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About this book

For the last century, the automotive industry has been dominated by internal combustion engines. Their flexibility of application, driving range, performance and sporty characteristics has resulted in several generations of this technology and has formed generations of engineers. But that is not the end of the story. Stricter legislation and increased environmental awareness have resulted in the development of new powertrain technologies in addition and parallel to the highly optimized internal combustion engine. Hybrid powertrains systems, pure battery electric systems and fuel cell systems, in conjunction with a diverse range of applications, have increased the spectrum of powertrain technologies. Furthermore, automated driving together with intelligent and highly connected systems are changing the way to get from A to B. Not only is the interaction of all these new technologies challenging, but also several different disciplines have to collaborate intensively in order for new powertrain systems to be successfully developed. These new technologies and the resulting challenges lead to an increase in system complexity. Approaches such as systems engineering are necessary to manage this complexity.

To show how systems engineering manages the increasing complexity of modern powertrain systems, by providing processes, methods, organizational aspects and tools, this book has been structured into five parts.

Starting with Challenges for Powertrain Development, which describes automotive-related challenges at different levels of the system hierarchy and from different point of views.

The book then continues with the core part, Systems Engineering, in which all the basics of systems engineering, model-based systems engineering, and their related processes, methods, tools, and organizational matters are described. A special focus is placed on important standards and the human factor.

The third part, Automotive Powertrain Systems Engineering Approach, puts the fundamentals of systems engineering into practice by adding the automotive context. This part focuses on system development and also considers the interactions to hardware and software development. Several approaches and methods are presented based on systems engineering philosophy.

Part four, Powertrain Development Case Studies, adds the practical point of view by providing a range of case studies on powertrain system level and on powertrain element level and discusses the development of hybrid powertrain, internal combustion engines, e-drives, transmissions, batteries and fuel cell systems. Two case studies on a vehicle level are also presented.

The final part, Outlook, considers the development of systems engineering itself with particular focus on information communication technologies.

Even though this book covers systems engineering from an automotive perspective, many of the challenges, fundamental principles, conclusions and outlooks can be applied to other domains too. Therefore, this book is not only relevant for automotive engineers and students, but also for specialists in scientific and industrial positions in other domains and anyone who has to cope with the challenge of successfully developing complex systems with a large number of collaborating disciplines.

Table of Contents


Challenges for Powertrain Development


1. Challenges for Future Automotive Mobility

The way in which people and goods are transported is rapidly changing. Urbanization, green thinking, and self-driving vehicles are just a few of the contemporary trends that are changing the face of transportation and the overall mobility system. The automotive industry in particular is having to rethink its business models in order to continue to provide solutions that address current and future trends. A shift from being a traditional car manufacturer with a business model focused on product sales toward being a provider of mobility services seems to be one promising approach among many other possibilities. Furthermore, stricter legislative restrictions result in new challenges that are pushing vehicle development engineers to adopt highly efficient and effective solutions. New technologies, such as autonomous driving, vehicle driver interaction, internet of things, and powertrain-specific technologies, provide a huge number of possibilities to optimize the way vehicles and the environment interact. Lifecycle considerations and analyses are key enablers for sustainable mobility and influence the way vehicles are developed, manufactured, used, and recycled. This chapter will provide a general overview of mobility systems and their challenges from both a contemporary and future perspective.
Uwe Dieter Grebe, Hannes Hick, Martin Rothbart, Rittmar von Helmolt, Eric Armengaud, Matthias Bajzek, Philipp Kranabitl

2. Challenges of Passenger Cars

This chapter addresses a selection of current and future challenges facing the passenger car. The development, production, and use of passenger cars is driven by different global trends that are energy-related, economic in nature, subject to raw material availability, and powered by demographic changes. These trends and many other influences result in a range of vehicle and powertrain solutions being required and have impacts on vehicle systems, such as body, chassis, electrics/electronics, and on vehicle embedded functions, such as advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). Depending on the target markets and overall sales volume of each vehicle manufacturer, different platform strategies and new original equipment manufacturer (OEM) partnering models need to be considered. The consequent application of lightweight engineering needs to be applied in all vehicle systems to meet increasing demands for vehicle safety and comfort features and the strong demand for powertrain electrification (environmentally friendly and affordable) with the resulting use of bigger vehicle batteries.
Christoph Knotz, Thomas Sölkner, Johannes Wernig, Jürgen Klink, Martin Haas, Rainer Vögl, Thomas Hauptmann

3. Challenges of Powertrain System Diversity

The integration of electric components into the automotive powertrain enables completely new powertrain architectures and configurations to be designed. These components also enable new powertrain functions such as engine start-stop operation or recuperative braking with new interfaces to the driver and other vehicle systems such as the braking system. Advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS) are either under development or already on the market and require new interfaces to the vehicle. In summary, these trends lead to a high diversity of powertrain systems in terms of hardware, controls, and software functionality. This in turn results in higher powertrain system complexity and increased overall development effort. This chapter outlines the most relevant powertrain architectures along with their corresponding powertrain functions and powertrain elements. An overview of other non-powertrain vehicle systems shows the interlinking of the powertrain with them. A summary of development challenges resulting from this powertrain system diversity is given.
Raimund Ellinger, Wolfgang Schöffmann

4. Technical Challenges in Automotive Powertrain Engineering

The automotive powertrain is undergoing a transformation due to the increased electrification. This transformation brings a number of technical challenges relating to the design and integration of electrified elements into the powertrain with it. Powertrain-related targets can be achieved in an increasing number of ways by varying and balancing the powertrain elements. This chapter discusses the challenges that engineers are facing in the development and production of internal combustion engines, e-drives, transmissions, batteries, and fuel cells, and how a systems engineering approach is the key to understand and take advantage of all the possibilities in such complex electrified powertrains.
Wolfgang Schöffmann, Markus Brillinger, Martin Ratasich, Inigo Garcia de Madinabeitia Merino, Markus Bachinger, Muammer Yolga, Paul Schiffbänker, Andreas Braun, Falko Berg, Jürgen Rechberger

5. Product Lifecycle Challenges for Powertrain Systems in the Automotive Industry

This chapter begins with the evolution of marketing and engineering product lifecycle models with a focus on lifecycle costing and lifecycle assessment in order to discuss the challenges facing such lifecycles in general and for the automotive industry in particular. It then addresses new challenges in the handling of an automotive product lifecycle arising from digital transformation, new product functionality, software-driven innovation, new partnering, and new supply chains. These new challenges arise from the use of emerging technologies regarding digital services, data, information, and knowledge. The overall idea of this chapter is to discuss the evolution from mechatronic products to smart, connected products, and cyber-physical systems acting in a systems of systems environment, where systems engineering is a key approach.
Andrea Denger, Klaus Zamazal

6. Organizational Challenges in Automotive Development

The automotive industry is currently experiencing the erosion of its cornerstones. Increasing connectivity and aspiring new players on the market are changing rules and business models. This chapter provides an overview of current changes in automotive industry and the resulting organizational challenges for companies working in it. The term systems engineering stands for a holistic way of thinking and approaching challenges that not only applies to engineering but equally to business. Best practices such as interdisciplinary systems thinking, close cooperation with all stakeholders, functional thinking, and consideration of the complete system life cycle enable the holistic analysis of global value chains so that business approaches can be optimized.
Verena Isabelle Kreuzer, Markus Tomaschitz

Systems Engineering


7. Systems Engineering Principles

The increasing dynamism and variety of relationships among systems and within systems require new approaches in order for them to be developed in a manageable fashion. Systems engineering offers a structured and connected way of working that focuses on holistic and interdisciplinary systems thinking and is used for the efficient and effective development of complex systems. The subject is introduced from a systems science point of view and is followed by basic definitions and the fundamental principles of systems engineering. Furthermore, technical development philosophies, activities, and considerations along the system lifecycle are discussed. Systems engineering is seen as a comprehensive approach for the development of socio-technical complex systems.
Matthias Bajzek, Johannes Fritz, Hannes Hick

8. Model Based Systems Engineering Concepts

Increases in system complexity and development effort along with the industrial push to be cost-efficient and reduce time to market have created an urgency for new approaches to systems engineering. One part of the systems engineering (SE) approach is model-based systems engineering. Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) supports systems engineering activities such as system requirements definition, system architecture definition, as well as activities in later phases by moving from a document-based to a model-based engineering approach. The main focus of MBSE is to generate system models beside specific models which then act as an interdisciplinary communication platform to provide information such as system-related statements. This chapter provides an overview of MBSE and its interaction with model-based development (MBD) approaches.
Matthias Bajzek, Johannes Fritz, Hannes Hick, Michael Maletz, Clemens Faustmann, Gerald Stieglbauer

9. Systems Engineering Processes

Processes are an essential part of system development and enable structured and traceable execution. This chapter consists of three parts. The first part, process management, begins with the description of the business process and the necessary business process management activities. The link, and the role, of the organization is briefly mentioned. The second part of this chapter describes a process landscape that takes systems engineering principles into account based on a structured and connected way of thinking and working, such as lifecycle consideration, systems thinking, top-down/bottom-up approaches, and other aspects. With focus on development, the process is broken down in steps from the system lifecycle down to system parts. The final section deals with possibilities of process quality and the assessment of the process performance. Therefore, industry standards and capability frameworks are briefly described. This chapter shows the fundamental aspects which have to be considered in today’s development processes to deliver a functional system that satisfies all stakeholders’ needs and given constraints.
Matthias Bajzek, Johannes Fritz, Hannes Hick

10. Systems Engineering Methods and Tools

The automotive industry faces radical changes induced by new and potentially disruptive technologies emerging from digital transformation. At the same time, the increased demand for energy efficiency, CO2 neutrality, autonomous driving, connectivity, and artificial intelligence is leading to fundamentally new business models. These new business models also open up opportunities for new market entrants. Global competition is also further increasing pressure on the players. This chapter focuses on selected systems engineering methods and tools that support activities throughout the automotive development process. They provide the required functionality to author, modify and manage the results of systems engineering, and adhere to positive user experience fostering user acceptance and tool adoption in daily work. Through systematic use of systems engineering methods and tools, omissions and false assumptions caused by complexity can be identified early, so that their impact can be minimized. The constant change in artifacts is traced and managed through the systems engineering project lifecycle.
Johannes Fritz, Christian Zingel, Juha Kokko, Giulia Lenardon, Bernd Brier

11. Systems Engineering Organizational Constraints and Responsibilities

Systems engineering is an approach to manage increasing system complexity relying on fundamental principles and best practices, realized by processes, methods and IT-tools, and used by engineers. The introduction of systems engineering requires alterations to be made to existing processes, methods, and tools, which in turn require that the organizational structure is altered to ensure the benefits provided by a systems engineering approach can be reaped. This chapter focuses on the essential pillar: the organizational constraints and responsibilities in the context of systems engineering. After a brief introduction of traditional organizational forms, the chapter considers the implementation of systems engineering and the resulting opportunities, and then continues with a practical view of systems engineering from an organizational point of view using an automotive powertrain and transmission as an example. This chapter provides an overview and shows the importance of positioning systems engineering within the organizational structures.
Robert Fischer, Stefan Vorbach, Hannes Hick, Matthias Bajzek

12. Standards, Certifications and Quality Features for Systems Engineering Supported Development in Automotive Industry

The system vehicle is becoming more complex as a result of technological advances and the associated changes in the automotive industry. The share of value creation is being increasingly shifted toward the supplier base. The use of standards for the exchange of information in the development process and between companies will significantly improve the effectiveness and efficiency of collaboration. This chapter provides an overview of the challenges and reasons why standards for the exchange of information during the automotive development process play a major role. The V-model is used to illustrate the standards employed in an interdisciplinary development process and to describe the role of organizations and institutions who are involved in the continuous development of standards.
Dirk Denger, Otto-Wilhelm Herschmann, André Barisic

13. Decision-Making and the Influence of the Human Factor

During a product development process, decisions constantly have to be made. The success of the development therefore heavily depends on the quality of the decisions taken. Every decision itself is mainly influenced by two factors. On the one hand, it is the availability of system-relevant information and to what extend that information is reliable. On the other hand, the humans, and accordingly their, e.g., experience, emotional state, and knowledge, who are responsible for making the decision play an important role. To support the decision-making process, this chapter focuses on the non-visible aspects, namely, the inner processes of humans, which determine the outcome of a decision. In that context a model is presented which visualizes the process of believing while a decision is about to be made.
Hannes Hick, Hans-Ferdinand Angel, Philipp Kranabitl, Jolana Wagner-Skacel

Automotive Powertrain Systems Engineering Approach


14. Automotive Powertrain Development Process

The complexity of a vehicle and also of its subsystems such as powertrain, electrics/electronics (E/E), thermal management system, chassis, body, or driving assistance is increasing due to the growing number of interacting functions and (mechatronic) systems. This results in the need to continuously coordinate, monitor, adjust, and optimize development tasks across departments and company boundaries and even globally. Managing this organizational and technological complexity for powertrain development and its interfaces upwards to vehicle development and downwards to the powertrain’s elements and their production requires a structured powertrain development process that must be followed accordingly. Merely focusing on individual elements or even subsystems without considering process and technical interfaces between them is insufficient. The integration of the powertrain elements in the powertrain and further into the vehicle and other vehicle systems is an essential target of the development process. This chapter provides insights into a powertrain development process for passenger cars.
Philipp Kranabitl, Matthias Bajzek, Martin Atzwanger, Dorith Schenk, Hannes Hick

15. Systems Engineering Methods for Automotive Powertrain Development

Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary approach for the successful development of complex mechatronic products and cyber-physical systems. It is based on a set of fundamental principles and best practices. Although systems engineering has a wide scope and interpretation, it is always understood to be a structured and connected way of thinking and working. Systems such as electrified powertrains will always be characterized by ever-increasing complexity caused by the growing number of functions to be employed in order to cover trends such as autonomous driving and cybersecurity, and to comply with legislation. This growing number of functions results in a corresponding increase in integration effort. This chapter focuses on methodical aspects to cope with this challenge and enable a structured system development approach. Four structuring principles and so-called systems engineering core development methods, are described, starting with the method for requirements engineering, continuing with system specification, system integration, and finally system verification and validation. This chapter shows how systems engineering principles are applied within the field of powertrain system development.
Michael Maletz, Matthias Bajzek, Hannes Hick

16. Product Lifecycle Management in Automotive Industry

This chapter provides an overview of product lifecycle management (PLM) in general and its application in the automotive industry in particular. The evolution and the constituents of a state-of-the-art PLM system are addressed alongside a discussion on how PLM supports the systems engineering approach. Emphasis is placed on the importance of PLM in terms of its structured and traceable data-handling ability within the automotive industry and as an enabler of innovation. The evolution of PLM is described in steps from product data management (PDM) to the current scope of PLM and includes possible future features. One of the main goals when implementing PLM is to ensure the traceability of system information: something that is essential for an efficient and effective implementation of systems engineering. Possible future scenarios for product development are described based on a reflection of current PLM practices.
Klaus Zamazal, Andrea Denger

17. Integrated and Open Development Platform for the Automotive Industry

The vehicle development process is a complex venture that involves the entire organization for years. Relying merely on heterogeneous simulation efforts and physical prototypes for vehicle-level verification and validation carries severe risks. A new approach is required to enable continuous vehicle-level verification and validation in all phases of the vehicle development process. Based on the principles of systems engineering, model-based systems engineering, and product lifecycle management, the concept of an Integrated and Open Development Platform (IODP) is proposed as a solution. At the core of this platform are virtual prototypes. They extend the utilization of prototypes to the early phases of the vehicle development process by systematically combining simulation models and hardware on test beds. In virtual prototypes, simulation models and hardware can be integrated and used indistinctly, which enable continuous verification and validation. The IODP backbone strategy and virtual prototype management are proposed as a holistic approach to establish virtual prototypes in an organization and utilize them in the vehicle development process. Real-world implementations and benefits of the proposed approaches are demonstrated in three selected case studies.
Wolfgang Puntigam, Josef Zehetner, Ettore Lappano, Daniel Krems

18. System Simulation in Automotive Industry

System simulation is a part of the overall field of systems engineering and provides quantitative results to verify and validate the architecture and parameters of a system under development. In the meantime, system simulation is a well-established activity in the automotive development area and covers a broad range of applications over the whole development process from system architecture definition, component dimensioning up to virtual testing and calibration. In all of these steps, simulation helps the systems engineer find the best choice of system architectures, evaluate the component target characteristics, define the control logic and parameters, and support the individual tests. Thanks to system simulation, proper system function can be confirmed in early phases of development, which minimizes the number of cost-intensive development loops. In addition, verification and validation and calibration tasks can be frontloaded to reduce overall development time. This chapter focuses on the setup of different physical domain models and how they are linked together. The modeling approaches of the individual domains and simulation management are discussed.
Oliver Knaus, Johann C. Wurzenberger

19. Cost Engineering as an Essential Part of Systems Engineering

The cost of a product is a crucial success factor in powertrain and vehicle development, alongside attributes such as performance, drivability, pollutant, and CO2 emissions. In particular, the assessment of emissions and product cost must not be limited to the development, production, or operating phase, but must cover the entire product lifecycle. The assessment of product cost itself is a major component of a business case analysis as well as a total cost of ownership assessment and has an essential role within a systems engineering approach. In this context, the integration of cost engineering models, methods, and tools into future product lifecycle management approaches is seen as crucial to enforce interdisciplinary data management and reuse of results over all lifecycle phases.
Christoph Sams, Georg von Falck, Helfried Sorger

Powertrain Development Case Studies


20. Case Study: Hybrid powertrain System Development

This case study describes the development of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrain for series production. It includes both the concept phase and the series development phase and focusses on the systems engineering approach used in the project. The design, requirement elicitation, and integration of powertrain elements is covered in detail, along with the testing of the complete powertrain. The development of the powertrain elements themselves is not a part of this case study. One of the key elements in this case study is modeling in the form of SysML and system models. These models are present in all stages of the development process from system design, requirements engineering, powertrain system specification to verification and validation (V&V). A second key element described in this case study is functional development, i.e., the consideration of the functions provided jointly by software, electric/electronic (E/E) hardware, and mechanical hardware concluding with functional powertrain testing. Functional safety development according to the functional safety standard ISO 26262 for road vehicles is essential for such complex mechatronic systems as the HEV powertrain considered in this chapter and is closely interwoven with the systems engineering approach.
Raimund Ellinger, Gerhard Griessnig, Michael Maletz, Klaus Küpper

21. Case Study: Engine System Development

This case study describes the development approach of internal combustion engines (ICE). Therefore, a three-engine generations approach is considered, and systems engineering principles and best practices are implemented. One of the main drivers for powertrain development in general is the need to increase efficiency and subsequently reduce emissions. The increasing complexity of powertrain architectures and their attributes requires consideration of the overall system when optimizing the efficiency of the powertrain element like the ICE. This case study explains the methodology with a specific focus on the optimization of mechanical efficiency and the minimization of parasitic losses of an internal combustion engine. The impact of these measures on efficiency is discussed together with the related cost impact for a passenger car application.
Wolfgang Schöffmann, Helfried Sorger, Clemens Faustmann, Matthias Bajzek

22. Case Study: E-Drive System Development

This case study focuses on the development of an electric drive (e-drive) system, which is part of an integrated electric axle and was developed for a premium manufacturer’s high performance, off-road, all-wheel drive passenger car. The e-drive consists of an e-motor, an inverter, and the required control software. In order to achieve the development targets, a holistic system approach was necessary. The development approach considered aspects from customer requirements to a fully tested product that was validated for high volume production. Specific examples show development challenges regarding inverter and e-motor design, and the integration of this hardware and the required control software to an e-drive. Therefore, a systems engineering approach including simulation, refinement of requirements, and design adjustments to achieve the best overall performance in alignment with the customer’s requirements is described.
Thomas Rösch, Thorsten Bürger, Antoine Tan-Kim, Konstantin Walter, Katrin Wand

23. Case Study: Transmission System Development

Electrification adds a new dimension of complexity to powertrain development compared to conventional architectures. Due to its central role within a powertrain, i.e., the distribution of power and adaptation of speed/torque, the transmission is of special interest during the development of hybrid and electric powertrains. A variety of powertrain architectures has emerged due to electrification such as power-split and a range of parallel hybrid configurations. Dedicated hybrid transmission (DHT) architectures can also enable dynamically adjustable powertrain configurations by actuating different friction elements. Systems engineering for transmission development provides a structured approach to find the most appropriate solution for specific powertrain projects that satisfies all stakeholder needs. This case study focuses on the key elements of transmission architecture specification as well as on the continuous tracking of functional targets throughout the project. System simulation receives special attention due to its supportive and even enabling role for both transmission architecture specification and for the verification and validation of transmission functions.
Markus Bachinger, Muammer Yolga, Klaus Küpper

24. Case Study: Battery System Development

Systems engineering has proved to be a helpful approach when dealing with the development of complex systems. This chapter presents a case study of an example illustrating how a systems engineering approach helps to deal with the technological and organizational challenges involved in the development of a battery system for commercial vehicles. This illustrative example is reviewed from two perspectives. First, model-based systems engineering is explained by showcasing how different model types can be used to deal with the technological complexity. Second, the organizational aspects of battery development are shown. Here, the development process of the case study is reflected from the perspective of the stakeholders involved and describes their interaction in development activities.
Andreas Braun, Paul Schiffbänker, Bruce Falls, Klaus Küpper

25. Case Study: Fuel Cell System Development

The development of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) poses new challenges for engineers. Disciplines relevant for the development of FCEVs include mechanics (e.g., drivetrain elements), electrics/electronics (e.g., electric motors), software (e.g., fuel cell controls), and chemistry (e.g., chemical processes in fuel cells). A systems engineering approach is essential for such interdisciplinary development work and begins at the vehicle level and promotes interdisciplinary collaboration for development tasks such as the balancing of several elements in the powertrain level considering battery capacity, fuel cell system power management, and packaging. In the case at hand, the development of modular fuel cell systems for use in a range of different vehicle types from passenger cars to heavy-duty trucks employs systems engineering principles to define the fuel cell system with the superordinate powertrain and vehicle systems in mind.
Falko Berg, Jürgen Rechberger, Helfried Sorger

26. Case Study: Vehicle Attribute Engineering

This case study explains how the principles and best practices of systems engineering are applied with the support of AVL’s attribute engineering methodology. This methodology focuses on balancing vehicle level characteristics or attributes such as energy efficiency, driving experience and excitement, as well as on the development of the brand-specific DNA of a vehicle. Target setting is used alongside benchmarking results to support the decision for a vehicle concept including the optimum powertrain solutions with focus on attributes such as performance, drivability, range, and efficiency. Based on these defined attributes, a continuous gap analysis is performed throughout the entire development process up to final vehicle attribute validation. The virtual assessment methodology helps to identify key influencing parameters at an early stage of the development process to save time and cost.
Mario Oswald, Manfred Kogler, Andreas Ramsauer

27. Case Study: Thermal System Development for High-Voltage Battery Electric Vehicles

The case study deals with a systems engineering approach applied to a thermal system for a battery electric vehicle. Systems engineering processes, methods, and tools related to the thermal system are discussed. The first part of the chapter describes the overall process of thermal system development, followed by the definition of vehicle use cases and the derivation of vehicle requirements. These requirements are then taken to define the vehicle specification, the configuration, and the relevant thermal systems and their features. The vehicle specification defines the requirements for the vehicle thermal management system. The thermal system specification discusses the feature definition under consideration of the hardware architecture and software control functions, based on the defined use cases. System simulation methods are shown for analysis support during the phases of design and virtual verification and validation. The thermal system integration deals with the integration of hardware and software according to the function-based release plan and the design verification and validation plan and report. Finally, an overview is given of the thermal system verification and validation on a system and vehicle level.
Matthias Hütter, Ernst Sumann, Heinz Petutschnig, Helfried Sorger



28. Information Communication Technology – a Base for Innovative Automotive Solutions and Key Enabler for Efficient and Effective Systems Engineering

As the embedded world meets the internet world, the number of interacting systems with strong connectivity utilized in both society and in industry is increasing. Digitalization plays a core role as an enabling technology for all current major trends in the automotive domain. At the same time, digitalization relies on complex technology stacks; its proper integration in the traditional product and services portfolio, and the resulting value proposition shift, are challenging to manage. The situation is very similar in almost all industrial sectors; therefore, exemplarily the European Commission has started a range of initiatives to support the uptake of the digital single market. This chapter illustrates the impact of digitalization on the automotive domain by way of the example of autonomous driving and provides an overview of the technologies behind information communication technologies (ICT).
Eric Armengaud, Haydn Thompson, Daniel Watzenig

29. Digitalization as Opportunity to Remove Silo-Thinking and Enable Holistic Value Creation

Digitalization is a game changer. It enables the move from a single expertise toward interdisciplinary innovation. It thus enables technical innovation by making it easier to acquire and connect system-related information thus enabling the generation of a digital twin. Experts can feed their knowledge into different and connected models. This now structured store of information can be used for holistic value creation. Furthermore, different application domains can also be mapped together creating an environment where new solutions for new markets can emerge. An example of this is predictive maintenance where information derived during vehicle operation is mapped with component knowledge from the design phase. The result is a new service for the user and a new source of revenue for the vehicle manufacturer in a new market (services during vehicle operation). This increases productivity through the optimization of the entire supply chain and the emergence of new services where different application domains converge. At the same time, major automotive trends such as electrification, automated driving, connectivity, and the diversification of mobility are fundamentally reshaping the market in terms of customer needs, the skills required, and business logic. These trends demonstrate that a vehicle is no longer a monolithic system but has instead become a highly customizable system able to adapt itself to its customer and environment. The goal of this chapter is to analyze the opportunities for digitalization in the automotive domain as well as the respective needs for systems engineering including processes, methods, organization, and tools.
Eric Armengaud, Michael Fruhwirth, Martin Rothbart, Martin Weinzerl, Georg Zembacher

30. Future of Systems Engineering

Cyber-physical systems, electrification, autonomous driving, connectivity, and shared mobility pose new challenges for powertrain development. To cope with these challenges, development approaches such as systems engineering need to be applied and further improved. Possible directions for the development of systems engineering are discussed together with the required skills and changes in education. The challenges of current development approaches are described from the powertrain development perspective. As the complexity of mechatronic and cyber-physical systems continues to increase rapidly, a deep understanding of systems in their ecosystems provides new opportunities for business and technological innovation. In the future, systems engineering as an approach needs to be customizable in order to fit to individual constraints such as organization, processes, methods available, resources, skills, and IT tools.
Clemens Faustmann, Philipp Kranabitl, Matthias Bajzek, Johannes Fritz, Hannes Hick, Helfried Sorger


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