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About this book

This book presents the select proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Practices and Innovations in Civil Engineering (SPICE 2019). The chapters discuss emerging and current research in sustainability in different areas of civil engineering, which aim to provide solutions to sustainable development. The contents are broadly divided into the following six categories: (i) structural systems, (ii) environment and water resource systems, (iii) construction technologies, (iv)geotechnical systems, (v) innovative building materials, and (vi) transportation. This book will be of potential interest for students, researchers, and practitioners working in sustainable civil engineering related fields.

Table of Contents


Studies on the Impact of Ternary Blend for Early Prediction of Compressive Strength Using Accelerated Curing

This experimental study is intended to investigate the applicability of existing relationships as prescribed in IS: 9013-1978 between the accelerated curing compressive strength and actual compressive strength of ternary-blended concrete. Class F type Fly ash (FA) was used to develop binary-blended concrete by replacing 20% of cement in the mixture and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) was also used to prepare another binary-blended concrete by replacing 18% of cement. Further Silica Fume (SF) was used for preparing ternary-blended concrete at 4, 8 and 12% by replacing the weight of cementitious content. Analysis of the test results shows that the relationship between accelerated curing compressive strength and the actual compressive strength is interrelated and the constant in the correlated equations specified in the code were found to be inaccurate in all the blended combinations. Thus, the alternative relations were proposed for the ternary-blended system with the supports of results and figures.

P. Murthi, K. Poongodi, R. Gobinath

Review Study on Glass Fibre Reinforced Gypsum (GFRG) Panels

The tremendous increase in Urbanization leads to the various innovation techniques in Building Technology to improve their efficiency. As a part of this, Glass Fibre Reinforced Gypsum (GFRG) Panels are the new technique that is widely used in Australia, India, China, etc. These are panel-based building systems, which can be used as a replacement of nominal walls and slabs. This can be used as Load-Bearing structures as well as shear wall by adding reinforced cement concrete in panel cavities. In the mass housing system, GFRG Panels play a vital role in easy transportation, erection and construction of large units in the desired time period with less manpower. It is also eco-friendly, cost-effective, high resistance to heat and fire compared with traditional construction. The methodology involved mainly to analyse, discuss and recommends the GFRG panels as per the site conditions. To conclude this, conventional building construction indirectly impacts the increase of pollution in the world, as an alternative for this, we can use GFRG panels made up of industrial waste and also with the minimum usage of virgin materials during execution. Hence, it is one of the green building technologies to sustain our environment. In this review paper, general structural requirements, design and erection process of Glass Fibre Reinforced Gypsum Panels are discussed.

S. Ragav

Modelling of Organic Acid Transport in Unsaturated Subsurface System

Leachate from municipal solid waste landfill contains a variety of contaminants including organic acids. The subsequent vertical movement of organic acids from the landfill may reach and pollute the groundwater. Hence, the prediction of vertical movement in the unsaturated sub-surface system is essential to monitor the groundwater contamination. To achieve this, a one-dimensional numerical model has been developed to understand and forecast the transport of organic acids in unsaturated soil using a finite difference technique. This study considers acetic acid as a representative organic compound in the landfill leachate. The Richards equation is used to simulate the water content in the unsaturated soil and advection–dispersion equation is used to predict the transport of organic acid. Moreover, first-order decay coefficient is also considered during the migration of organic acid. The numerical results suggest that the transport of organic acid is strongly influenced by water content variation in the unsaturated subsurface. Further, it is also observed that the soil distribution coefficient was found to be one of the most influencing parameters, which is significantly affecting the organic acid concentration profile in the unsaturated soil. Moreover, the decay coefficient is also affecting the distribution of organic acid in the vadose zone. Overall, the numerical results show that the higher simulation time allows the concentration of organic acid to reach larger depth. Hence, there is a high probability of groundwater contamination by organic acid concentration.

Berlin Mohanadhas, G. Suresh Kumar

State-of-the-Art Review—Methods of Chromium Removal from Water and Wastewater

Many countries throughout the world have found drinking water sources to be contaminated with chromium. The presence of chromium occurring naturally or anthropogenic in water at higher concentrations has proven to be carcinogenic to different internal and external organs of living organisms. Chromium is a well-known highly toxic metal, considered a priority pollutant. The dissolution of chromium in water is due to its physical, chemical and biological properties. Industrial sources of chromium include effluents from leather tanning, cooling tower blowdown, plating, electroplating, anodizing baths, rinse waters, etc. This article provides an overview of chromium and its toxicity, WHO standards of chromium in drinking water, removal techniques for chromium-contaminated aqueous solutions and comparison of methods for chromium reduction. A particular focus is given to adsorption, membrane filtration, ion exchange, electrochemical treatment methods and biological techniques. Suitability of these treatment methods to meet the required disposal standard is very difficult as these methods have some limitations, which have been reviewed in this paper.

D. Rama Devi, G. Srinivasan, S. Kothandaraman, S. Ashok Kumar

Study of Behaviour of Web-Stiffened Built-up Beam

Behaviour of cold-formed steel built-up beams with web stiffeners and the results of flexural buckling strength are presented in this paper. Cold-formed steel sections are used to minimize heat loss, providing thermal insulation to the structure hence making the structure more sustainable. Investigation of simply supported built-up section beam configuration has been conducted under uniform bending with forked edge condition. The built-up section is formed by placing web-stiffened channels to form closed section by using the self-tapping screws. Intermediate stiffeners were employed to the webs of built-up sections to improve the buckling strength. The numerical models of selected sections were developed and validated against the results reported by Wang (2017) and kankanamge (2010). The parametric study is carried out to study the influence of different cross sections by varying thickness, height to width ratio and length of the beams. Buckling analysis was performed on selected parametric models by the finite element software ABAQUS and by the suitability of design methods established in EN1993-1.1. The moment carrying capacity and buckling design resistance was also investigated using the developed finite element model. Critical buckling moments obtained from the analysis were compared with the results predicted by using EUROCODE specifications and discussed.

C. Divya Megala, M. Anbarasu

Geotechnical Properties of β-Glucan-Treated Clayey Sand

Various techniques are used to improve and stabilize soil, most common are the mechanical and chemical methods. The materials used for soil stabilization pose challenges such as possible contamination of soil and groundwater, and emission of carbon dioxide during manufacturing. β-glucan, a biopolymer offers an attractive alternative and has greater potential for application in soil stabilization, yet only limited research is available. Monomers of D-glucose (C6H12O6) connected by β-glycosidic bonds lead to the formation of β-glucan. The structure of β-glucan can be varying. β-1,3/1,6-glucan possesses ramiform and helical shapes. They exhibit hydrogen bonding with external ions. β-glucans which possess good tensile strength have potential applications in controlling the cracking and tensile failure of many earth structures. They also exhibit better adsorption features. In this work, it was added in quantities of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3% to clayey sand. Select geotechnical properties such as liquid and plastic limits, optimum moisture content (OMC), maximum dry density, shear strength and permeability were determined. Durability tests, tests on biopolymers such as gel matrix formation and its degradation were conducted.

M. Vishweshwaran, Evangelin Ramani Sujatha, Nadendla Harshith, Cheni Umesh

Composite Leaching of Thermal Power Plant Bottom Ash to Ensure Its Performance on Cement Mortar

Power plant bottom ash is classified as hazardous waste in Malaysia and hence its reuse needs to be carefully decided. The chemical content in the bottom ash may interfere with the performance of bottom ash in construction applications. This paper discusses the effect of chemical leaching of bottom ash using a mixture of Hydrochloric acid with Hydrofluoric acid, Hydrochloric acid with Nitric acid and water washing method on the performance of bottom ash in cement mortar. Tests such as sieve analysis, specific gravity, water absorption, fineness modulus, bulk density and compacted density have been carried out for physical characteristics for the leached and washed bottom ash. Mortar mixtures were prepared using bottom ash and cement at a ratio of 1:3 for the strength test. The results reveal that the difference in the particle characteristics did not differ much with the process of leaching. The strength of the mortar is reduced with the leaching and washing method compared to unwashed bottom ash in mortar up to 38%. Despite that, the strength of the mortar containing leached bottom ash still complies with the standards.

Sivakumar Naganathan, Salmia Beddu, Muhammad Zulfiqar Ajmulkhan, Jegatheish Kanadasan, Zakaria Che Muda, Siti Nabihah Sa’don, B. Mahalingam

Enhancing the Performance of Bottom Ash Using Acid Leaching Method

The thermal power plant bottom ash is normally landfilled which causes pollution and is not sustainable. Hence, bottom ash needs to be recycled. However, the presence of carbon on the bottom ash poses a challenge to the its recycling. This paper reports a research on the leaching process of bottom ash and the effect on the physical characteristics and compressive strength of the mortar containing bottom ash as sand replacement. The bottom ash was subjected to leaching with Hydrochloric, Citric, Nitric, Sulfuric and Hydrofluoric acids. Physical characteristics such as sieve analysis, bulk density, specific gravity and water absorption were considered. Bottom ash, thus prepared, has been used to cast mortar cubes. The strength test was conducted on hardened cubes. Results show that the physical properties such as water absorption, specific gravity and bulk density for different leaching methods did not show any noticeable variation. Sieve analysis shows a reduction in particle size upon leaching. The compressive strength range from 6.43 to 10.04 MPa at 14 days. It is concluded that the use of bottom ash in mortar could reduce its weight while exhibiting the required strength.

Sivakumar Naganathan, Salmia Beddu, Muhammad Zulfiqar Ajmulkhan, Jegatheish Kanadasan, Zakaria Che Muda, Siti Nabihah Sa’don, B. Mahalingam

An Experimental Investigation of Flexural Behaviour of Ferrocement Box Beams Using Micro Fillers

The experimental work consists of strength and flexural behaviour of ferrocement box beams for precast purposes. By partially replacing the cement (binder) with various percentages of Silica Fume (SF) (0–25% in steps of 5%), ferrocement box beam is cast to ascertain whether there is an increase or decrease in compressive and tensile strength due to the addition of SF. From the results of compressive and split tensile strengths, it is found that 10% of SF replacement produced higher strength. After obtaining the optimum percentage of micro filler, two ferrocement box beams with SF (10% SF with 90% cement) and two without SF and two ferrocement solid beams are cast and tested for bending, under two-point loading with two layers of wire mesh. The flexural strength of ferrocement box beam without micro filler is compared with ferrocement solid beam. The test results indicated that the flexural strength drop for the beam with voids is less in comparison with a solid beam due to the reduction in self-weight of the hollow box beam.

K. Ramakrishnan, D. Muthu, S. Viveka

An Analytical Framework of Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources: Vulnerability and Integrated Adaptation Strategies

Climate change has already started altering water resources and also transforming life on the earth. Water resources are one of the major sectors vulnerable to climate change in a developing country like India. Climate change impact assessment is the main concern for water resource availability and sustainable water use activities like agricultural production. Water resources and agricultural sectors are put into the top priority list for adaptation plans as these sectors are vulnerable to climate change. A detailed framework is necessary to assess the responses of spatial and temporal water availability to a range of baseline and climate change scenarios. Climate change impact assessment can be performed using modelling approaches such as climate change analysis (existing climate trends and jumps), analysis of hydrological extremes, downscaling and hydrological models. The results of vulnerability assessment on water resources can be transferred as information to farmers and government agencies in order to support them in the planning of appropriate sustainable adaptation measures. Farmers’ perception of climatic conditions, environmental conditions and biological systems, and major coping strategies undertaken can be identified by questionnaire surveys. Thus, an analytical framework for integrated adaptation strategies based on the modelling approaches (climate downscaling and hydrological modelling), water resources’ vulnerability assessment, farmers’ perception and coping strategies is attempted in this paper.

K. Shimola, M. Krishnaveni

Compaction and Permeability Characteristics of Biopolymer-Treated Soil

Choice of biodegradable, environment-friendly materials like biopolymers for soil stabilization is a step forward in sustainable development. An attempt was made to study the effect of two different biopolymers namely Xanthan gum and Guar gum on the compaction and permeability characteristics of soil for 0, 3, 7 and 28 days. The tests were conducted in accordance with the IS: 2720 and IS: 4332 specifications. The results of the study showed that the dry density of the treated soil decreased for guar gum, but in the case of xanthan gum increased at 0.25% and then on further addition decreased. The optimum moisture content increased for both guar gum and xanthan gum. The permeability of the treated soil for both biopolymers and at all biopolymer contents showed a marked decrease. On the 28th day, the permeability of the in situ soil decreased from 1.03 × 10−2 cm/s to 7.23 × 10−9 cm/s and 6.41 × 10−8 cm/s at 1.5% addition of xanthan gum and guar gum, respectively. The results show that xanthan gum is more effective than guar gum. This study is limited to a period of 28 days.

S. Anandha Kumar, Evangelin Ramani Sujatha

Inflow Forecasting of Bhavanisagar Reservoir Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN): A Case Study

Hydrologic forecasting of inflows into a reservoir plays an important role in efficient reservoir management and control. Efficient reservoir operation and management rely on the proper forecast of the inflow into the reservoir and it leads to enhanced reservoir yields and better flood protection. But, most of the hydrological parameters are subjected to uncertainty. Hence, an appropriate forecasting method, a feedforward Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used in this study to obtain reliable information of inflow into a reservoir. The ANN models were trained and simulated using MATLAB with raw and transformed data. Synthetic data and stochastic models are generated to obviate a lack of data and they are utilized to forecast inflow. A total of 24 years (1989–2013) of historical data in the form of average monthly inflow to Bhavanisagar reservoir was used to train, test and validate the model. Then, the results are compared with the observed values of the reservoir. Further, it was found that the Mean Square Error (MSE) obtained is within the range. Hence, this model is used to simulate the inflow for the period 2049–2064 (as per IPCC AR4 report). From the predicted values, appropriate storage and discharge from the reservoir can be decided to prevent the extreme crisis in the near future.

S. Suriya, K. Saran, L. Chris Anto, C. Anbalagan, K. R. Vinodh

Mitigation of Energy Consumption Impact by Planning and Formulation of Environmental Management System for Indian Infrastructure Projects

India is a country where enormous natural resources are utilized for large infrastructure and construction projects which leads to environmental impacts. Every year, due to the consumption of enormous natural resources for large infrastructure and construction projects, more energy is consumed which has a negative impact on the environment. Though modern construction techniques and low-cost effective materials were utilized to mitigate Energy usage, the volume of impact reduction is not efficient. The present paper focuses on the planning and formulation of Environmental Management System (EMS) to reduce the impact of energy consumption patterns in large infrastructure and construction projects. The planning of EMS is done based on the Energy usage in mega level construction projects under the environmental impact checklist provided by the Ministry of Environment, and Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC), Government of India, and the Formulation is done through Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA) techniques that implement EMS to reduce the impact due to energy conservation in large infrastructure and construction projects. Using these techniques, the implementation of EMS is needed in order to reduce the impact due to enormous energy consumption in large infrastructure and construction projects. It was concluded that the material loss was reduced from 4 to 1.2% before and after the implementation of MFCA which simultaneously mitigates the energy consumption pattern in large infrastructure projects. Finally, the Planning and Formulation of EMS gives a solution to reduce the impacts caused due to energy consumption in large infrastructure and construction projects.

C. Akin, V. Vandhana Devi, R. Samuel Devadoss

Nitrate Sequestration and Sorption Capacity in Soil Under Varying Organic Loading Conditions

Organic nitrogen occurs generally as a part of soil organic matter and has multiple sources and pathways in soil based on the prevailing bio-geo-ecosystems. Since their mobility defines sequestration capacity and adsorption kinetics, it is necessary to understand the fate and transport of nitrogen species in organic amended agricultural soils. The present study investigates the distribution of nitrogen species in a monocultured field in Alathukombai, Erode District, Tamil Nadu. Adsorption and mass transfer parameters were estimated by batch and column experiments by varying the proportions of organic amendments to assess source zone influence. Statistical analysis showed that labile fraction of organic matter has the least influence on nitrogen species sequestration in soil compared to the inert fraction derived from compost amendments. The batch experiments resulted in maximum adsorption capacity of 34% for nitrate-nitrogen onto the sugarcane-monoculture soil. When the soil is mixed with compost, the maximum available total nitrogen (TN) was found to be 86.71 ppm. The leaching trends in the sugarcane field were simulated by a continuous column experiment where the redistribution of organic nitrogen was found to be dependent on the prevailing soil conditions. The results might be quite helpful in identifying the suitable fertigation strategy for monocultured soils.

P. Balaganesh, E. Annapoorani, S. Sridevi, M. Vasudevan, S. M. Suneeth Kumar, N. Natarajan

Behaviour of Lignosulphonate Amended Expansive Soil

Expansive soils are problematic soils which exhibit large volume change behaviour on exposure to moisture changes. These soils are often chemically treated to mitigate the volume change behaviour. The chemical treatment involves the addition of chemical additives and various other waste materials which can curtail the volume change behaviour. However, the usage of chemical additives leads to large environmental issues and affects the biodiversity of the surrounding environment. In an attempt to cater to these issues, a non-conventional additive, with a bio-polymer base namely Lignosulphonate is used for treating the expansive soil. The soil selected is of highly expansive in nature, and the additive is added in small percentages of 1, 1.5 and 3%, and its effects on various soil properties are evaluated. The bio-polymer based additive basically curtails swelling and has a good influence on strength and improvement of compaction characteristics. The microstructural aspects are also evaluated through XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) techniques, in order to understand the changes at the microstructure level, particle orientation and probable formation of cementitious compounds, and the comprehensive behaviour of the additive amended expansive soil. The lignosulphonate-treated samples depicted a 5-fold increase in strength, due to the particle aggregation and floc formation.

G. Landlin, M. K. Soundarya, S. Bhuvaneshwari

Push-Out Tests for Determining the Strength and Stiffness of the Channel Connectors—Experimental Study

Steel–concrete composite structures have been used for a long time in the construction of bridges and buildings. The composite action between steel and concrete is achieved by means of shear connectors. In this paper, push-out test was carried out using the channel connectors in the composite specimens. The parameters considered in the test were the number of channel connectors and specimens with or without ribbed deck sheet. Four specimens were tested to failure and observed that the failure of the specimens is mainly due to channel connectors and concrete slab. The specimens with ribbed decking sheets carried a higher load when compared to the specimen without decking sheets. The strength of the channel connectors was calculated and compared with the codal provision and proposed equations of the researchers. The values calculated using equations were in good agreement with the experimental test results. From the load–slip and load–strain behaviour, it is also observed that the specimens with decking sheet are stiffer than the specimens without decking sheet.

P. Sangeetha, R. Vijayalakshmi, Aaditya Jagadeesh, S. Ahalya, K. Deveshwar, D. Swarna Varshini

Experimental Study of the Headed Stud Connectors in Composite Structure

Steel–concrete composite members have been widely used in the construction of high-rise building. The parameters which affect the composite action between steel and concrete are the strength of the connectors and concrete strength. In this study, the push-out test was conducted to find the strength and stiffness of the stud connectors embedded in the solid concrete slab and concrete slab with decking sheet. Four numbers of push-out specimens were made with one or two stud connectors. The failure was observed on the surface of the concrete slab. The load–slip behaviour and shear capacity of the stud connectors on the solid slab with or without decking sheet were calculated and compared with current codes of practice. There was a good agreement between the shear strength obtained using experimental study and codal equations.

P. Sangeetha, S. Ramanagopal, U. Amrutha, A. Balasubramaniam, V. Madhumitha, G. Arun

Compaction Characteristics of Modified Clay Soils with Various Proportions of Crumb Rubber

The reuse of waste material is becoming an emerging thrust area in Civil Engineering. Crumb rubber produced in abundant worldwide is reused in concrete, pavements, sports field, etc. The influence of crumb rubber, when mixed with highly compressible and inorganic clay, shows significant influence in its compaction characteristics under light compaction. Various proportions of crumb rubber were added namely 10,15,20,30,40 and 50% by weight and tested to understand its compaction characteristics. The behaviour of wet and dry of optimum side of modified soil with various percentages of crumb rubber was discussed. A model is generated to calculate the maximum dry density of the modified clay.

S. V. Sivapriya

Design and Development of Low-Cost Medium Size Shake Table for Vibration Analysis

The structural system’s vibration analysis plays a prime role in dynamic experiments as researchers attempt to study the effects of the variables that are responsive to the damage occurring in the structure. However, they require data acquisition of nearly a comprehensive-state of the structure and high manipulations. To analytically evaluate the structural behavior, vibration analysis can be worked out by statically establishing some horizontal inertia forces, on the basis of scaled ground accelerations. The structural parameters such as stiffness, mass, vibration signatures illustrated through frequencies, mode shapes, and stress–strain energies are thus identified. In setting this context, this paper discusses the development of a low-cost uniaxial shake table which can analyze any type of 3-D model that helps in detecting the inelastic behavior of the frames at a reasonable cost. The description of the test specimen, instruments, setup procedures, and results is also presented.

R. B. Malathy, Govardhan Bhat, U. K. Dewangan

Experimental Investigation on Suitability of Sea Water for Concrete Mix

This paper explored the results of experimental investigations on the effect of sea water on mechanical properties of concrete. It is well-known that the make use of sea water in concrete mix does not substantially diminish the concrete strength properties but may lead to corrosion of reinforcement in some certain cases. In this study, concrete compressive strength of 24.22 MPa was used. The concrete mix was cast using fresh water and sea water and tested after 7 and 28 days of curing for determining the mechanical properties of concrete. Findings of the test results show enhanced mechanical properties of concrete using sea water when compared to that of concrete using fresh water.

K. Srinivasan, E. Arunachalam

Assessment of Emerging Contaminants in a Drinking Water Reservoir

Urbanisation and changes in lifestyle have resulted in the release of emerging contaminants (ECs) into the environment. The present study has assessed the ECs in a drinking water reservoir in Chennai, India using LC-MS/MS. Of the 138 ECs screened, it was observed that 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a herbicide, had the highest concentration of 0.13 mg/L followed by 1,2 Dibromo 3 chloro propane (DBCP), a pesticide, with a concentration of 0.12 mg/L, which is 600 times higher than the USEPA regulatory standard. Two pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, an antiepileptic, and N-methylphenmacetin, an anti-inflammatory drug, were found at concentrations of 0.003 mg/L and 0.005 mg/L, respectively. The risk quotient for predominant ECs was computed. Endrin had the highest risk quotient followed by chlorpyrifos. The landuse map of the study area prepared using GIS showed 91.901 km2 of vegetation area. The presence of pesticides, herbicide and insecticide can be attributed to agricultural activities in the catchment area of the reservoir while the polychlorinated biphenyl and benzo(a)pyrene in water could be due to industrial activities in the vicinity. The pharmaceuticals in water might be due to leakage in sewers or discharge of wastewater from residential communities.

Riya Ann Mathew, S. Kanmani

Estimating the Loss of Water Spread Area in Tanks Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques in Ambuliyar Sub-basin, Tamilnadu

The tanks of South India have a higher demand in agricultural, industrial and domestic sectors. Notably, in the state of Tamil Nadu, there are around 39,000 tanks with varying size and capacity, meant for storing and supplying water towards multifunctional needs of the people. But, the recent statistics show a decreasing trend in their effective utilization. Amongst various reasons for declination, the loss in their storage capacity seems to be the prime cause. But for estimating the storage capacity, extensive field measurements are mandate. However, studies shows that a broad correlation can be established between the capacity and the water spread area of tanks. The water spread area can be precisely mapped using remotely sensed images. By periodically analyzing the changes, the loss in their water spread area can be qualitatively assessed and also the deteriorated tanks can be identified. Accordingly, the Ambuliyar watershed falling in parts of Tamil Nadu is studied. Despite having 809 tanks, the area is now designated under the semi-critical category. The actual extent of the tanks during the year 1972 was mapped using the Survey of India topographic sheets. Subsequently, their water spread area during 1988, 1995 and 2015 was mapped using remote sensing data. The perusal of the overall data shows that almost all the tanks have significantly reduced in their extent, and the reduction varies from 3.13% to 91.36%. Based on their percentage of shrinkage, they were categorized into high, moderate and low deteriorated tanks and accordingly the tanks can be prioritized for reclamation.

N. Nasir, R. Selvakumar

Influence of Zinc on Engineering Properties of Soil

Degradation and Exploitation of natural resources have resulted in uncertain environmental changes. From the past decades, it is clearly understood that economic development of developing countries like India depends on industrialization and globalization, which intern affects the environment of living system in the form of soil pollution which is expressed as contamination, in India. Contamination of soil is mainly caused by disposing industrial effluents, municipal solid waste directly into the soil, without prior treatment. Effluents coming out from tanneries, workshops and utilization of agricultural pesticides can result in increase in concentration of heavy metals which leads to contamination of urban and agricultural soils. Variation of concentration of Heavy metals not only affects the environment but also changes the engineering and geotechnical properties of the soil. The release of soluble contaminants into the subsurface has serious consequences on soil behaviour. The extent of changes in soil properties depends on the soil as well as the type and concentration of heavy metals. Effects of these contaminants on engineering properties of soil is a matter of concern for geotechnical engineers, as it would reveal the condition of soil and its suitability for geotechnical purpose. This paper studies mainly focusing on zinc contamination, its absorption mechanism and engineering behaviour by varying the concentration of zinc at 400, 800 and 1200 ppm, the addition of zinc alters the strength with linear reduction in liquid limit.

N. Gopinath, M. Muttharam

Sustainability Approaches in Ground Improvement Measures

This paper presents an overview of sustainability approaches followed in ground improvement techniques. A review on research works performed in ground improvement techniques such as solar prefabricated vertical drains and microbial induced partial saturation and the way these techniques promotes the global sustainability. The tools used for evaluating the sustainability applicable to ground improvement are discussed and a comprehensive review is done for the research studies performed in ground improvement which contributes to the sustainable development. Accordingly, multi criteria-based sustainability evaluation framework consisting of Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Cost and Life Cycle Assessment was reviewed and its contribution towards global sustainability was presented. By estimating sustainability index through detailed sustainable assessment and evaluation, new and innovative ground improvement measures can be developed which enable global sustainability and eco-friendly geotechnical engineering. Also in this paper, the sustainable ground improvement developments in India and abroad are presented through available case studies.

Gowtham Padmanabhan, Ganesh Kumar Shanmugam, Sathyapriya Subramaniam

Shear Behaviour of Concrete Wall Panels Reinforced with FRP Bars

The use of Fiber reinforced bars as reinforcement in concrete structures are gaining more importance due to their advantage of being lightweight, anti-corrosion and easy to handle in construction works. This work is about the study on shear behaviour of concrete panels reinforced with FRP bars in the form a grid. Nine concrete panel specimens were cast with three varying spacing of Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) reinforcements of 45 mm, 90 mm and 150 mm and also with three varying grades of concrete M20, M30 and M40. Strain measurements were observed in FRP bars and in concrete. The panels were loaded diagonally until it reached the ultimate strength and were made to fail ultimately. The crack patterns observed shows the behaviour of these panels under diagonal shear conditions. The results show that the composite panels reinforced with FRP bars were effective in carrying out the diagonal shear load and there was an increase in its capacity for an effective spacing and higher grade of concrete.

Y. K. Sabapathy, V. Nithish, S. Vishnu Varadan, K. Udhaya Prabhu

Behaviour of Concrete Filled FRP Tubular Columns Under Axial Compression

Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) encased concrete columns are the alternative solution for the corrossive environment. The concrete filled FRP tubes are used due to high tensile strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance and chemical resistance. The behaviour of concrete filled FRP tubular columns under axial compression was studied in this paper. The parameters varied in the study are Concrete strength (M30, M40 and M50), Number of casing (single and double) and D/t ratio (25 and 33.33). The load-strain and load-deflection behaviour were plotted for the specimens and compared. The performance of FRP tubes with higher grade of concrete (M50) was double when compared with M30. The load carrying capacity of the concrete filled FRP tubes increased one third for change in D/t ratio form 25 to 33.33. It was observed that the failure of the columns are due to rupture of the FRP tubes at single place without any significant damage in the rest of the section.

S. Ramanagopal

A Study on Flexural Strength of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Manually Pultruded GFRP Bars

The use of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer is increasing day to day to necessitate its use in the developing concrete structures. With its distinct anti-corrosive nature and high-strength properties, the application of GFRP in concrete is limitless. This study aims to understand the behaviour of glass fiber reinforced concrete beams. In this study, the GFRP bars were made in-house using a cost effective method and are used in making beams. Nine beam specimens with varying reinforcement percentage and configurations were tested for their flexural strength and the test results show that the GFRP enhances the strength of concrete compared to steel reinforcement.

Y. K. Sabapathy, C. N. A. Nithish, Sajid Ali, K. P. Priyadarshini

A Novel Technique on Improving the Strength of Concrete Using Microorganisms

The main objective of this study is to isolate a novel bacteria from an unfamiliar source and to test its calcium precipitating ability to fill the pore present in the structure by filling the voids in the concrete matrix and to predict the suitability of the bacteria for better use in cementitious mixture to improvise the mechanical properties of concrete. The selected bacteria should have the significance of producing high urease for the precipitation of calcium carbonate. For this present study, bacterial strains were isolated from sludge and sewage samples of waste water treatment plant, Nesapakkam, Chennai. The colony which has high urease activity among obtained group of colonies was identified as Enterobacter ludwigii bacteria and the results were compared with the well-known traditional bacteria used in self-healing concrete, Bacillus subtilisin terms of performance and viability. The experimental work on mortar with bacteria inoculated in them revealed that the microbial induced mortar showed an enormous increment in the strength then conventional. Characterization studies are performed to confirm the presence of calcium carbonate precipitate through compressive strength test and ultrasonic pulse velocity test and the visualization of calcium carbonate were done by using a Scanning Electron Microscope.

S. Lokesh, Ahaned Noorani, S. Sanjay, G. Dhanalakshmi, S. Swaminathan

Glass Fibre Reinforced Gypsum (GFRG) as an Emerging Technology

A well-planned and socially inclusive city provides an unprecedented opportunity to transform its challenges like urbanization, management of infrastructure, etc. to a smooth sustainable transformation. The implementation a material technology like Glass Fibre Reinforced Gypsum (GFRG) in construction also links itself to the important Sustainable Development of providing affordable housing for all (besides its other possible applications). This technology involve greater thought in planning and rapid construction of quality eco-friendly homes. Thus, weighing the advantages, uses, and shortcomings of this gypsum composite material through key governing attributes, the technical, economic, and social implications of this perspective solution for mainstream construction challenges were theoretically discussed. Further, the reasons for its limited practice in the Indian industry, user satisfaction, and challenges in the incorporation of this technology were also studied and compared with the conventional methods of construction in our point of view.

J. Gokul Krishna, R. Roshan, S. N. Vinothni, S. V. Sivapriya

Immediate Load-Penetration Behaviour of Sand Piles with Sustainable Material

In the current scenario, there is an increase in demand for construction land. To overcome the need of land for construction, feeble soil should be stabilised. The soil strength can be increased by means of altering the strength of the soil through physical or chemical stabilisation. One such physical stabilisation technique is making the ground composite with sand compaction piles. To minimise the utilisation of sand in the compaction pile, copper slag, recycled material is used as a partial replacement material. The load-penetration behaviour of soil without and with compaction pile was studied in the laboratory by conducting tests in CBR mould. Fifty percent of sand was replaced by copper slag and a compaction pile was installed, and its corresponding behaviour was studied.

A. Mugesh, J. Niranjan, S. Gunalan, S. V. Sivapriya

Expediency of Sand Compaction Piles and It’s Earlier Studies

Sand compaction pile (SCP) is a method to strengthen the soil to obtain more bearing strength. Upon stabilizing the soil using SCP, the foundation was constructed. SCP offers more resistance in the case of soils suspectable to seismic and liquefaction actions. SCP is a 50-year-old technique that can be used in all soil types. The study presents classification on compaction or strengthening methods and recommendations obtained from the referenced papers. This paper also provides different types and methodologies adopted for the installation of the SCP, and various applications of SCP.

R. Manjula, S. V. Sivapriya

Numerical and Experimental Evaluation on the Behaviour of Cold-Formed Steel Box Struts and Prediction of Experimental Results Using Artificial Neural Networks

Cold-formed Steel Square and rectangular hollow sections are superior to conventional structures in torsion, compression, bending, fatigue, tension and shear. Failure of such columns in compression is on account of buckling of the member which is dependent on the slenderness ratio. Rectangular and square hollow box struts of slenderness ratios 10, 15 and 20 with fixed end conditions are tested to failure. The parameters that are varied include flat width to thickness ratio and shape. Totally, fifteen specimens are tested to study the behaviour of the strut both experimentally and analytically using ANN approach. The change in the cross-sectional shape from a long rectangle to square does not significantly increase the ultimate load carrying capacity. The non-linearity in the load versus axial shortening behaviour was found to start at 90% of the ultimate load for almost all the specimens tested. The ultimate load carrying capacity were calculated using codal provision and also predicated by ANN which is very close to the experimental values of the specimen.

P. Sangeetha, M. Shanmugapriya, Aaditya Jagadeesh, K. Deveshwar
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