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The modern world is often described as highly secularized. This secularization can distort our view of the past, and also of societies in which secularization holds less sway than in other places. In this essay, I examine Confucianism and Dharmaśāstra as two paradigms for the study of pre-secular or non-secular societies, comparing and contrasting Confucian and Hindu societies while comparing and contrasting both with the current, “secular age”.
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Charles Taylor, A Secular Age (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007).
See, e.g., The Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen Gentium, November 21, 1964.
Andrew Willard Jones, Before Church and State: A Study of the Social Order in the Sacramental Kingdom of St. Louis IX (Steubenville, OH: Emmaus Academic, 2017).
Andrew Willard Jones, Before Church and State, op. cit., 5.
Kiri Paramore, Japanese Confucianism: A Cultural History (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2016), Patrick Olivelle and Donald R. Davis, Jr., eds., Hindu Law: A New History of Dharmaśāstra (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2018).
Donald R. Davis, Jr., “Introduction,” in Patrick Olivelle and Donald R. Davis, Jr., eds., Hindu Law, op. cit., 8.
Patrick Olivelle, “Social and Literary History of Dharmaśāstra,” in Patrick Olivelle and Donald R. Davis, Jr., eds., Hindu Law, op. cit., 17.
Patrick Olivelle, “Epistemology of Law: dharmapramāṇa,” in Patrick Olivelle and Donald R. Davis, Jr., eds., Hindu Law, op. cit., 51.
David Brick “Gifting,” in Patrick Olivelle and Donald R. Davis, Jr., eds., Hindu Law, op. cit., 197, citing Āpastamba Dharmasūtra 2.10.4-2.10.7, Baudhāyana Dharmasūtra 1.18.1-1.18.6, Gautama Dharmasūtra 10.1-10.2, Vasiṣṭha Dharmasūtra 6.13-6.20, Viṣnu Dharmasūtra 2.4-2.14, and Yājñavakya Dharmaśāstra 1.118-1.120.
On Dante’s “architectonics,” see Archibald T. MacAllister, “Introduction,” in Dante Alighieri, tr. John Ciardi, The Divine Comedy: The Inferno, The Purgatorio, The Paradiso (New York: New American Library, 2003).
Victor Turner, The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969), Arnold van Gennep, Les rites de passage (Paris: Éditions A. et J. Picard, 1909).
Brian K. Smith, Reflections on Resemblance, Ritual, and Religion (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), 86.
Jan Gonda, Vedic Ritual: The Non-Solemn Rites (Leiden: Brill, 1980), 364.
Alex Michaels, “Ritual,” in Patrick Olivelle and Donald R. Davis, Jr., eds., Hindu Law, op. cit., 439.
See Catechism of the Catholic Church, Part Two, “The Celebration of the Christian Mystery, Section Two, “The Seven Sacraments of the Church,” Chapter Three, “The Sacraments at the Service of Communion,” Article 6, “The Sacrament of Holy Orders,” VII, “The Effects of the Sacrament of Holy Orders,” paragraph 1584, citing St. Augustine, In Jo. Ev. [Tractates on the Gospel of John] 5, 15: PL 35, 1422. See also Cathy Caridi, “Pedophile Priests and Holy Orders,” Canon Law Made Easy, August 17, 2017 https://canonlawmadeeasy.com/2017/08/17/pedophile-priests-and-sacramental-validity/ Accessed January 4, 2020.
citing Kojima Tsuyoshi, Higashi Ajia no jukyō to rei (Tokyo: Libretto, 2013), 22-4.
Paramore, Japanese Confucianism, op. cit., 5.
R.R. Reno, Return of the Strong Gods: Nationalism, Populism, and the Future of the West (Washington, DC: Gateway Editions, 2019)
Symposium: Reflections Before, During, and Beyond COVID-19
Reflections on a Secular Age: Dharmaśāstric and Confucian Social Orderings
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