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2022 | Book

Technical Thermodynamics for Engineers

Basics and Applications

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About this book

The book covers the classical areas of technical thermodynamics: The first part deals with the basic equations for energy conversion and idealized fluids. The second part deals with real fluids, which can be subject to a phase change, for example. Furthermore, thermodynamic mixtures of fluids are considered, e.g., humid air and gas mixtures. In the last part of the book, combustion processes and chemical reactions are presented and thermodynamically balanced. In each chapter, there are examples and exercises to deepen the theoretical knowledge. Compared to the first edition, the topic of thermodynamic state diagrams has been greatly revised. State diagrams of relevant refrigerants have been added as well as a formulary. The section on chemically reacting systems has been expanded and thoroughly revised. In the basic chapters, tasks and examples have been added to consolidate the understanding of the subject. The book is aimed at students of mechanical engineering and professional engineers.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. Introduction
Abstract
Thermodynamics is one of the most difficult and probably even one of the most challenging disciplines in mechanical engineering.
Achim Schmidt

Basics and Ideal Fluids

Frontmatter
Chapter 2. Energy and WorkWork
Abstract
It is known from physics lessons that energy is conserved. This means that the amount of energy is constant, i.e. it can neither be generated nor destroyed.
Achim Schmidt
Chapter 3. System and State
Abstract
This chapter clarifies what a thermodynamic system is and how its state can be described. Every system is separated from an environment by a system boundary.
Achim Schmidt
Chapter 4. Thermodynamic EquilibriumEquilibriumthermodynamic
Abstract
The principle of thermodynamic equilibrium is essential for further understanding of thermodynamics. Systems that are in thermodynamic equilibrium do not change their state without external influence, i.e. they are fully at rest and the state values do not alter in time.
Achim Schmidt
Chapter 5. Equations of State
Abstract
Chapter 3 has shown how to quantify the internal state of a system. Basically, a distinction has been made between thermal and caloric state values.
Achim Schmidt
Chapter 6. Thermal Equation of State
Abstract
In this chapter, the correlation between the thermal state values pressure p, specific volume v and temperature T is investigated.
Achim Schmidt
Chapter 7. Changes of State
Abstract
So far, thermodynamic systems have been discussed and state values categorised to quantify the internal state of systems.
Achim Schmidt
Chapter 8. Thermodynamic Processes
Abstract
So far, it has been clarified what a thermodynamic system is and how its state can be determined.
Achim Schmidt
Chapter 9. Process Values HeatHeat and WorkWork
Abstract
In the previous chapters, the internal state of a system has been described. A thermodynamic system can change its state and several possible changes of state have been discussed. For further understanding, it is essential to be familiar with the concepts of reversibility/irreversibility as well as with the idea of a quasi-static change of state.
Achim Schmidt
Chapter 10. State Value Versus Process Value
Abstract
It has been shown in the previous chapters that it is important to distinguish between state and process values.
Achim Schmidt
Chapter 11. First Law of Thermodynamics
Abstract
In this chapter, the causality between process values and the change of state values of a thermodynamic system is derived. The first section introduces the equivalence principle between work and heat—an essential prerequisite for the formulation of the law of conservation of energy, known as the first law of thermodynamics. Finally, the first law of thermodynamics is applied to closed and open systems and thermodynamic cycles. Anyhow, thermodynamic cycles play an important role in the following chapters.
Achim Schmidt
Chapter 12. Caloric Equations of State
Abstract
In the previous chapters, the law of conservation of energy, which enables thermodynamic systems to be energetically evaluated, has been discussed in detail. A distinction has been made between closed and open systems.
Achim Schmidt
Chapter 13. Meaning and Handling of Entropy
Abstract
In the previous Chap. 12, the caloric equations of state for internal energy as well as for enthalpy have been introduced and derived mathematically. Furthermore, a new state value, the specific entropy s, has been introduced.
Achim Schmidt
Chapter 14. Transient Processes
Abstract
Irreversibility plays an important role in the evaluation of thermodynamic processes. If friction occurs, a system cannot be operated reversibly. This has been discussed in Sect. 7.3: A wire pendulum, for example, no longer reaches its initial position after a certain number of oscillations.
Achim Schmidt
Chapter 15. Second Law of Thermodynamics
Abstract
Although the entropy equilibrium has been referred to as the Second Law of Thermodynamics in the previous chapters, its classical formulation goes hand in hand with thermodynamic cycles. Therefore, the focus is now on these cycles. However, there are two different types of thermodynamic cycles: Clockwise cycles, on the one hand, convert heat into mechanical energy and are denoted as thermal engines.
Achim Schmidt
Chapter 16. Exergy
Abstract
So far, the law of conservation of energy, i.e. the first law of thermodynamics, has been discussed, which quantifies the changeability of energy. However, this changeability is limited, so that thermal energy cannot be completely converted into mechanical energy in a stationary process. The second law of thermodynamics can be applied to evaluate the limitations of energy conversion. In Chap. 15 a clockwise Carnot machine has been presented: A machine operating between two thermal reservoirs to convert thermal energy into maximum mechanical work.
Achim Schmidt
Chapter 17. Components and Thermodynamic Cycles
Abstract
Although many technical components required for the operation of energy conversion processes have been discussed previously, the focus in this chapter is on thermal turbomachinery as well as on heat exchangers. However, in this chapter the technical components are addressed in steady state operation.
Achim Schmidt

Real Fluids and Mixtures

Frontmatter
Chapter 18. Single-Component FluidsFluidssingle-Component
Abstract
This chapter focuses on single-component fluids, i.e. pure fluids that are not mixed with other fluids. In Part I, idealised single-component fluids have already been presented: Ideal gases, which follow the known thermal and caloric equations of state, and incompressible fluids, whose specific volume remains constant. For incompressible fluids, the caloric equations of state can be easily adapted.
Achim Schmidt
Chapter 19. Mixture of Ideal GasesMixtureideal gases
Abstract
So far, single-component liquids have been treated, i.e. fluids with an unchanging chemical composition. Part I of the book has focused on ideal gases and incompressible fluids, which are typical representatives of single-component fluids.
Achim Schmidt
Chapter 20. Humid Air
Abstract
The previous chapter has clarified how to treat mixtures of ideal gases. Definitions for characterising the mixture composition have been introduced as well as the irreversibility that arises when mixing different ideal gases. In this chapter, however, the focus is on a technically relevant mixture of fluids: humid air.
Achim Schmidt
Chapter 21. Steady State Flow ProcessesProcesssteady state
Abstract
Steady state flow processes have already been discussed in the introduction of the first law of thermodynamics for open systems, see Sect. 11.3. Figure 21.1 shows an example for a simple open system with a single inlet and a single outlet.
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Chapter 22. Thermodynamic Cycles with Phase Change
Abstract
Although thermodynamic cycles have already been introduced in Sect. 17.2, this chapter deals with cycles in which the working fluid is subject to phase changes. When a system finally reaches the initial state after several changes of state and the process starts all over again, this is called a thermodynamic cycle.
Achim Schmidt

Reactive Systems

Frontmatter
Chapter 23. Combustion Processes
Abstract
In Part I, ideal gases and incompressible liquids have been introduced and the basic thermodynamic correlations have been derived. Part II has shown that real fluids can be subject to a change of aggregate state and that many thermodynamic cycles are based on phase change, e.g. a steam power plant. Furthermore, Part II included mixture of fluids, e.g. humid air or mixtures of ideal gases. However, in these mixtures, each component is stable and not part of a chemical reaction in which one or more chemical compounds are converted into others.
Achim Schmidt
Chapter 24. Chemical ReactionsChemical reaction
Abstract
In this chapter, chemical reactions are studied more generally than in the previous chapters. In Chap. 23, the focus has been on fossil fuel combustion and the lower/higher heating value has been introduced to treat a chemical conversion in terms of energy. However, this method used to be rather impractical as the oxidation has to be divided into several parts and it has been necessary to distinguish whether condensation takes place. Now a simpler method is preferred by introducing the so-called absolute specific enthalpy/entropy. Here, the specific enthalpy refers not only to a caloric effect, as has been the case in Parts I and II, but also to the specific chemical binding energy: When determining the specific enthalpies, it is necessary to consider that the composition of the mass fluxes involved is different, since chemical components are formed and consumed. The calculation of enthalpy differences must therefore be based on mutually consistent absolute values of the enthalpies.
Achim Schmidt
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Technical Thermodynamics for Engineers
Author
Prof. Achim Schmidt
Copyright Year
2022
Electronic ISBN
978-3-030-97150-2
Print ISBN
978-3-030-97149-6
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-97150-2

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