challenges and the critical success factors (CSF) to overcome the challenges in Lean sustainment. The findings show that lack of awareness and knowledge of Lean among the stakeholders, more implementation period, and lack of coordination between the participants of the projects are the primary areas the team should work on to sustain Lean Implementation. In addition, consistent top and mid-management support, training for project’s stakeholders, frequent meetings (daily and weekly) with project participants, technology-based approaches, and reward/incentive schemes were revealed as the CSF.

Ragavi Prabaharan, Mohanbabu Subramanian, Karthikeyan Sundaralingam
Lean Implementation: A Never-Ending Journey of a Company

Lean implementation in India found its roots a decade ago. Many pieces of research have been done on areas like Lean tools, Barriers to Lean implementation, and even a lot more case studies were carried out on the same, but the “Lessons learned, strategic choices the team made, organizational culture transformation experienced by them after introducing an innovative concept like Lean into their projects” haven’t explored elsewhere. Therefore, the authors describe a company’s Lean journey to give an outline of the team’s decision-making and strategic choices while deploying the Lean concept in their projects. The results suggest that implementing Lean in any project highly demands a “Change in mindset” of the people involved and also describe how decision-making and strategic choices have played a vital role in successful project implementation. Further, the findings suggest that implementing Lean is a never-ending journey, and attaining success requires people’s involvement and commitment throughout the project.

Ragavi Prabaharan, Mohanbabu Subramanian, Jaisankar, Tamilnathan, Suresh Kannan
Improvement of Segment Casting in Balance Cantilever Viaduct Using LPS

The project under discussion includes construction of access-controlled Nagpur-Mumbai Super Communication Expressway (Maharashtra Samruddhi Mahamarg) in the state of Maharashtra. The expressway comprises Viaducts, Iconic bridges, Tunnels, etc. The under-construction expressway will reduce the travel time between Nagpur and Mumbai by 4 h as stated by Union transport Minister Shri. Nitin Gadkari. Package-14 of the expressway is awarded to Afcons Infrastructure Ltd. The organization with strategic goals to reduce wastage, improve productivity and better planning is implementing lean construction tools across its project sites. Over the years, lean construction tools have been applied to simple as well as complex construction projects to manage the projects effectively and complete the project in time. In this study, an effort is made to implement the Last Planner System (LPS) for the segment casting activity in viaduct to understand the effectiveness of the system and the impact it has in timely completion of activities. The study shows if all the aspects of LPS are implemented sincerely, the system can help in process improvement which in turn leads to activity time cycle optimization. It also discusses the challenges involved in the implementation of Last Planner system.

Javed Sayyad, Das Shanbhag
A Review on Embracing Lean Thinking for BIM Implementation in the Indian Construction Industry

Infrastructure development provides a framework that allows society to function effectively. The Government of India (GOI) has initiated various infrastructure initiatives, including Smart Cities Mission, Jal Jeevan Mission, Power for All, and others. India’s infrastructure sector will need a projected sum of INR 304 trillion to continue development through 2040. However, majority of infrastructure projects experience time and cost overruns endangering continued viability of the project. According to the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, out of 1568 projects (above 150 crores), 423 reported cost overruns, and 721 were delayed. Hence, technological solutions like Building Information Modelling (BIM) that enhance project lifecycle should be implemented effectively for on-time and within-budget project completion. Adopting BIM requires changes in technology and work processes to ensure on-time project delivery. In this regard, lean principles can help to improve a process by eliminating wastes from existing process. This research reviews BIM and Lean literature to determine how BIM-Lean can help the Indian construction industry. The study employed Scopus, Web of Science, and EBSCO, peer-reviewed publications to summarize BIM & Lean independently as well when integrated. Finally, the paper’s outcomes will support construction stakeholders in successfully implementing BIM by embracing lean thinking by understanding and overcoming the barriers affecting lean implementation.

Rhijul Sood, Boeing Laishram
Implementation of Lean Construction to Reduce Rework in Construction Projects: A Systematic Literature Review

Rework is a significant contributor to cost and schedule delays in construction projects. A considerable amount of study has been conducted to address rework, yet there has been limited advancement in minimising its occurrence and negative consequences. In response, Lean construction (LC) has evolved as an effective management concept to reduce waste while also improving the safety and quality of building projects. The study aims to review and analyse literature to identify the factors affecting rework in construction industry (CI) and various lean tools mentioned in the literature that can effectively help to reduce/remove rework from various construction processes. The review is conducted by using 60 peer-reviewed articles in the field of rework retrieved from three prominent databases: EBSCO host, Scopus, and Web of science. Using the Systematic Literature Review (SLR) strategy, the articles are categorised according to the technologies used in order to assist in the findings shown by the existing literature. Thus, this study contributes to the body of knowledge by identifying the solutions to rework through LC that can help industry practitioners, policymakers, and researchers in the CI. Future research directions are offered to bridge gaps in the existing literature and improve the effectiveness of studies that aim to boost LC.

Nandini Sharma, Boeing Laishram
Case Study on Production System Design with Discrete Event Simulation for Bangalore Metro Underground Project

Construction processes are difficult to plan and control due to the numerous uncertainties and complex resource interactions; therefore ‘launch and hope’ approach is often adopted, leading to significant waste in the process. Discrete event simulation (DES) helps model the behavior of production systems to understand the combined effects of all factors influencing the process, which can lead to significant savings. Executing concrete pours for infrastructure projects in overly populated old urban areas is a very complex exercise owing to the challenges of congested roads, hours of restricted traffic movement, greater transit distances, resource constraints, uncertainties in operating conditions and stringent quality control norms. Logistics planning with optimized resource allocation is further complicated when the resources such as batching plants, transit mixers and boom placers are shared between multiple project sites managed by different stakeholders simultaneously. The case study describes the application of DES for designing the process to yield smooth flow and optimal resource allocation. The lean construction concepts such as pull planning, establishing flow and takt time have been imbibed in the process for realizing the most optimum and resilient design. Emulating the ‘Last planner system’, several scenarios were studied with all stakeholders virtually with the aid of ExtendSIM software before the actual execution, which led to significant savings in time and cost. Further, following the principle of Gemba and Kaizen, the field data was captured with the aid of several digital tools and analyzed. Several brainstorming sessions with critical stakeholders lead to continuous improvement and further savings in time and cost.

Nandeesh Babanagar, N. Sridharan Srinivasan, N. Rakshith
A Case Study on the Use of Simulation for Improving Equipment Utilisation and Productivity

Lean is all about creating value for customers and eliminating waste. The construction industry is plagued with time and cost overruns due to physical and non-physical waste. One of the non-physical wastes is the over allocation of equipment. Therefore, there is a need to assess the optimum allocation of equipment at the site as part of equipment planning. Simulation can be a valuable tool to verify various options for equipment allocation. Further, simulation helps to understand the implications before physical implementation and saves time and efforts. Moreover, simulation is beneficial to capture the various factors influencing the activity and visualise the expected output. Therefore, a methodology to use simulation for equipment allocation and productivity under different allocation scenarios is presented in this study. Further excavation is taken as a case study, by site data collection, and developed computer simulation model using Anylogic software. The proposed model can be used by practitioners for planning and estimation works, and the academicians for using it as a teaching tool for construction productivity and by researchers can do further development. Using simulation and lean is recommended to increase productivity and thus alleviate time and cost overruns in the construction industry.

Prashanth Kumar Sreram, Albert Thomas
Applications of Lean Principles for Construction Safety Management: A Literature Review

The construction sector is considered one of the most hazardous sectors globally due to its risky work practices and unsafe nature. Researchers have investigated various avenues to promote safe behavior and conditions. One of the popular ways is the application of Lean principles. Research investigations have been done to investigate the applications of Lean principles to resolve safety issues in the construction industry. However, there is a lack of systematic analysis in presenting a comprehensive picture of the applications of Lean principles for Construction Safety Management (CSM). Therefore, this study aims to perform a systematic literature review to comprehend the synergies between Lean and CSM. To this end, this study considered peer-reviewed research journal articles from the Scopus and Web of Science literature databases, and an in-depth content analysis has been performed. The results highlighted the United States of America as a leading country, Tianjin University of Finance and Economics as the leading organization, and Dr. Wu Xiuyu as the foremost researcher in this domain. The current research trends investigate the implementation of Lean Construction (LC) practices, examine their impact, and identify the benefits and barriers to implementing LC for CSM. At last, the theoretical and practical contributions of the study and future research opportunities are discussed.

Kishor Bhagwat, Venkata Santosh Kumar Delhi
Improving Formwork Productivity by Using Aluminium Formwork for Sub-structure Works

Formwork system accounts for approximately 15–20% of the construction cost in a typical residential project and is a major driver to ensure the anticipated project margin. While analysing the Formwork performance of residential projects, especially in sub-structures, it was evident that lower labour output, moderate material utilization, and lower efficiency levels and inferior concrete surface finish were the major problems affecting the overall performance. Major factors for the low productivity being the weight of shutters, having too many Formwork systems (Conventional, Alufo, Aluminium) within a site, low plywood durability, etc. Given the light weight, better load bearing capacity, excellent reusable properties and the ability to produce a good concrete finish, Aluminium Formwork system was believed to be a promising alternative for the existing Conventional system. Traditionally, the standard Aluminium panels were scrapped-off after completing the planned cycle of typical floors. But as per the intended strategy of utilizing the used Aluminium panels, the panels were systematically refurbished with multiple scheme drawings to ascertain the feasibility of using standard Aluminium panels for elements of varying sizes. The implementation has shown improvement in labour productivity, material reusability and faster execution by a factor of around 20%.

Sumanth Kashyap, N. Surya, Ashish Kumar Saxena
Improving Handing Over of Residential Units Using Lean Tools

Construction projects are known to be customer-centric. Traditionally, there is a process of intermittent handing over of the dwelling units in any residential project across various stakeholders. This alternating cycle of handing over and taking over (HO-TO) leads to time wastage and creation of contractual issues such as DLP duration and cost claims and affects the adjacent ongoing activities due to resource re-allocation. This cycle can be optimized with bringing all the stakeholders working according to a comprehensive work schedule, thus streamlining the interdependence. The project under study is a residential project with more than 3600 dwelling units to be constructed and handed over to the end-customer over a period of 4 years. The project team devised an efficient way of collaborative planning system for handing over of flat units. The collaboration and the dynamic project planning facilitated the teams to hand over the residential units to the customers at an exceptional monthly rate of 211 units with an approximate improvement of about 40%. Implementation of Lean tools such as Big Rooms, PPC, constraint analysis, root-cause analysis and other site-based micro-level monitoring techniques have resulted in a significant improvement in the monthly rate of handing over.

V. Ramani, A. Subramanian, Praveen Reddy, Ashish Kumar Saxena
Revolutionizing Work Process at Turner Construction Through Lean Construction

Turner Construction’s Lean design and construction process—With the intent to continuously improve the efficiency of the existing systems, Turner Construction has adopted the last planner system as their main means to implement the Lean design and construction principles within the organization. Last planner system is one of the predominant tools used to enhance planning and management of the construction projects. Though the system was initially conceived to be used for planning and production control, it grew to become a holistic system to support Lean planning and execution of the projects. In this paper, we will discuss the implementation of the last planner system at Turner Construction, the changes made to existing systems, and the need to integrate feedback from the construction sites and the personnel from the jobsites to develop effective Lean management strategies.

Sruthi Dongari, Bhargav Munagala
Choosing by Advantage for a Commercial Project with a BIM Implementation

Each construction project is designed and uniquely planned, making it distinctive at least in terms of location. During the planning stage, when decisions influence building performance, the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry requires more efficient decision-making practices to obtain maximum value for the client within the targeted cost. A lack of coordination between stakeholders can result in poor planning and frequent design changes that lead to project failure. In this work, we use the choosing by advantage (CBA) approach to maintain acceptance and clarity in the decision-making process in a real-life construction project. This study investigates the use of CBA to choose a design for steel reinforcement in a beam–column junction. This study shows that the efficiency of the CBA approach to choose the best from alternate designs through a visualization decision-making process. The design methodology adopted is collaborative as well as dynamic and technology-driven which has a significant impact on design development. The outcome of more numbers of parameters in BIM along with the CBA decision-making process.

Shanil Shah, Keval Modi, Jyoti Trivedi, Ganesh A. Devkar
Comparative Analysis of FDS in Real Estate Projects

The construction sector is riddled with project delays due to a variety of reasons. Both researchers and industrialists are working towards finding solutions and approaches to reduce such delays. The Lean construction approach is being increasingly considered a promising approach to prevent materials, effort, and time waste in the construction sector. Action-based Foreman Delay Survey is a holistic approach to finding the root cause of delays in construction and proposing solutions to overcome them. This paper reports the results of an action-based Foreman Delay Survey that was conducted on four real estate projects in the state of Gujarat in India. The survey showed the causes of two types of delays—supportive and recoverable delays. In this paper, these causes are analysed and solutions are proposed to help eliminate or minimize such delays in large construction projects.

Priya Nakhate, Shivam Rao, Viral Makhwana, Aravind Vankadaru, Ganesh Devkar, Jyoti Trivedi
Navigate Complexity Through Implication of the Last Planner System

The success of every construction project depends on both effective project planning and execution. Production control is essential for making sure that everyone completes tasks according to the predetermined timeframe, regardless of the size or scope of the project. There are many task dependencies in construction projects, and alternate paths must frequently be followed to fulfil tasks and reach objectives. The last planner is regarded as a managerial strategy for effectively managing a construction project. The fundamental tenet of the method is to hold each contractor and subcontractor on a construction site accountable for the job they committed to doing while ensuring that they can manage their workload. This article will demonstrate how the Last Planner System and the Tasks Made Ready improve the accuracy of the weekly work planning for the road construction work carried out as part of our project. TMR is a reliable indicator of project length. This paper explains how pull sessions can be used by planners to remove limitations from the top-down level management approach process, how this affects the accuracy of construction planning, and how this affects project length.

M. Pandiaraja, Rahul Ruikar, Swapnil Tribhan, Ramesh Bhandarkar
Improving Productivity with Site-Based Training Setup at a Mega Construction Project

Construction industry is one of the very few labor-intensive industries. Workmen is the most vital resource for any construction project. Unlike manufacturing industry, construction is end-to-end depended on the human resources. This makes the performance of the workmen even more critical for the success of any project. A good performing workforce can stand out from the crowd with visible results and motivation. This paper captures a short case study on the improvement in workforce productivity after establishing a site-based training (SBT) set up. The project under consideration has stringent timelines, and huge volume of work has to be executed. Considering the scope of work and the milestone deadlines, there is hardly any room for rework. Workmen productivity and skill play a very important role in this scenario. In the initial phase, the project faced a lot of problems pertaining to the productivity. Based on the trends in reducing productivity, workforce skill, and other miscellaneous factors, such as type of construction and location, the senior management anticipates a severe scarcity of the skilled workforce in the coming years. This paper covers the process implementation for root cause analysis, work sampling, etc., and further taking a preventive measure of establishing a site-based training setup that filters out the workforce based on the skill and not on mere mouth of word.

Ashish Kumar Saxena, E. N. Nihala, V. Anand
Cycle-Time Improvement Through Collaborative Planning System

Construction projects especially the residential projects suffer a huge delay due to miscoordination. As a construction project involves a large number of stakeholders, it demands a closed-loop collaboration and seamless coordination for a successful project completion. With more and more regulations such as RERA coming in, completing the project within the stringent timelines is inevitable. Collaborative planning system (CPS) is one of the most easy to understand yet most difficult to implement lean management concept for any construction project. CPS is a comprehensive lean management concept that encompasses the benefits of lean tools such as last planner system, big rooms, PPC, and root cause analysis. The site under study has shown a considerable savings in time in the overall phase through cycle-time tracking against the day-wise plan for typical floors. A combined result of utilizing the major lean tools enabled the project team to continuously achieve 6–7 days of cycle time. Further extending the micro-monitoring to above terrace works facilitated the completion in average 39 days against the pre-planned duration of 60 days. The implementation has resulted in a saving of approximate 50 days (12% time) for the phase which facilitated over-and-above cost benefits due to early demobilization of resources. This paper captures the comprehensive lean thinking and construction site-based implementations incorporating the lean tools.

Ashish Kumar Saxena, V. Ramani, Praveen Reddy, K. Ravichandran
Making Scrap Disposal System More Lean and Mean

Construction waste generation is inevitable at project sites. Though there have been advancements in the resource monitoring tools which have reduced the wastes considerably, but still, construction industry continues to be the major waste and scrap generator. The large quantity of scrap generated not only affects the environment but also has very severe impact on the project execution. As the building projects have interdependency of large number of activities and are related to have parallel operationality. Considering the logistic issues at a space-constrained project site like the one in this study, timely and efficient scrap disposal is crucial. To ensure this, a well-defined process chart is designed. Since the system involves a lot of approvals, reconciliations, and collaborations, this process chart facilitated rigorous follow-ups and timely identification of the bottleneck. The scrap disposal is reviewed along with the construction program to have seamless coordination and reverse-phased scheduling. With this incorporation, the project site was able to dispose approximately 1500MT of scrap in a planned manner which was in alignment with the construction program.

Ashish Kumar Saxena, V. Ramani, Praveen Reddy
Integration of BIM and Lean Implementation in the Construction Industry—A Literature Review

Building information modelling (BIM) has evolved in recent years to become much more than a simple simulation and information-sharing tool. The coordination between numerous construction-related components has been enhanced owing to this technology. Construction sector harnesses the potential of BIM for client-driven requirements such as increased productivity and quality through savings in cost, time, material waste, carbon emissions, and resource usage. Integrating BIM and Lean concepts in the pre-construction stage may benefit from better decision-making in several areas, including documentation, procurement, and financing. Several publications have discussed how these two concepts are specifically combined. The majority of papers address the use of a specific Lean tool in conjunction with BIM. Some papers investigate the difficulties in implementing the BIM and Lean combination. However, very few studies have looked into how different Lean dimensions can be combined with BIM for use in the construction industry. Though, there have been many literature reviews on the Lean–BIM integration; however, the current study differs from previous studies in that it sought to investigate the various techniques and Lean dimensions that are integrated with BIM, as well as highlight the major adoption issues in the construction industry. Thus, the present study adds to the body of knowledge or profession as it reviews the literature on the relationships between BIM and Lean while also investigating the opportunities and challenges of using this combination to address cost and time overrun issues. Furthermore, the study's findings highlight the key barriers to using BIM for Lean construction and offer solutions for overcoming them.

Saurabh Jindal, Indrasen Singh, Venkatesan Renganaidu
A Case Study on Implementation of Lean Tool in Indian Infra Project

India's construction industry is currently experiencing substantial delays, due to low productivity and inadequate labor management. Lean construction is a method that seeks to minimize waste and increase production. The goal is to examine how well the Lean methodology works for managing projects. Value stream mapping, a Lean tool in construction, plays a vital role in resolving this problem since it increases productivity. The non-value-added activities can be found using value stream mapping. By shortening the duration of these non-value-added activities, productivity can be increased. The value stream mapping Lean tool was utilized in a case study of pier cap building in a bridge construction project, and a potential gain in productivity was identified. The present state of the activities in the erection process was mapped first, followed by the preparation of the future state map of the activities after the non-value-adding jobs were eliminated.

Raja Sekhar Mamillapalli, Venkatesan Renganaidu, Dillip Kumar Bera, G. Pavan Abhi Ram Sai
Exploring Defects in Construction—An Experimental Study

Lean construction approach to project management incorporates the ideas of Lean thinking and lean principles to minimize waste and add value to the customers. Several firms have reported benefits through enhanced productivity by adopting Lean techniques on project sites worldwide. Some of the popular tools implemented include the last planner system and value stream mapping. While these are popular, there seems to be a dearth of studies that address the eight types of Lean wastes which include defects, overproduction, waiting, motion, unused talent, transportation, inventory, motion, and extra-processing. To this end, an experimental study was conducted across two universities wherein students from NICMAR Pune and Nottingham Trent University, UK, collaborated for a period of two months to identify different types of waste on project sites and explored strategies to minimize them. This experiment aimed to identify and mitigate Lean waste and suggests the path of moving towards zero waste in construction aligned with the United Nations goal for a sustainable development. This particular paper focuses on the ‘defects’ type of Lean waste. Using a fishbone diagram and 5-why analysis, the root cause for defects was analysed, and strategies to overcome defects were suggested. Recommendations included effective construction management including people, processes, advanced technology, and effective training and education in Lean methods and incentivizing good workmanship. The measures were tested on the project sites and validated. The findings of the study are expected to add as a stepping stone to standardize processes that can minimize waste in the construction processes.

Aman Ashish, Himank Chawla, Ujan Sengupta, Shobha Ramalingam
Enhancing Lean Tools and Practices with Digital Solutions

The lean tools like last planner system have a great impact on the project schedule tracking and ensuring that the planned activities are completed and emerging reasons are resolved at a daily basis. But, in order to have a detailed plan per engineer at a daily basis while ensuring the client objectives are also being met, a lot of manpower is required to plan activities at a daily basis and update the same. This is where digital solutions come into place, where the repeated tasks of quantification and schedule updating can be automated, and the manpower can be better utilized. The entire process is further explained in the paper.

S. Kamal, Umar Belal
Web-Based Visual Project Progress (4D BIM) to Plan and Monitor in a More Lean and Efficient Way

The architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry is facing many issues in commissioning the projects within the scheduled time and budget. Planning and monitoring the progress of a project plays a vital role in the success of any construction project by avoiding schedule and cost overruns. 4D building information modeling (BIM) is a reliable way to visualize the project’s progress and make timely decisions. On the other hand, lean construction is an effective and time-tested way to complete the project within a specified time and budget. We have implemented both BIM and lean construction in one of our project development of logistics park for one of our prestigious customers at Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh. This paper shows how we got benefited from implementing BIM and lean construction in our project and on how 4D BIM could empower the lean construction methods for effective planning and monitoring progress.

Aswani Reddy Kovvuri
Building Trust and Stakeholder Buy-In Through Realization of Collective Benefits in Lean Construction

A lot has been said and done to improve the Lean adoption at construction sites, but still the Lean Champions across projects feel a dearth of motivation from the stakeholder’s part. ‘If it isn’t broken, then don’t fix it’ attitude correctly represents the inertia, this industry must overcome to achieve the productivity spurt those other industries have achieved decades ago. From a yearlong effort in implementing Lean across 20 project sites, it was well understood that unless we highlight tangible benefit to our stakeholders (own staff, subcontractors, client, material supplier, others) it would be difficult to on-board all of them in our Lean journey. Otherwise, it would be another top down initiative. In order to defeat this notion, we sought ways in which the benefits can be realized at each stakeholder level and once this is achieved a sense of trust in the process can be built.

S. Kamal, Umar Belal
Overcoming Barriers to Adopting Lean Practices in the Construction Industry

An organization who starts implementing Lean are not able to sustain the implementation level and its slowly deteriorating due to various barriers at different levels. Intuitively we may feel that implementation of Lean Construction (LC) has got to do only with the inertia, but it is often more than that. As complex as a construction project already is, it gets even more difficult to manage numerous constraints for its success. Let us take an example where the project itself is “Implementing Lean Construction.” As a last planner, the lean champion needs to list down all the actionable steps for its implementation. Further, a constraint analysis for each of these activities would bring forward the hindrances of LC implementation. For past two years, we have been implementing Lean in our project sites and faced many issues while implementing them. We have been able to implement Lean in our construction projects by overcoming the various barriers. This chapter elaborates how the organization can tackle the various barriers and have strategic approach to tackle all the issues and improve the implementation level.

S. Kamal, Umar Belal, Rahul Kisku
Utilization of Augmented Reality in Construction Projects

The primary causes of delays in construction projects and the drop in planned percent completion is the lack of coordination between various stakeholders. This issue can be addressed by Building Information Modeling (BIM) and especially the use of augmented reality in BIM. BIM is a popular information handling process. Despite its potential, the utilization in construction phase is very limited due to the lack of interaction between real and virtual worlds. As technologies evolve, so does our nature of imagining and visualizing something. Construction design is heavily dependent upon visualization, so it is no wonder that new data visualization technologies like AR and VR would influence and enhance BIM in leaps and bounds.

Kishore Kumar Dasam, Umar Belal
CO2 Life-Cycle Assessment of Prefabricated and Cast-In-Situ Structure Using Monte Carlo Simulation

CO2 emissions have become a part of common vocabulary as a result of the significant negative effects of climate change. Through the supply of buildings and infrastructure for the smooth operation of a business, the construction sector plays a vital role in the growth of an economy, both directly and indirectly. However, due to carbon emissions from materials and energy, this business is currently facing significant challenges. Prefabrication has grown in popularity in nations as a result of its several benefits, including quality control, waste minimization, onsite and offshore parallel to coordination, and so. It’s also been identified as a crucial approach for reducing carbon emissions caused by buildings. However, there has been little study into reducing carbon emissions in prefabrication through the use of advanced technical artefacts such as Building Information Modelling (BIM), which are emerging from the technology realm. The goal of this article is to provide a BIM-based method for calculating carbon with the usage of the PLCA method. During the materialization stage of a prefabricated construction project, there is a decrease. Partial Life-cycle Assessment (PLCA) is an efficient and effective technique for estimating carbon emissions from new building construction, according to the study’s findings, and prefabrication reduces carbon emissions when applied. After computation, the comparison is being done using the Monte Carlo simulation to find the percentage difference and this software helps to find the iteration for different scenarios. The study adds to the corpus of knowledge on carbon emissions reduction through prefabrication. Contractors, house buyers, and authorities who are continually looking for methods to build a circular economy should be aware of life cycle assessment of CO2. In this study, we are exploring how pre-fabricated structures are the need of the future and their usefulness to the very extent to determine the emissions at the production, transportation and construction phases of the building life cycle. And determine the amount of CO2 emissions in the pre-fabricated structure by comparing it with the cast in situ and to differentiate the result by creating a simulation through Monte Carlo analysis.

Shyam Kumar Inturi, Venkatesan Renganaidu
A Flow-Based Perspective to Streamlining and Transcending Construction Industry like the Manufacturing Industry

The trillion-dollar construction industry is augmenting the cost and time of construction whereas the manufacturing industry on the other side has been multiplying their productivity through state-of-the-art lean production planning systems. While the reasons for cost-time overruns are aplenty in the construction, frameworks for reducing wastes in cost-time remains unfulfilled owing to lack of avenues for understanding construction as a production process rather than as a project-based activity. To this end, our research relies on the need for a new systemic approach to complement present project-based methodologies to better understand the construction industry’s production complexity. This systematic approach necessitates a flow-based lens to analyze the feasibility of a productionized concept along the lifecycle of a construction project. Our work intends to derive a flow-based framework for conversion of complex project-based activities into a multi-line production process in construction using Value Stream Mapping and other overarching Lean principles. Though the use of Value Stream Mapping in the construction field is an emerging trend and can help reduce wastes, Value Stream Mapping is constructed to be a simple tool that can be used for only single-line processes. By adopting a flow-based lens in Value Stream Mapping, we thereby aim to operationalize and demonstrate simple, multi-line lean interventions that become vivid in an otherwise complex setting.

Jonnabhatla Teja Manikanta Venkata Sairam, Garuda Veera Venkata Sai Ratna Kumar, Narkadamilli Sathwik, Maddela Sonal Goud, Mahesh Balasubramani
A Study on the Behavioural Aspects Contributing to Lean Transformation in Indian Construction Industry

The waste generated in the construction sites not only contaminates the soil, water, and air but also impacts the efficiency of the construction projects coupled with the ill effects on its profitability. Though there are numerous studies, which have tried to identify the causative factors of construction waste, very few of them emphasized upon the human and behavioural elements contributing to it. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of behavioural aspects with regard to their influence the successful implementation of lean systems in construction organizations. Through literature review, three key behavioural attribute groups such as ‘organizational factors’, ‘group factors’ and ‘individual factors’ were identified and classified. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the organizational, group, and individual factors by collecting the data from the construction stakeholders’ through the questionnaire survey method. Data for the research were collected through a survey of the Indian construction industry professionals and was analysed using the SPSS software. The study identified that a great deal of change in behaviour and cultural practices from both participants and management is the need of the hour to reap the benefits of lean construction practices.

V. Pramadha, K. V. Prasad, Venkatesan Renganaidu
Prefabrication Methods for Lean Delivery of Construction Projects

The construction industry has been receiving severe criticism over its inability to improve productivity associated with project delivery as compared to the manufacturing industries. The construction projects continue to struggle with the problems of delay, cost overruns, and litigations. Lean construction philosophy evolved from Toyota’s Production Systems (TPS) has gathered significant attention in recent years and has been proven to be successful in minimizing the inefficiencies and wastages at projects and improving the project delivery. The prefabricated method of construction has been found to fasten the delivery of projects and achieve the principles of pull production, Just in Time (JIT) and minimize wastages. The development of prefabricated structures in the construction industry has shown the potential to drastically improve the construction environment, productivity and quality. The present paper discusses a part of the work carried out to investigate the cost–benefit analysis of the prefabrication methodology for the construction of residential projects using the prefabrication method over traditional projects. The study aims to introduce the methods and techniques of prefabrication for building projects and how it contributes to sustainable lean delivery of building construction projects.

A. Poojesh, J. S. Pradeepkumar, S. Prashanth, M. Santhoshkumar, Adith V. Arun, K. V. Prasad
A Study on BIM Implementation a Residential Construction Project in India

The construction industry has been growing despite the complexities and risks involved throughout the life cycle of project delivery. To continue this growth path and to fulfil the increasing demands, the industry has started adopting various new trends and technologies such as building information modelling, lean technology, precast-prefabricated and pre-engineered structures. Research and study of BIM use in many countries has proved various benefits of BIM in the construction industry such as improvement in productivity and collaboration, reduced risk of cost and time overrun and rework. However, BIM implementation in India is lagging behind most of the other countries despite its vast range of benefits. There are factors like lack of information, training, awareness, apprehensions regarding the technology and lack of comprehensive analysis documenting the advantages. The present paper intends to explain the benefits of BIM implementation in a residential project in the Indian city of Pune. The paper intends to demonstrate the process of BIM implementation and promulgate the benefits, so that it encourages practitioners in India to adopt BIM on a larger scale.

Yash Chavan, Samrudhi Barewar, Vaibhav Gund, Manas Sahu, K. V. Prasad
Application of IOT in Construction Industry

Construction is a continuous process that not only acts as a foundation for urbanization but also as a source of jobs and new complexes and structures. The need to construct new and creative structures is something that everyone understands and accepts. The phrase IoT in construction was recently introduced as an application. It refers to employing technological equipment, such as the IoT and the latest internet software, in the construction process to enhance project efficiency. The construction business is constantly striving to provide better services to its customers. Simultaneously, they are attempting to make building procedures more efficient and, as a result, profitable. In order to make these activities more effective in successful execution of construction projects, IoT-based intervention in the construction ecosystem should persist. There exist several studies concentrated on one or more domains for IoT implementation. However, holistic IoT application from the conceptual to hand-over phase is under-researched area. To this end, there exists limited studies concentrated on exploration of IoT-grounded applications from the lens of project management body of knowledge domains. Thus, the current study attempts to address the lacuna through the development of conceptual framework for IoT applications in construction projects through mixed methods approach.

E. V. S. S. Kiran Kumar, J. S. Rohit, N. Nidesh Raj, Enti Sumanth Reddy, Vijayeta Malla
Sustainable Lean Construction
Anil Kashyap
N. Raghavan
Indrasen Singh
Venkatesan Renganaidu
Arun Chandramohan
Copyright Year
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN