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2023 | Book

Systems, Decision and Control in Energy IV

Volume IІ. Nuclear and Environmental Safety


About this book

In recent years, the scale of environmental hazards has been growing, emergencies occur more often at special facilities, in particular nuclear power, the largest of which was the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine on April 26, 1986. With the advent of nuclear power, it was believed that nuclear power reactors were safe enough, control and monitoring systems, protective screens and trained personnel would guarantee their trouble-free operation. There is also a trend now that nuclear power is "environmentally friendly" because it provides a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions with replacing power plants working on fossil fuels. Some countries, such as the United States, have recently classified nuclear energy as a renewable energy source. Despite this, nuclear power is potentially dangerous due to: - possible accidents at power plants, accompanied by the ejection of radioactive materials into the environment; - ejections of about 250 radioactive isotopes into the environment as a result of the operation of nuclear reactors; - emissions of 85Kr, which changes the electrical conductivity of the atmosphere. This gas behaves like a greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, thereby contributing to anthropogenic climate change on Earth; - pollution of the biosphere with plutonium; - radioactive waste is the most important cause of environmental hazard, which remains unresolved. Civilian nuclear power reactors operating throughout the world annually generate large amounts of low-, medium- and high-level radioactive waste. Radioactive pollution accompanies all parts of the complex production of nuclear energy: the extraction and processing of uranium, the operation of nuclear power plants, the storage and regeneration of fuel, which has a significant impact on the environmental friendliness of nuclear energy. In addition, up to 300 natural and technogenic emergencies are registered annually, as a result of which people die and great economic damage is caused. The main reasons for the occurrence of technogenic accidents and catastrophes and the strengthening of the negative impact due to the occurrence of natural and technogenic emergencies in Ukraine are: obsolete fixed assets, in particular for environmental purposes; large volume of transportation, storage and use of hazardous substances; the emergency state of a significant part of public utility networks; insufficient investment support for the process of introducing the latest resource-saving and environmentally friendly technologies in environmentally hazardous industries, primarily in the metallurgical, chemical, petrochemical and energy sectors; environmental problems associated with significant changes in the state of the geological and hydrogeological environment and caused by the closure of unprofitable mining enterprises and mines; unwillingness of economic subjects to take measures to prevent accidents and catastrophes at high-risk and potentially hazardous facilities.

Table of Contents


Nuclear Power Engineering

Current State and Prospects of Smallmodule Reactors Application in Different Countries of the World
Many countries around the world search for alternative sources for electricity generation, desalination and replacement of obsolete nuclear reactors in the context of global warming and the development of various technologies. Small modular reactors (up to 300 MW) are innovative tools with proving efficiency, cost-effectiveness and environmental safety. The current state and prospects of small modular reactors application in different countries of the world were studied. In these countries design or construction of small modular reactors was began. Analysis of open sources and scientific literature determined that small modular reactors are currently under construction in the following countries: China, Russia and Argentina. Also, more than 50 different projects and concepts of small modular reactors are presented to the general public. Most of these projects are still in various stages of development and licensing. Only a few projects are to be built in the coming years. The analysis of international experience made the following generalizations about small modular reactors: they are constructive option that meets needs of flexible power generation for different users and applications; they have unique characteristics in terms of efficiency, economy and flexibility; they are installed at single-unit or multi-unit stations, open the possibility of combining nuclear with alternative energy sources, including renewable sources; special attention should be paid to the training of personnel for the management of small modular reactors; reduction of time costs for manufacture and installation of small reactors (and, their replacement or upgrade); they can be used in conjunction with renewable energy sources and increase their efficiency within the hybrid energy system; they play a key role in the transition to clean energy, and help countries to achieve their sustainable development goals.
Oleksandr Popov, Georgii Finin, Taras Ivaschenko, Anna Iatsyshyn, Natalia Hrushchynska
Modeling of Radiation Characteristics of Fuel-Containing Materials of the Shelter Object for Calculation Dose Rate
The objective of this work was to perform a shielding analysis of the container stored in a protective container, taking into account different structures of the FCM, with the aim to select the optimal design of a container for transportation and storage. To develop the FCM composition model for the analysis of dose rates, calculations of the isotopic composition for spent nuclear fuel RBMK-1000 performed using the SCALE software code. The calculation sequence included TRITON-NEWT modules for estimation of fuel burnup and ORIGEN for fuel cooling after the operation. Besides isotopic composition, calculations provided neutron and photon energy spectrum and intensity. In the initial calculation of dose rates, an MCNP model of the FCM, simulating the so-called “black ceramics,” was developed. According to experimental data, it was determined that the amount of U fuel in FCM is 53%, and the porosity of the structure is 26.1% of the total mass. Dose rate calculations were performed for variants of FCM with different porosity.
Oleksandr Popov, Serhii Kupriianchuk, Andriy Sizov, Iryna Matvieieva, Valeriia Kovach
Features of the Modern UAV-Based Complexes Use to Solve Radiation Control Problems
Modern mobile platforms can be effectively used for solution of current tasks related to consequences elimination of radiation accidents, search for sources of ionizing radiation and mapping of contaminated areas. Important place among these platforms is occupied by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The publication describes advantages and disadvantages of UAVs among other mobile platforms and problems that arise in missions and scenarios of extreme (radioactive) environment. Possibilities of using UAVs to solve problems of radiation situation control are given. Such systems use allows significantly increase the efficiency of radiation control, its reliability, reduce the risk of making the wrong decision and, ultimately, optimize decision-making with small measurement error.
Oleksandr Popov, Oleksandr Bondar, Taras Ivaschenko, Oleksandr Puhach, Andrii Iatsyshyn, Sergii Skurativskyi
Features of Management of the Emergency Situation of Terrorist Nature on the Protected Critical Infrastructure of Ukraine
It is shown that an emergency situation (emergency) at a man-made facility begins from the moment of the legislative permission to choose the place of its construction. Irrespective of the type of the constructed object, at the stage of design works fire alarm and fire extinguishing systems, evacuation routes and access platforms and other are provided. Accordingly, an emergency of a terrorist nature in a certain territory begins from the moment of appearance of this territory. In addition, emergencies are objective spatio-temporal processes, each of which is conditionally divided into five stages, namely: the daily accumulation of negative factors; extreme development of the negative factor; catastrophic event; elimination of the consequences of this event and their long-term consequences. They occur on vehicles, man-made and natural objects, sections of the territory, water basins and mountains, cities and administrative regions. The type of each emergency is tied to a specific catastrophic event that may occur, is occurring or has already occurred. It is also shown that the main purpose of emergency management is to prevent a catastrophic event, and in case of its occurrence, to minimize its consequences. Tasks of the management process are formulated in stages of the emergency, and generalized structural and logical model of emergency management consists of six blocks, namely: situation monitoring (accumulation of an everyday factor), risk detection (detection of extreme factors), risk analysis (forecasting and modeling of emergency), preparation of management decisions, decision-making and communicating it to the performers, the impact on the situation, which through the structure of performers affects the object of management and closes the control loop, ensuring a continuous management process to prevent catastrophic events.
Hennadii Kamyshentsev, Nataliia Ridei
Analysis of Existing Types and Protection Methods Against Neutron Radiation from Different Sources
Neutron radiation is one of the most dangerous types of radiation due to its high permeability. Neutrons do not expend energy on ionization when moving through matter. Due to this, neutron radiation is widely used in various fields of science, technology and economy. The publication considers means and measures of protection against ionizing radiation, namely: organizational, technical, sanitary, hygienic, therapeutic and preventive. Chemical elements with high efficiency of protection against neutron radiation are described. Analysis of scientific sources showed that materials containing boron or gadolinium are often used to protect against neutron radiation because they have the highest neutron capture cross section among all stable nuclides.
Valeriia Kovach, Anna Iatsyshyn, Ievhen Pylypchuk, Volodymyr Gurkovskyi, Yevhen Romanenko
Neutron Incident at the Chornobyl NPP Shelter Object: Study of the Causes and Impacts of Safety in the New Confinement
On April 26, 1986, the fourth accident in the history of nuclear energy took place at the fourth power unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. As a result of the accident, was formed fuel-containing materials, which are the main source of environmental danger of the Shelter. Some of the clusters are potentially nuclear hazardous and need to be monitored and analyzed. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the available experimental data on the neutron anomaly recorded in June 1990 on the periphery of clusters of fuel-containing materials located inside room 305/2 of the Shelter object. Particular attention is paid to the available data on the chronology of this event, determining its causes, restoring the natural dynamics of neutron flux density, as well as describing the most likely processes that accompanied this incident. In conclusion, it is suggested that, given all available data, this event can be consistently interpreted as a cold critical incident in the amount of material being shared.
Roman Godun, Kostiantyn Sushchenko, Serhii Kupriianchuk, Andrii Iatsyshyn, Anastasiia Lahoiko
General Characteristics of Radar Stations for Physical Protection of Nuclear Objects
The chapter systematizes the main characteristics of radar stations (RS) as a means of physical protection of nuclear and other facilities. Main types of radar stations are analyzed. It is shown that the dominant type among radars are centimeter and millimeter range pulse radars. They use one antenna, are quite simple and ergonomic when used for their intended purpose. Concepts of tactical and technical characteristics of radar stations used in the systems of physical protection of protected objects are analyzed. The first one includes range, field of view, angle and distance resolution, alert time and continuous operation time, noise immunity and antenna height. The last one includes: carrier frequency, radiated power, sensitivity of the receiving device, width of the antenna’s directivity, antenna directivity and gain, signal recognition coefficient, space scanning speed, power consumption and weight—overall parameters. Features of the main tactical characteristic—range of the radar station are considered. It is shown that in order to determine the target detection range, taking into account the influence of environmental conditions and terrain (at the location of the radar station), it is necessary to use system of equations containing dependences of detection ranges of energy, geometric, expected and actual (statistical), the first three of which are used for analytical calculations, and the fourth—for processing the actual results of detection. Correspondence of analytical calculations to the actual results also makes it possible to assess reliability of assumptions about the reflective properties of targets in various environmental conditions during the protection of nuclear facilities.
Mykhailo Diviziniuk, Oleksandr Popov, Vasyl Telelym, Valeriia Kovach, Volodymyr Artemchuk
Identification Process Features During Radar Observation Around Nuclear Objects
The chapter is devoted to the features systematization of the identification process in radar observation around nuclear objects. Automated identification in radar surveillance around nuclear facilities problem is formulated. It is shown that tasks of automated identification during radar surveillance around nuclear objects are reduced to the problem of optimal signal filtering from a technical point of view. It consists in identifying dangerous radar targets, which are people and animals, manned and unmanned small-sized aircraft moving towards the protected object. This is solved by classical linear filtering methods. Classical problems of optimal linear filtering by the minimum mean squared error criterion and by the maximum signal-to-noise ratio criterion are considered. It is shown that identification of dangerous radar targets on the approaches to protected nuclear facility is technically reduced to optimal filtering of all reflected signals received by the radar receiver, coming from both dangerous targets and targets that interfere with this reception. The conditions for optimal filtering are characterized by the spectral density of useful signal at the input of the radio receiver. It is determined by the number of received impulse reflections from the radar target during identification by criterion of minimum mean square of the error and the degree of conjugation of the amplitude-frequency characteristic of receiving device to the amplitude spectrum of the input useful signal by the criterion of the maximum signal-to-noise ratio. These solutions are interpreted in relation to the problem of automated identification in radar surveillance around nuclear facilities. It is shown that working time of automated identification during radar observation around nuclear objects will depend on the values of the spatial survey speed and the recognition coefficients of radar stations. Recognition coefficients of radar stations required to detect and identify people and other dangerous targets on the approaches to protected objects of critical infrastructure. It will be determined by the absorption functions of electromagnetic radiation by the tissues of biological object according to certain number of linear integrals, depending on the size of the object and the wavelength of radiation.
Mykhailo Diviziniuk, Volodymyr Mirnenko, Oleksandr Farrakhov, Oleg Shevchenko, Dmytro Lesechko
Analysis of Radiation Background and Its Changes as Tool to Prevent Terrorist Emergencies at Critical Infrastructure Objects
Unauthorized movement of ionizing radiation sources is one of the main problems in preventing emergencies at critical infrastructure. Controlling their movement is one of the main tasks of security. Attackers disguise the sources of ionizing radiation to make it impossible to find them in order to carry out their plans. The paper describes one-dimensional random variable that characterizes the radiation. Peculiarities of mathematical description of the regularities of radiation background which is formed by several independent factors are considered. Mathematical problem of finding masked source of ionizing radiation is solved.
Mykhailo Diviziniuk, Oleksandr Farrakhov, Kostiantyn Lysychenko, Nataliia Zobenko, Oleh Bas
Development of Magnetic Neutron-Shielding Materials: Chemical Grafting of the Boron-Containing Clusters onto the Surface of Fe3O4/Gd2O3 Nanocomposite Particles
To facilitate the development of advanced neutron-shielding materials, we have developed the method for immobilization of the 1-mercapto-o-carborane clusters onto the surface of magnetic Fe3O4/Gd2O3 nanocomposite particles. The application of thiol-disulfide exchange reaction allows for covalent carborane grafting and its highest loading. To obtain free –SH groups on the surface, Fe3O4/Gd2O3 particles were modified with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid. The hierarchical structure of synthesized nanocomposites was confirmed by a complex of physicochemical methods. The simultaneous presence of gadolinium and boron in the composite structure renders it promising properties for neutron-shielding applications. Further development should be focused on their incorporation into the matrix of naturally-derived biopolymer and testing their neutron-shielding properties.
Ievhen Pylypchuk, Valeriia Kovach, Anna Iatsyshyn, Andrii Iatsyshyn, Volodymyr Kutsenko
Remote Gamma Ray Mapping of Ground Surface: Mathematical Issues
The amount of use of radioactive materials permanently increases and, together with this, it is grows the danger related to the uncontrolled action of ionizing radiation on environment. Nuclear weapon application and accidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs) have shown the scope of dangers we can encounter. In particular, it should be mentioned the especially radiation-hazardous Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (Chornobyl, Ukraine) containing highly radioactive spots and the Shelter Object with the remains of a destroyed reactor. It is evident that a vital necessity arises to develop the tools for the fast and effective local safety diagnoses. To do this, in last decades the small flying machines are actively involved. These devices perform remote monitoring the ground surface and its subsurface layers. While the modern development of small smart machines, measurement equipment, and information technologies increased the amount of measurement data and their accuracy, to reduce the processing time, we still require improving the accuracy, quickness, and correctness of data interpretation. To solve these problems effectively, the mathematical tools of data processing should be modified. The main mathematical problem at the remote evaluation of radioactive fields relates to the solving the integral problem. In this research, we consider the forward and inverse problems. The former relates to evaluation of the detector’s readings when gamma radiation is known. The latter deals with the reconstruction of gamma radiation density at the specified detector’s data. We modified the numerical algorithm using the opportunities of modern calculating software and considered the case when the algorithm reconstructs the density distribution very well.
Yuriy Zabulonov, Oleksandr Popov, Sergii Skurativskyi, Inna Hromova, Artur Zaporozhets
Test of the Thermal-Hydro-mechanical Behaviors of Cherkasy Bentonite as Buffer Material of HLW Repository
The principle of HLW disposal is based on the multiple-barrier system consisting of two basic components—a natural and an engineering barrier. The most common buffer material for engineering barrier systems (EBS) is compacted bentonite, which features low permeability and high retardation of radionuclide transport (Zlobenko et al. in Studies of clays from deposits in Ukraine as a barrier material for radioactive waste repositories, pp 857–861 [1]; International Atomic Energy Agency in Characterization of swelling clays as components of the engineered barrier system for geological repositories [2]; Zlobenko and Fedorenko in Ukrainian programme on characterization and evaluation of swelling clays for use in engineered barrier system of the geological repository [3]). The bentonite barrier should prevent the potential migration of radionuclides from the radioactive waste into the surrounding biosphere. Establishing the thermal limit for bentonite in a nuclear waste repository is potentially important, as the thermal limit plays on a major financial challenge requiring long-term strategic planning for used fuel management. Characterization of long-term mineralogical changes for EBS concerning the long-term geological evolution is needed for safety assessment purposes. To test the suitability and predicted functions of bentonite-based buffers under simulated repository conditions and to assess geochemical changes in minerals and porosity variations, thermal dehydration studies of bentonite were carried out at the temperature of 150 °C in “dry” and “wet” conditions. Commercial calcium bentonite (PBA-22 «Extra») was chosen as a clay component of the buffer materials as less sensitive to mineralized rock water. The connection between the structural peculiarities of bentonite and processes of heat treatment is considered. The montmorillonite shows changes induced by dehydration with temperature, there are changes and a decrease of the XRD profile intensity with heating to 150 °C. The predicting evolution of bentonite behaviour so as the degree of montmorillonite hydration is a very important parameter for cation behaviour as a function of the thermal load.
Borys Zlobenko, Yuriy Fedorenko, Yuriy Olkhovyk, Sergiy Buhera, Alla Rozko

Environmental Safety

Assessment of the Greenhouse Gases Reduction by the Oil and Gas Sector of Ukraine to Meet International Climate Agreements
On COP26 on November 2021 it was formally launched the Global Methane Pledge, an initiative to reduce global methane emissions to keep the Goal of limiting warming to 1.5 °C within reach. Ukraine have signed onto this Pledge and make commitments to reduce methane emissions by 30% from 2020 levels by 2030 and moving towards. To assess the country’s ability to reach this Goal, forecasts for the development of the oil and gas sector were made and estimated emissions of carbon dioxide and methane in the future until 2040. The examples of calculations made demonstrate that in order to achieve the declared reduction of methane emissions by 2030 in the oil and gas sector it is necessary not only to implement measures to reduce them, but also to develop and improve national methods for estimating GHG emissions, use national emission factors for emission calculations for Ukraine’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory.
Iryna Leshchenko, Sergii Shulzhenko, Mykola Kaplin, Natalia Maistrenko, Evgen Shcherbyna
Implementation of Sequence-Stratigraphy Based Geological Studies in Ukraine
Over the years, Ukrainian oil and gas industry had mostly depleted list of conventional perspective structures, so interest is shifting toward new hydrocarbon basin and to unconventional gas traps. Among new approaches that are currently incorporated in prospecting process, one should mention sequence stratigraphic analysis as a new for this territory methodic of mixing together different types of field data to propagate collectors both in regional and fled-size studies in the Dnieper-Donets Basin. The article contains a short overview of performed studies both theoretical and practical approaches and states their benefits and drawbacks with implemented suggestions for further research that is ought to be done.
Oleksii Noskov, Mykyta Myrontsov, Oleksiy Karpenko, Stanislav Dovgyi, Yevheniia Anpilova
Information Technologies of Logging (Environmental Aspect)
The ecological aspect of electrometric accuracy of oil and gas wells during geophysical research of wells is considered in the work. The main ecological risks of hydrocarbon extraction from vertical and horizontal wells are given. The main ways of pollution of the territory during the fracturing are described. The impact of climate change is indicated. The description of the most adequate model of the reservoir, which is inherent in the conditions of the Dnieper-Donetsk basin, is given. Experimental data of logging carried out at different times from the moment of drilling in the same well are given. Such data allow to build a more accurate hydrodynamic model of the studied layers.
Mykyta Myrontsov, Oleksiy Karpenko, Oleksii Noskov, Stanislav Dovgyi, Yevheniia Anpilova
Impact of Modern Anthropogenic Factors on the Hydrological System of the Donbas
The Donbas coal mining complex at the current functioning stage is in the state of critical changes conditioned by the coal industry post-mining stage, self-rehabilitation flooding of unprofitable mines (the “wet conservation” scheme is applied) and its location in the area of the military conflict in the Eastern part of Ukraine. At the mass decommissioning of mines (DM) in the developed (old) coal-mining regions, a comparatively balanced ecological state of the “coal mining complex of the coal mine—environment” natural-technogenic geosystem (NTGS) is disrupted first of all as a result of almost irreversible changes in the surface and underground hydrosphere. The changes in the surface hydrosphere have been monitored on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform using the analysis of hourly shots for the rivers using the Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWI), while those in the underground one—using the data received by monitoring of the underground water in the mine shafts and observation boreholes.
Yevheniia Anpilova, Stanislav Dovgyi, Yevhenii Yakovliev, Oleksandr Hordiienko, Mykyta Myrontsov, Oleksiy Karpenko
Predictive Assessment of the Distribution Area and Duration of Demineralization of Residual Solutions After Mining of the Safonivske Uranium Deposit
Safonivske uranium deposit is located in Kazankivsky District of Mykolaiv region. Characterized as epigenetic-infiltration of the Paleogene epoch of uranium ore formation. Ore bodies lie at a shallow depth. Deposits of this type are quite common in the sedimentary cover of the Ukrainian shield. The Safonivske field is considered a promising method of in-situ leaching for industrial development, which is currently being prepared. In-situ leaching is a method of extracting minerals, which consists in pumping acid leaching solutions into an aquifer confined to ore deposits, and then pumping them out after uranium enrichment. Previous experience shows that the use of this technology can often lead to migration of slightly acidic residual solutions in underground waters after the completion of deposit development. Thus, the main potential environmental problem that causes concern in the context of the planned development of the Safonivske deposit by in-situ leaching is the likely contamination of the hydrogeological environment and the threat of spreading residual acidity to the aquifers adjacent to the ore and to the hydrological network. In the article, using known theoretical dependencies, approaches are proposed to estimate the area of probable distribution in the ore aquifer of increased concentrations of sulfate ion, as the most migratory ingredient of the residual solution, and the duration of natural demineralization of sulfate contamination. Hydrogeological data obtained during previous exploration and research operations at one of the deposits of the Safonivske deposit were used for calculations. The area of distribution of residual acidity is displayed on the cartographic map. It is shown that if proper measures are taken to restore (remediate) the ore aquifer, the residual acidity will not reach the places where underground water is discharged into the hydrological network, will not lead to contamination of adjacent aquifers, as well as existing water supply sources in residential areas.
Valentyn Verkhovtsev, Yuri Tyshchenko, Kateryna Sushchuk, Mykola Semeniuk, Oleksandra Buglak
Software and Modeling Tools for Assessment of Environmental Consequences of Open Flowing of Oil Wells
Oil production is environmentally hazardous economic activity. There is a possibility of uncontrolled or poorly controlled phenomena and processes classified as accidents despite constant improvement of equipment, tools and systems for emergency diagnostics and protection during the life cycle of oil wells. This poses special danger to environment and to the personnel of drilling rigs and surrounding areas population. It is necessary to carry out their preventive forecast in order to effectively prevent such emergencies. The forecasts include determining area of pollution and the corresponding environmental risks. Mathematical modeling of processes in formations, wells and components of the natural environment is basis of such research. The authors developed mathematical tools for estimating pollution of the earth’s surface due to emergency oil flowing wells. The tool takes into account physicochemical characteristics of engineering geological environment and fluid, parameters of the surrounding area and meteorological factors. Software-modeling complex is developed on the basis of the mathematical apparatus. This apparatus includes: subsystem of database and knowledge management, mathematical support, subsystem of results visualization and subsystem of decision support. This complex is an effective tool to ensure rational operation of oil wells and improving the environmental safety of oil production.
Oleksandr Popov, Teodoziia Yatsyshyn, Mykhailo Liakh, Roman Fursa, Andrii Iatsyshyn, Valeriia Kovach
Destruction of Trihalomethanes and Disinfection of Drinking Water by Electric Discharge Plasma
Sustainable development of any country is made possible only provided its population has a stable supply of drinking water in accordance with their needs, quantity and regulatory quality. This issue is of paramount importance for Ukraine as a state insufficiently endowed with vast water resources, especially given the further negative impact of climatic and anthropogenic factors on the quality of source water. This is especially true of surface water sources in general and the Dnieper Cascade of Reservoirs in particular. The fully regulated activity as regards the Dnieper River, global warming and ever increasing anthropogenic pressure in the form of a significant (manifold) elevation in polyphosphates and nitrogen compounds in effluents entering the Dnieper River entails a catastrophic reproduction of microbiota primarily cyanobacteria during four to five months a year. Outdated water treatment technologies fail to tackle this factor and apply the only available technology for addressing high organic matter of any genesis, namely increasing the dose of chlorine and coagulants. Such approach does not normally enhance the quality of water purification, but underlies the sustainable formation of organochlorine compounds in the process of water purification and transportation. Chloroform is a constant marker of trihalogen methanes and its concentration is basically determined by water supply laboratories. For this reason, we addressed the possibility of chloroform oxidation using complex oxides produced by corona discharge in a water–air medium in the mixing chamber of the ejector. The effect of medium pH on the process of chloroform destruction was researched. It was found experimentally that even a weak acidic environment does not allow the efficient oxidation of chloroform and entails its recombination and even elevates its concentration. However, in an alkaline environment the oxidation process occurs more actively and with lower energy consumption. One of the alternative methods of surface water disinfection is plasma treatment of liquids. Our experiments on the treatment of different types of water from surface sources in Kyiv and model waters of E. coli with intentionally introduced E. coli are highlighted. The study of the microorganisms concentration effect on the rate and completeness of water disinfection was performed on service (tap) water with the wash from two test tubes being introduced into the reaction tank. Such conditions provided an initial concentration of E. coli of 3.4 × 106 CFU/cm3. Water treatment for 30 s reduced the concentration of microorganisms by two orders of magnitude (up to 5.4 × 104). Following one-minute treatment, the value decreased to 1.7 × 102, and after 3 min 5.2 CFU/cm3 was registered in the samples, that is the treated water corresponded to virtually pure water. Experiments proved the effectiveness of plasma disinfection, even for liquids with a concentration of microorganisms significantly exceeding the maximum allowable concentrations. The content of microorganisms before and after treatment was determined by the method of threshold dilution of samples with subsequent sowing on a nutrient medium in Petri dishes.
Yuriy Zabulonov, Dmytro Charnyi, Irena Snikhovska, Oleksandr Puhach, Eugene Matseliuk, Andrii Marynin
Prevention and Control of Harmful Effects of Water in Ukraine: State of Legal Support
The chapter examines the features of legal support for the prevention and control of harmful effects of water in Ukraine. The domestic experience of implementation of measures on protection against harmful effects of water within the framework of state programs is analyzed. It has been established that in the last twenty-five years no state target program in this area has been fully implemented due to financial, organizational and violations of budget legislation, public procurement legislation, violations related to improper accounting and preparation reporting, breach of contract. It is proposed to increase the effectiveness of the state target program in the research area: it is necessary to determine the coordinator of the program (State Agency of Water Resources of Ukraine) and responsible for certain areas; to improve the sources of formation of environmental protection funds and the special fund of the state budget of Ukraine (state fund of water management development); strengthen public control over the implementation of program activities; provide for the mandatory systematic (quarterly) publication of information on the status of the program. As an alternative direction to attract funding for projects to protect against the harmful effects of water at the state level, the territorial communities proposed the establishment of green bonds. The conclusion about the dynamic development of the legislation on flood risk assessment adapted to international requirements is made.
Volodymyr Yermolenko, Olena Hafurova, Maryna Deineha, Tamara Novak
On the Issue of Radioecological Conditions of Surface Waters and River Sediments in Ukraine
The development and testing of nuclear weapons, nuclear power projects and associated research and technology developments, and also the Chornobyl accident caused an increase in background radiation levels in some parts of Ukraine. The comprehensive survey of ecological status of the Dnipro River and its tributaries was carried out as part of the Ukrainian–Canadian Field Survey and international environmental surveys carried out in the transboundary sections of the Dnipro Basin. During these surveys, significant focus was placed upon assessing the radioecological status of Dnipro and its tributaries and on the Southern Bug River and its tributaries. The given chapter is devoted to a long-term research on radioecological conditions of surface water bodies and river sediments in terms of radionuclides content and their depth distribution. The volumetric activities of radionuclides in water and specific activities in bottom sediments were studied. Radionuclides of 3H, 40K, 137Cs, 90Sr, uranium, thorium, and their decay products were mainly examined. It is shown that the content of natural radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series and 40K in bottom sediments is at the level of background concentrations in the soils of the regions. On the other hand, it is highlighted on the concentration of tritium in the Danube and Styr rivers, which is significantly higher than the background value. The concentration of tritium in the cooling ponds of nuclear power plants exceeds the background value by dozens of times.
Grygoriy Kovalenko, Tamara Dudar, Andrian Iavniuk
Approaches to Assessing Consequences of Accidents During Transportation of Hazardous Substances by Road
The chapter consider regulatory documents defining basic requirements for transportation of dangerous goods by road in Ukraine and general requirements for their safety, regulating the relationship, rights and responsibilities of participants in the transport of dangerous goods. Features of specialized vehicles for transportation of dangerous goods are described, their classification and illustration are given. Number of methods used to assess the situation in the case of accidents related to the spillage (release) of hazardous chemicals from technological units in road transport are considered. Their shortcomings are identified. It is established that these methods are not effective tools to support decision-making to prevent and quickly eliminate consequences of such emergencies. Therefore important scientific problem is to develop new mathematical and software tools that will be better than existing counterparts in all key indicators.
Oleksandr Popov, Andrii Iatsyshyn, Volodymyr Pecheny, Valeriia Kovach, Valentyna Kovalenko
Application of Renewable Energy Sources in the Design of Energy-Efficient Ecological Settlements (on the Kharkiv Region)
The article is devoted to the research of the basic methods of designing energy efficient ecological settlements with the use of renewable energy sources in the Kharkiv region. At present, there are no community-oriented, socially just and environmentally friendly housing projects on the market. Modern urban formations cause social isolation and encourage car dependence, thereby creating unfavorable living conditions for the population and the environment. Areas become unsuitable for comfortable living due to inaccessibility, constant congestion, air pollution, excessive noise and lack of landscaping. Creating comfortable living conditions, namely the creation of energy-efficient ecological settlements is gaining scientific interest. By energy-efficient ecological settlements are meant urban planning entities that are based on the use of alternative energy sources, trying to change and resist the main economic, environmental, cultural and urban planning institutions. Energy-efficient ecological settlements offer an alternative to modern residential areas, which are focused on providing comfortable living conditions and protecting the environment.
Yana Selikhova
Systems, Decision and Control in Energy IV
Artur Zaporozhets
Oleksandr Popov
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