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2024 | Book

Techno-Societal 2022

Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Advanced Technologies for Societal Applications—Volume 2

Editors: Prashant M. Pawar, Babruvahan P. Ronge, Ranjitsinha R. Gidde, Meenakshi M. Pawar, Nitin D. Misal, Anupama S. Budhewar, Vrunal V. More, P. Venkata Reddy

Publisher: Springer International Publishing


About this book

“This two-volume book originates from Techno-Societal 2022, the 4th International Conference on Advanced Technologies for Societal Applications held in Maharashtra, India. The conference brought together faculty members from various engineering colleges and eminent researchers from reputed organizations to solve Indian regional relevant problems.

The focus of the Volume-I is on technologies that help develop and improve society, with a particular emphasis on issues such as advanced and sustainable technologies for water, energy, transportation, housing, and sanitation. Additionally, the book covers advances in pharmacy, nutraceuticals, and traditional medicines, as well as chemical and physical processes.

The Volume-II covers deployable environment or health care technologies, mechatronics, micro-nano related technologies for bio and societal applications, and advanced assessment of employees and employment sectors.

The conference aims to provide a platform for innovators to share their best practices or products developed to solve specific local problems, which in turn may inspire other researchers to solve problems in their own regions. Expert researchers also propose technologies that may find applications in different regions, providing a multidisciplinary platform for researchers from a broad range of disciplines of science, engineering, and technology to report innovations at different levels.”

Table of Contents


Advanced Assessment of Various Employment Sectors

A Consumers Approaches Towards Online Shopping in India: Challenges and Perspectives

Online shopping is a type of shopping where people can easily buy things and services online. We can get a sense of how much everything costs when purchased online through online shopping. Customers can buy a variety of goods and services through it, and sellers can keep track of their business and transactions online. It saves time and is convenient for shopping. It could be said that traditional shopping methods have evolved to make shopping simpler, more enjoyable, and more adaptable. The best way to shop for a wide range of items at once and from any location is online. As a result, we can consider online shopping to be one of the most enjoyable and convenient ways to shop. It saves money and time by reducing the crowd at the market. At the time, online shopping turned out to be a necessity. Because in today’s highly competitive world, people are too busy working in their offices to shop. Their lives will be made easier and faster by this technology. The primary objective of this research is to investigate consumer attitudes toward Indian online shopping as well as the obstacles and perspectives of this expanding industry.

Savita Pramod Vaidya
Determinants of Dividend Policy: Evidence from Indian Pharma Sector

In the present research paper, the financial statements of 15 Indian pharm a firms have been analyzed to gauge the impact of the firm’s characteristics on the dividend policy of the given firms. The researcher has identified some of the important firm’s characteristics like Earnings Per Share, Dividend Per Share, Current Ratio, Quick Ratio, and Firm Size which affect the dividend policy of a firm. The factors influencing dividend policy have been studied using correlation matrices, Housman test and panel data analysis. The outcomes of the correlation matrix exhibited that there is insignificant correlation between DPR and CR, QR, and firm size. According to the results of the pooled ordinary least square model, DPR is unaffected by EPS, DPS, CR, QR, and firm size. According to the outcomes of the random effect model, the firm size, EPS, DPS, CR, and QR had insignificant on DPR.

Himanshu Jain, Vijay Anant Athavale, Akhilesh Kumar Mishra
Biophilic Architecture: Meeting the Wellbeing Standards of Employees

Biophilic design is an architectural concept, actively is in assuring the mental and physical wellness of their users. The focus here is to identify significance of biophilic designing over interior architecture and its impact on wellness and health of the employee. Further explore the benefits of biophilic elements in the workplace where the employees work based on IEQ and interior design parameters. This study relies on a descriptive research method and structured questionnaires were used to collect primary data. The paper underlines two case studies of IT companies located in Hitech city, Hyderabad. The sample size is 215 employees of the companies. The finding shows that biophilic designing works as an integrated component of interior designing to intensify workplace productivity and assure employees health by applying nature designing solutions. The outcome depicted that IEQ and Interior design parameters with office layout and its impact on employee well-being and productivity.

Pratima Kiran Mandadi, Manjari Khanna Kapoor, Ramesh Raghavendran, Aanchal Sharma
An Analysis of Emerging Trends of Corporate Governance in India

Corporate governance is receiving a lot of attention these days because of its links to the health of the economy in particular and its contributions to people’s living standards in general. Corporate governance is simply concerned with corporate decision-making and other managerial activities carried out by those in charge of corporations and organizations. Corporate governance is defined as the combination of law, regulations, and appropriate voluntary private sector practices that enable companies to impress financial and human capital while also respecting the interests of other stakeholders and society at large.

Pramod Damodar Vaidya
An Assessment of the Influences of Information Technology on Higher Education Curriculum in India

Since independence, there has been a significant increase in the number of colleges and universities at the university level, which is reflected in the current state of the higher education sector. In order to provide a high-quality education to all students, higher education systems have developed significantly over the past five decades. The work that universities and other higher education institutions do has changed as a result of the general use of information and communication technology. Education’s significance and information and communication technology’s (ICT) sufficiency as a social need are growing in the conscious world of today. In order to improve public mobility and level the playing field for value and social justice, social acceptance of information and communication tools is crucial. Because of the rapid development of ICT, this aspect has gained more traction.

Santosh Gopal Kulkarni

Advanced Technologies for Water, Energy, Transportation, Housing and Sanitation

Ultrasonic Assisted Electrochemical Machine: A Review

One of the most important steps in micro-machining is electrochemical machining. Yet, increasing the process’s machining efficiency is still a difficult undertaking in the micro-domain. Additionally, it concentrates on the ultrasonic vibration electrochemical machine and procedure assisted by a magnetic field. More substantial depth micro-feature machining is still challenging. The benefit of using a magnetic field and ultrasonic vibrations to overcome this difficulty has been noted by numerous researchers. The magnetic field and ultrasonic vibrations were typically used in isolation in investigations. The process can be considerably enhanced by the interaction of a magnetic field with ultrasonic vibrations. The improvement of the magnetic field in the ultrasonic pulse ECM along with the material removal rate (MRR), surface integrity, hole taper, energy consumption, and hostile environment were used to examine the machining performance.

Aniket B. Pawar, Pradeep V. Jadhav, D. B. Jadhav, D. S. Bilgi
Computational Studies on Selection of EV

In recent years, the vehicle sector has grown enormously. More companies are starting to invest in the development of new electric vehicle-related technologies as EV technology advances. The range of an electric vehicle (EV) is the most crucial component in customer’s decision matrix to choose EVs. The list of EV is topped by a brand with a range of 776 and 110 km constitute the lower end of range. The EV market today is more complicated owing to advanced features catching up to make potential buyer perplexed about which EV to purchase. This work presents a comprehensive approach to access EVs comparing their range. The simulation study carried out in the MATLAB Simulink/Simscape environment giving scope to vary motor power and battery capacity. The results can assist the user to compare alternatives and select the ideal EV by analyzing data from simulations for NEDC and WLTP drive cycles.

Nitish Vernekar, Atulchandra Tripathi, Tushar Patel, Umesh Hosmani, Prashant Revankar, Krishnaraja Kodancha
Analysis of Spatio-temporal Characteristics of Rainfall Using Precipitation Concentration Index (PCI) and Heatmap for Solapur District of Maharashtra, India

The current study is concerned with the spatio-temporal variability of the annual precipitation concentration in the Solapur district of Maharashtra. Rainfall from the year 1971 to 2013 has been considered for the current analysis. Along with the Precipitation Concentration Index (PCI), in this study heatmap and spatial interpolation approach were used to show the rainfall distribution in the Solapur district. The PCI has the potentiality in managing the water resources and risk related to natural hazards like drought as it indicates the fluctuations in the concentration. The fluctuations in the spatio-temporal pattern of rainfall have a great impact on the frequency of droughts. In this paper, monthly PCI in Solapur district has been carried out from 1971 to 2013. In addition to PCI, heatmap and spatial interpolation approach were used to show the spatial distribution of rainfall and PCI in the study region. Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW), a spatial interpolation technique was applied in a geoinformatics platform to show the rainfall surface. The PCI has the potentiality in managing the water resources and risk related to natural hazards like drought as it indicates the fluctuations in the concentration. Another, synoptic visualization technique named heatmap has been employed at individual weather station level to display the rainfall pattern.

Wasim Ayub Bagwan
Forecasting of PM10 Concentrations in Indian Medium-Sized City Using New Combined Grey Model

Indian medium-sized city, Kolhapur, has witnessed consistent growth in ambient PM10 concentrations over the last few years, and an accurate forecast is essential. However, for any forecast model, its prediction accuracy and capacity are prerequisites. Accordingly, a combined grey model was developed by combining the grey model [GM (1,1)] and the simple exponential smoothing (SES) model. The new model grey simple exponential smoothing model, abbreviated as GSESM, is newly utilized for PM10 concentrations. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed GSESM, the GM (1,1) and SES models are also introduced. The PM10 concentrations data from 2008 to 2019 and 2020 were used for in-sample and out-of-sample calculations, respectively. With the relatively lowest mean average percentage error (MAPE = 2.89%) value in the out-of-sample case and reasonable development coefficient (–a = 0.0068) value, the GSESM proves it is not only highly accurate but also it can be used for mid-long term forecasts. Finally, the GSESM was utilized to forecast PM10 concentrations (2021–2025).

Sagar Shinde, Vilas Karjinni
Transmission Line Fault Detection and Classification: ANN Approach

Various tools are identified for transmission line fault identification and classification. The proposed algorithm is very helpful for advancement in relay such that the relay can be trained and will be able to detect and classify transmission line faults immediately. The transmission line faults have been simulated at different locations such as at 300, 600, and 900 km in MATLAB Simulink. The proposed method decomposes the signal into five detail-level using wavelets. The energy of five detail level components of various fault situations has been calculated. The premeditated energy is given as input to the artificial neural classifier. Classification accuracy up to 95.6% is obtained.

Vaibhav A. Ghodeswar, Mirza A. Beg
Review on Smart Digital Technologies in Construction Sector

Despite the fact that it contributes to the provision of the necessary building and supporting civil infrastructure, the construction industry has not been able to achieve its full potential due to productivity issues, poor planning, and poor coordination. These difficulties may be alleviated by utilizing a digitalized solution for the coordination and planning of construction activities. As a result, the purpose of the study was to investigate the digital technologies that construction professionals have access to during construction planning. Utilizing digital technologies for construction planning has been shown to save time, improve quality, and cut down on errors, according to construction professionals. According to the study, there was a statistically significant difference in the benefits, such as increased flexibility and real-time access to information and a decrease in construction errors. It suggested that professionals in the construction industry invest more in cutting-edge digital solutions to meet the industry’s challenges.

Pandurang Bhise, Yash Annapurne, Kuldip Lalge, Samarth Patil, Rohan Sawant
Testing Strength of Grassed Paver Block Made by Waste Material and Coir Fibre

At construction sites in metro city, the activity such as demolition of building, construction of big tower and renovation of building are throwing concrete waste in huge amount. This produced waste is either diverted for land filling in nearby areas or used for dumping. The different type of paver block uses this concrete waste for bulk production. In this study, the representation of the concept of sustainable use of concrete waste which was used in manufacturing of interlocking grassed paver blocks with coir fibre and compressive strength of concrete was determined.

Anil Shirgire, Hemchandra Pawar, Satyawan Jagdale, Ravikant Sathe, Vijaykumar Javanjal, Swati Ambadkar
Performance Evaluation of Kota’s Black Soil Using Perma-Zyme

Kota’s Black Soil (KBS) is an expansive soil, and it shrinks and swells in response to changes in moisture. Present research is focused on the use of Perma-zyme to stabilize Kota’s Black Soil. This research shows a series of testing on Kota’s Black Soil as well as tests on Perma-zyme stabilized KBS with varied Dosages ranging from 1 to 2 m3 in intervals of 0.25 m3 soil per 200 mL of Perma-zyme. On addition of Perma-zyme the soil shows notable improvements in its engineering and index properties such as; Plasticity, Density, and Uniaxial Strength (in compression). It is observed that the plasticity is decreased by 25% in comparison to virgin soil and significant raise in the uniaxial strength of the soil is perceived in terms of UCS. Optimum dosage yielded maximum UCS of 2.71 and 3.19 kPa for 0–7 days’ water retention period, respectively.

Jitendra Kumar Sharma, Sakshi Khandelwal
RULA and REBA’s Evaluation of the Work Posture of the Power-Loom Industry: A Case Study

Musculoskeletal disorders are a major complaint for employees in India. Most power-loom industries currently involve manual labor, making the issues of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and injuries at diverse body sites of vital concern. In the current study, video was recorded in order to measure work processes, workload assessment, and work stress. The Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) technique was used to measure risk factors associated with complaints of the upper extremities. While the Rapid Entire Body Assessment was used to measure the body problems (REBA). This ergonomic study provides insight into the power loom industry’s workforce’s posture analysis. The 15 power-loom industry employees at MIDC Solapur were the subjects of the study (Maharashtra, India). Images were then extracted for examination from a video clip that documented the workers’ various activities. Thus, it was determined that the power loom industry lacks ergonomics awareness and understanding. The personnel are working beyond the safe limit, according to RULA and REBA’s assessment of the situation using postural analysis. The majority of employees have hunched-over postures. Therefore, there is a moderate to high risk of musculoskeletal problems among the workforce, so to prevent WMSDs or their symptoms, some interventions are used, including training, ergonomic changes, rest alleviation, and exercises.

S. G. Kolgiri, M. D. Jagtap, S. L. Sathe
Experimental Investigation on Injection System of Diesel Engine for Material Compatibility with Waste Cooked Oil Biodiesel

Presently the whole globe is concerned about the effect of environmental pollution by the automobile vehicles. Biodiesel is the only alternative for diesel fuel due to its environment-friendly properties and easy availability. Biodiesel can be used directly in diesel engines without modifying the design of present engine but automotive companies are not ready to implement because of less research available about material compatibility issues of biodiesel. In this, experimental investigation is carried to study impacts of waste cooked oil biodiesel and diesel fuels on the injection system of diesel engine. This is done on fuel filter, fuel injectors, and fuel pump with both fuels i.e. diesel fuel and WCO biodiesel, engine was run for 100 h test period. Wear and pitting corrosion is observed around the needle tip after 100 h test run with diesel but not in case of waste cooked oil biodiesel and nozzle holes were affected nearly similar in both fuels.

Rajesh Gurani, Malikasab Bagawan, Prashant Tadalagi
Traffic Sign Recognition System Using YOLO: Societal System for Safe Driving

One of the primary criteria for autonomous cars and most advanced driving assistance systems is the capacity to perceive and interpret all static and dynamic objects around the vehicle under diverse driving and climatic circumstances (ADAS). Convolutional neural networks have the potential to give safe ADAS in current vehicles (CNN). In this research, we describe a YOLO based traffic sign identification system that has been enhanced using a CNN. As real-time detection is necessary for safe driving, the YOLO network utilized in this study was pre-trained to identify and classify just five items, which are divided into categories such as automobiles, trucks, people, traffic signs, and traffic lights.

Kuldeep Vayadande, Rohit Patil, Ayush Patni, Pavankumar Bhadane, Siddhant Pawar, Rahul Ponnuru, Varad Ingale
A Review on Performance of Annular Raft Foundation

This study dedicates a literature review on the performance of annular raft foundations which depend on various parameters such as type of loading and soil, size of footing, bearing capacity factors. Annular raft foundation is used in structures such as silos, water tanks, chimneys, etc. which are often axisymmetric structures. A number of researchers studied the bearing capacity and settlement of annular raft. Both parameters significantly affect the stability and design of the annular raft foundation. It is found that the ratio of the radius of the annular raft is a key factor which governs the design criteria of annular raft.

Ajay Pratap Singh Rathor, Jitendra Kumar Sharma
A Novel Intelligence System for Accident Prevention, Detection, and Reporting System for Smart City

In this Project Accident Prevention, detection and reporting system is designed and implemented. The concept of our project is to help people in emergency time by giving instructions to us and third person before the occurrence of an accident due to Alcohol consumption (Drink and Drive) and Drowsiness. To implement this project, we have used sensors which detect Alcoholic consumption, Sleepiness. We are adding sensors such as flame sensor, Alcohol detecting sensor, panic button, tilt sensor for the safety of the people inside the car. We have used an MQ-3 sensor which detects alcohol presence in the surrounding, if the driver has consumed alcohol, the alcohol sensor fixed in the system detects the alcohol and then it sends a warning message through GSM, Driver drowsiness detection to prevent accidents from happening because of Driver fatigue and sleepiness. Dashing sensor is used to detect whenever a vehicle is being stroked by another vehicle or any object. If something crashes or strikes the car hard enough then through the dashing sensor we get a message via GSM, flame sensor is used in the system to detect flame or smoke coming out of the engine due to overheating or whenever a car catches fire in an accident. Tilt sensor is used detect the position of the driver while driving, if driver is falling asleep, he/she tends to face downwards or upwards, if the position of driver changes from the range of standard position, then relay installed in system gets triggered and the buzzer gets turned on and it makes sound in order to wake or alert the driver. To overcome the accidents due to the above causes we are creating a project to make lives aware and secure.

Poornima Mallur, Shree Umarani, Shree Umarani, Salma S. Shahapur
Waste Water Treatment by Using Constructed Wetlands

Constructed wetlands are wastewater treatment systems consisted of one or more treatment cells in a building designed and constructed to provide wastewater treatment. Constructed wetlands are classified into two types: free water surface (FWS) wetlands (also known as surface flow wetlands) closely resemble natural wetlands in appearance because they contain aquatic plants that are rooted in a soil layer on the bottom of the wetland and water flows through the leaves and stems of plants. Subsurface flow wetlands (SSF) or known as a vegetated submerged bed (VSB) systems do not resemble natural wetlands because they have no standing water. They contain a bed of media (such as crushed rock, small stones, gravel, sand, or soil) that has been planted with aquatic plants. When properly designed and operated, wastewater stays beneath the surface of the media, flows in contact with the roots and rhizomes of the plants, and is not visible or available to wildlife. Constructed wetlands are an appropriate technology for areas where inexpensive land is generally available and skilled labor is less available. In this paper, a study was done on covered types, characteristics, design variation and considerations, limitations, and the advantages and disadvantages of constructed wetlands.

Anil Shirgire, Hemchandra Pawar, Satyawan Jagdale, Ravikant Sathe
Seismic Analysis of Water Tank with Different Configuration to Find Optimal Solution

A Water tank means a container to store water in a huge amount of capacity. As known from experience, liquid storage tanks collapsed or are heavily damaged during earthquakes all over the world. The economic lifetime of ESR is generally around 40–65 years. Damage or collapse of the tanks causes some unwanted events such as shortage of drinking and utilizing water, uncontrolled fires, etc. Therefore, to avoid all those disadvantages numerous or various studies are being carried out regarding tanks. In this study, I have compared reinforced cement concrete Elevated Service Reservoir (E.S.R) of Square and Circular shape of 1 lakh capacity and a total height of 12.6 m with 3 m staging in Earthquake Zone II, III, IV, and V by Equivalent static analysis using ETABS software for base shear and deflection guidelines for the design of the tank and IS 1893-2016 code. It can be seen that a Circular water tank is more economical and preferable.

Sandip Nirmal, Prashant M. Pawar, Ravikiran P. Jadhav
Low Cost Housing Structure Using Bamboo as Reinforcement

The need for the use of green technologies in the construction industry has arisen due to the depletion of natural resources. Bamboo is a strong, lightweight, environmentally friendly material with good tensile properties. Bamboo has a strength-to-mass ratio that is 20 times greater than steel. As a highly resilient and strong alternative material, bamboo is frequently mentioned as being as strong as steel reinforcement for concrete. Due to its strong strength to weight ratio and excellent flexural strength in tension, Bamboo has been utilized in construction since ancient times. All of this necessitates a thorough analysis of bamboo reinforced concrete’s suitability as a structural material for the construction of affordable housing units. An important matter is housing. As a strong, resilient, and lightweight roofing material, bamboo is ideal. As businesses grow and rural areas are transformed, bamboo will continue to play a significant role in both of these processes. The stiffness, strength, and stability of the building are investigated using structural design. Construction of a structure that can withstand all applied loads without failing for the duration of its planned life is the primary goal of structural analysis and design. There are several stages in the structural design process, including the calculation of loads, member design, details, and many others. The traditional approach to structural design and analysis results in several difficulties and time-consuming, repetitive calculations. Fast software is now used to efficiently execute design and analysis tasks.

Aishwarya S. Ingawale, Prashant M. Pawar, Sonali P. Patil, Ravikiran P. Jadhav
Techniques to Share and Store Large Data in Used System to Reduce Network Traffic and Cost

CHARON is a cloud-based storage system that can reliably and efficiently store and share large amounts of data using multiple cloud storage repositories to meet regulatory requirements for sensitive personal data services. An efficient system that reduces network traffic costs. Design a new intermediate DataSubscriber schema. MapReduce types simplify large-scale processing of suite data, but a lot of effort is put into maximizing the performance of MapReduce operations. The hash capacity used in the intra-session topology minimizes the task, while the network topology appreciates moving notes. Finally, the reproducible results exhibited by the proposed algorithm can minimize network costs.

Punam S. Kamble, Namdev M. Sawant
Ultra-Fast Charging Challenges in Grid Connected Charging Station: A Review

Electric Vehicles (EVs) and available charging infrastructures are unable to provide long distance trips without interruption due to the necessity of waiting long time to recharge the battery and moderate speed range. Charging time of EV has been a major factor that influences the customer to not attract much towards EVs. The ultra-fast charging (UFC) provides solution for such issue which charges EV with minimum time. Nevertheless, it is quite challenging and complicated to realize UFC due to the developments of battery cells, charging methods and impact on electric grid. The widespread of EV usage and necessitates to increase the charging demand have a number of effects on the electric grid. This paper aims to review analysis UFC in EV by including basic concepts, charging levels, types of chargers, positive and negative impacts of UFC on electric grid. Different fast charging strategies and power converter topologies for EV are presented and compared in this article.

Nilam S. Patil, Rajin M. Linus
Sustainable Integrated Renewable Energy System for a Cluster of Remote Villages in Indian Context

The primary concern of the Nations worldwide has been the growing energy demand. The present study has identified cluster of remote villages nearby Sringeri place, chickmagalur district of Karnataka state, India, for the assessment of Resources and their sustainability. HOMER based Simulation were carried out on PV-WIND-MH-HK systems considering the Two different Load strategies as Development side Load strategy and Demand side Load strategy. The possible resources combinations were investigated on the basis of Net Present Cost (NPC) and Cost of Energy (COE) for obtaining the optimal results. The results showed that Development side load strategy was optimal for PV-MH-HK combination with $218,191.5 and $0.167/kWh for NPC and COE values. On the contrary, Demand-side Load strategy yielded values of NPC and COE as $121,825 and $ 0.159/KWh respectively. From the results it has shown that the WIND resource is not a suitable option for the integration due to low wind energy Potential. Multiyear year simulations taking 10 year period shows that 4.46% increase in the COE and the energy production is dropped by 4.64%.

Naveen Rayaral, Prashanth P. Revankar
Overview of Autonomous Vehicle and Its Challenges

The autonomous vehicles (AVs) are an intelligent mode of transport which can perceive their surroundings and perform autonomous actions without human control. The advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) technology is considered as the future of transportation systems. The main aim of autonomous driving is to implement a safe transport system for people of all ages, minimize accidents and congestion on roads and make use of resources more efficiently. As the performance of AV will not be affected by emotions, distraction, fatigue compared to humans, it makes them more reliable and safer. Along with the advantages, there are various challenges faced by the AVs which need to be resolved before they can be fully commercialized. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of autonomous vehicles including its development, review challenges faced and future presence.

Chinmay Amrutkar, Anushka Satav, Puskaraj D. Sonawwanay, Ashish H. Pawar
Identification and Protection of Landslide Prone Areas in Karul Ghat Region

Landslides are amongst the most damaging natural hazards in the mountainous terrain. The area surrounded by pre-occurred landslide in Karul Ghat near Vaibhavwadi, Maharashtra is chosen as study area. Google Maps, Cartosat, and other satellite image services together with topographical sheets from the Survey of India, baseline data on a variety of parameters like slope, relative relief, drainage density, and geology are derived from these sheets. The aim of study is to discuss the role of mapping geological ligaments and terrain parameters like streams, slope and aspect. The main factors of landslide is rainfall. Any remedial measure used must include one or both of the above parameters. Soil samples are collected and physical, and engineering properties of the soil were tested in the laboratory. Thus, the slope characteristics are found. From this the most economical and feasible preventive measure can be used on site to prevent further landslides in the Karul Ghat region.

Rohan Sawant
Indian Scenario of Electric Vehicles—A Review

Over the past few years, the global automotive sector has benefited greatly from electric vehicles. According to projections from 2020, there were over 12 million electric vehicles in use worldwide. China sold 90% of them, with Europe, the United States, and other nations following. In India, EV development is still in its infancy. In India, 3.8 lakh electric vehicles were sold in the 2019–20 year. Passenger vehicles generate the largest portion of EV sales in India, followed by commercial vehicles and two-wheelers. Numerous government policies and programmes, including FAME-India, NEMMP 2020, and many others, are mandated by the National Automotive Board, National Board for Electric Mobility, and National Council for Electric Mobility. This paper covers a review of Indian Scenario of Electric Vehicles, Statistics and different government policies associated with EV’s, in detail. Electric Vehicles, Indian EV Scenario, Government Policies, FAME-India, EVs in India.

Niket B. Adhia, Shikhar R. Takke, Puskaraj D. Sonawwanay
Enhancement of Power Quality Approach Using Unified Power Quality Conditioner

The connection of a three-unified power quality conditioner is an effective and economical control approach for compensating for harmonics and Load-Q energy usage (UPQC). This paper proposes a control approach for a unified power quality conditioner as a dual control in the distribution system to reduce power quality issues. End-user-polluted loads are always at the heart of power quality problems. UPQC systems are employed in this study to regulate operations and series power conditioning. The filters convert non-sinusoidal electrical quantities into sinusoidal electrical values by injecting current and voltage at a large phase angle. This is referred to as dual compensation. The proposed UPQC system is compatible with both 3P3W and 3P4W distribution systems.

Buddhapriy B. Gopnarayan, Vijay A. Sawant
Design and Analysis of GFRP and Chicken Mesh Confined Brick Masonry Columns

Unreinforced masonry is used as the load-bearing element still, its low strength and ductility make it prone to earthquakes, extreme wind actions, foundation settlement and deterioration due to environmental effects. Brick columns are mostly used as load-bearing elements. So the failure of a column can have significant to the entire structure. In this paper, different strengthening techniques such as Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) and Fabric Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM) have been developed to improve masonry's strength and deformation characteristics structures. The proposed study helps to identify the best suitable method to enhance the strength and structural performance of brick masonry columns. A total of 3 masonry column specimens were produced with Bricks and Mortar. The columns with 1200 mm height and cross-sectional dimensions of 210 mm × 210 mm were constructed. Out of 3, 2 specimens of columns were confined by using different composite materials like Glass-FRP and Chicken mesh FRCM. All column specimens have been tested under Loading Frame Facility, and the column tests’ outcomes have been evaluated in terms of strength and failure characteristics. GFRP confined brick masonry column showed confinement of 62.41% over unconfined brick masonry column whereas chicken mesh confined brick masonry column showed confinement of 26.62% over unconfined brick masonry column.

Mrunal M. Pawar, Mukund M. Pawar, Sonali P. Patil
Effect of Fly Ash and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag on Fracture Parameters of Sustainable Concrete

The knowledge of fracture mechanics has a great importance for numerous structural applications for structures like dams, nuclear power projects etc. This paper concentrated on study of fracture parameters on concrete using Fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM) to make concrete sustainable. The FA and GGBS ware partially replaced with cement with percentage of 10, 20, 30 and 40. The water to cement (w/c) ratio kept constant 0.38 for all mixes. The three point bend test was conducted on notched beams according to RILEM recommendation. The crack mouth displacement (CMOD) opening rate was maintained 0.05 mm/min. The mechanical and fracture parameters were studied, the results stated that the GGBS has shown improvement in fracture energy, fracture toughness and mechanical properties compared with FA. The presented result of research shows the usefulness of SCM in concrete.

Sudhanshu S. Pathak, Gaurang R. Vesmawala
Trip Generation and Trip End Modal Split Modelling for East Zone of Surat City

The demand for transportation in urban areas is influenced by the decisions people make about where to live in relation to their places of employment, shopping, entertainment, educational institutions, and other vital activities. Rapid urbanization in Indian cities contributes to an increase in population, congested traffic, noise pollution, and air pollution in the cities. In order to predict travel demand in urban areas, a four-stage model is used. Trip based approach is the conventional method to determine travel demand in cities. Surat is the fast growing metropolitan city with industrial hub. East zone of Surat city is major zone whose population is about 25% of total city. So, in present study, the study area is taken as East zone of the city. Data collection involves collection of socio-economic details of Surat at Household levels and Person levels. Trip Generation model is developed by using SPSS Software. Trip end modal split model is applied after trip generation by using NLOGIT Software.

Omkar Bidkar, Ravikiran Jadhav, Prashant Bhaganagare, Ravikant S. Sathe, Mangesh Survase
Improving Conversion Efficiency of Solar Panel by Cooling System

Conversion of solar energy into electricity through PV cells is varying between 7 and 20% and determined primarily by the type of semiconductor material from which the cells are manufactured. The increase in cell operating temperature has a negative impact on the electrical efficiency of PV cells. The efficiency of photovoltaic modules decreases with heating and also the photovoltaic cells will exhibit long-term degradation if the temperature exceeds a certain limit. In this work, active water cooling is utilized to reduce the operating temperature of the PV module. Without active water cooling, it was observed that the PV module's temperature was high and solar cells could only convert energy upto 8–9%. However, the temperature reduced dramatically when the PV module was used with active water cooling, increasing the efficiency of the solar cells to between 12 and 14%.

Suryaji S. Kale, S. S. Gawade, B. R. Birajdar
Influence of Accessibility Factors on Travel Mode Choice in an Emerging Metropolitan City, Surat

Urbanization in Indian cities increasing rapidly causing increase in population of cities, traffic congestion, noise pollution and air pollution of cities. Trip based four-stage travel demand modelling is commonly used tool to forecast travel demand in urban areas. This paper focuses on the trip rate as well as mode preference behavior of travelers from Surat city in Indian State of Gujarat. Study area is the East zone among the seven administrative zones of Surat city because population of East zone is 25% of city population and residential density is 18,961 persons per km2. Home interview survey technique is carried out with designed questionnaire. Sample size considered is 0.05% of total population of zone. Trip rate model is calibrated by using Multilinear Regression and Logit model is applied for mode choice. It is found that accessibility measures will affect the mode choice for particular zone.

Yogesh Survase, Omkar Bidkar, Nitin More, Girish Falmari, Satyawan Jagdale, Ravikant Sathe
Categorizing and Ranking Comfort Design Requirements of Transportation Buses in India

Buses are the one of the main sources of public transportation in Rural and Urban India of mass use. Main intention of this study was to survey the customers of transportation buses and recognize their problems and needs. Around 150 consumers participated in the survey with age group of 18–60 years who use to travel a distance up to 100 km Range. All concerns and needs are then arranged in a manner to categories and ranked which will be useful for resolution. The study revealed that, there are while few problems which were observed with specific class of occupant while others are global is-sues. Based upon the study corrective actions were proposed to provide comfort design to facilitate uplift the travel experience with safety.

A. B. Rathod, R. T. Vyavahare
Use of Poly Contrast Interference Photography (PIP) for Energy Field Analysis of Concrete Pavement

Energy analysis is the way of understanding variations of energy on the earth surface due to various activities occurring beneath the earth surface. This creates Geopathic stress, which is the phenomena evolves large amount of change in energy fields at specific locations. It disturbs the normal functioning of biotic and abiotic components of environment. Present study aims to investigate the energy field using Poly Contrast Interference Photography (PIP) mainly on concrete pavement. PIP hypothesizes that the manner with which light waves, both visible and non-visible are observed and reflected off the physical and energetic bodies can be used to access the molecular health state of the body under consideration. In the present study, PIP has been conducted on the road section from chainage 50 km to chainage 94 km on the Mumbai–Pune expressway i.e. rigid pavement and on major accident spots located at Khadki and Hadapsar, on the old Mumbai-Pune road i.e. flexible pavement located in India. Present research investigation proves that use of PIP hypothesis technique is extensively used to identify electromagnetic field which further helps to define geopathic stress.

Dipak M. Kolekar, Sunil S. Pimplikar, Rohit R. Salgude, Rohan R. Yadav, Ashlesha S. Deshmukh
Energy Generation System Through Solar and Fast-Moving Vehicles

Now a days Energy is an important aspect in our every day’s life. The resources available are limited, whereas the population consuming the energy is increasing day by day. The world continues to search for innovative solutions for harnessing clean energy; there is an emerging need for research in improving the efficiency of existing renewable energy conversion methods. Wind and Solar are two major renewable energy resources that are easily available and can be harnessed easily. This research aims to design and develop a mini vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) along with the solar panel which can be installed on the road dividers. Our aim is to capture wind from the fast-moving vehicles on the highways and use the solar energy simultaneously. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine also abbreviated as VAWT is one such design which captures wind from all directions and will be using VAWT in this research work. The electricity will be generated from both VAWT and Solar panels and can be either stored into batteries or it can be supplied to the grid. The major components of the project are blades, shaft, strut, bearings, structural members, motor, gearbox, solar panel, and batteries. Maximum speed achieved by wind turbine is 300 rpm. This research aims to innovate and redesign the existing models and collaborate it with solar panels to increase the overall efficiency and to develop a sustainable model.

Basavraj R. Birajdar, Suryaji S. Kale
Machinability of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Silicon Carbide Composite Material—A Review

Carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide is a comparatively new category of structural material. In the last, some years new materials and manufacturing techniques have been developed. Originally for the applications of space and military C/SiC composites have been developed. In addition to elevated thermal stability with high mass specific properties, functional properties like good tribological and low thermal expansion performance plays a growing significance for new commercial applications such as pads and brake disks clutches, calibration plates or furnace charging devices. This paper reviews some of the recent previous work on machining of carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide.

Sunilkumar Harsur, Ramdas Biradar, Pallavi Jadhav, Shital Waware, Kamalkishor Maniyar, Pushparaj Warke
Electric Vehicle Industry-Challenges and Opportunities

Present automotive industry has come up with many latest technologies to increase the energy efficiency and cut down cost of manufacturing. With having tremendous advantages over IC engine vehicles, Electric vehicles are showing remarkable growth in Automobile market with helping in improving environmental conditions. In this present study an effort is made to understand and showcase the challenges and opportunities EV’s have for mass production and increase the demand in market. Study reveals that the main challenges EV facing to enter into the market is insufficient technologies, social awareness, lack of infrastructure, and range anxiety. Recommendations are being provided to enhance EV market with better range, reliability and performance, thus moving towards an imperishable future to EV market.

Asmita Saravade, Megha Burungal, Laxmi Brungi, Kiran Lakkam, Amitkumar Shinde
3D Printing in Construction Industry: A State of Art

The development of the 3D printer led to the development of a novel construction method known as “3D printing building technology.” There are a number of potential outcomes, including time and cost savings, less pollution of the environment, and fewer accidents and fatalities on construction sites. The conclusions provide a summary of our concerns, despite the numerous benefits and advantages of this new technology. 3D printing technology is getting a lot of attention because it is quicker than traditional construction. Structures with intricate designs and miniature versions of a variety of products are both achievable. In 3D printers, improved concrete-based mortar material is used. In buildings constructed with this technology, sustainable building materials are given special consideration. In addition, research is done to ensure that no materials are wasted. The goal of this research is to review the literature and present this new generation method.

Pruthviraj Zadbuke, Yogesh Patil, Nishad Sheje, Sahil Nachane, Rohan Sawant
Optimization of Car Tie Rod with the Help of Finite Element Analysis

The FEA examination of Checks are made on the tie rod’s natural frequency, study of the maximum stress, and deformation. The suspension system bears the majority of the vehicle’s weight, yet tie rods are susceptible to failure because of forces that change as the car is being driven and bumped. When the car is in its static condition, the steering forces are also taken into account. Tie rod exhaustion and vibration have long been issues that, if the strains and vibrations involved are too great, could lead to structural failure. To fully comprehend the structural aspects of this important work, further research is necessary dynamic action. The study of a typical automotive tie rod using finite elements (FE) is presented in this paper and is the main topic.

Pramod Navale, Sameer Katekar
Calculative Study for Fuel Cell Based Vehicle Propulsion

Considering the recent shift in technology for the automotive development, electrical energy based vehicles were designed. The advanced transition from IC engine based technical aspects migrated to motor based aspects required for vehicle propulsive action. This reduced the polluting environmental rate drastically, but it came with certain disadvantages and certain challenge. Change in power source generation lead to development of further avenues like battery powered, fuel cell powered, hybrid etc. with individual source based its advantages and disadvantages. Vehicle range is the major frictional topic to continue further development. As an immediate alternative, fuel cell is considered to pose as possible solution. This study suffices detailed calculative approach for the fuel cell powered vehicles powertrain. Towards the end, considerable revamping of the vehicle parameters is optimizable taking propulsive energy requirement into primary considerations.

Siddharth Gandhi, Abhijeet Chavan
Design Interventions Towards Optimization of Drive Features in Electric Bicycle in Adherence to ISO 4210

The bicycle promises to become an important mobility device that promotes green solution to pollution menace in domestic short distance travel. Its structural design involves the frame as the vital part that gets subjected to severe fatigue loading that has led to accidents and expensive product recalls. The frame is the key load bearing member that decides user safety, demanding a stringent design, appropriate weld process and base material adoption. This study develops baseline model using BikeCAD Open-Source tool for component selection and design. The material selection coupled to fatigue test based on ISO 4210 helps to simulate failures and behavior of weld affected heat-zone. The iterative method checks various gauge of steel to identify safe thickness for bottom tube. In the final stage, results of standard frame were subjected to suitable design interventions leading to modified version that are safe with additional features of enhanced range and durability.

Theodore Mohandas Tatpati, Jeevith Arambooru, Krishnaraja Kodancha, P. P. Revankar
Solar Thermal Energy Storage Technology: Current Trends

Energy security has major three measures: physical accessibility, economic affordability and environmental acceptability. For regions with an abundance of solar energy, solar thermal energy storage technology offers tremendous potential for ensuring energy security, minimizing carbon footprints, and reaching sustainable development goals. Global energy demand soared because of the economy’s recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. By mitigating the adverse effects of solar energy uncertainties, solar thermal energy storage provides an opportunity to make the power plants economically competitive and reliable during operation. Solar thermal power plant technology is still in the early stages of market introduction, with about six gigawatts of installed capacity globally in 2020 compared to PV technology. In a developing economy, the potential for cost reduction through invention, mass production, and growing competitiveness is far from being exhausted. The objective of this review paper is to access the progress of solar thermal energy technology in India compared to world and its potential to accomplish the clean energy goals.

Pravin Prabhu, Sanjay Sawant
A Review on Material Compatibility on the Fuel Flow System of a Diesel Engine with Waste Cooked Oil Biodiesel

Presently the whole globe is concerned about the effect of environmental pollution by the automobile vehicles. The use of fossil fuel is considered as a major contribution to it. The second aspect of fossil fuel is the depletion of fuel which leads to thinking of alternative fuel for running the automobiles. Biodiesel is the only alternative for diesel fuel due to its environment-friendly properties and easy availability. Biodiesel can be used directly in diesel engines without modifying the design of present engine. Even biodiesel is the best replaceable alternative for petroleum diesel but automotive companies are not ready to implement because of less research available about material compatibility issues of biodiesel.

Rajesh Gurani, B. J. Patil, Malikasab Bagawan, Prashant Tadalagi
Boosting Performance with the Integration of Stochastic Energy Storage into Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Power Electronics includes power interface circuits and low-level switching functionality. A power and energy management system for a dual-source electric vehicle with lead-acid batteries and ultra-capacitors demonstrates this unique framework. Energy system macro models are verified with practical experiments to determine system configuration. Those metrics have been employed to design concepts to assess power and energy management to validate the conceptual platform. Deployment of the individual blocks that make up the system architecture focuses on power electronics infrastructure design. The design-implementation-oriented modular framework helps unify the energy’s significant challenges.

Dipti Tamboli, Mohan Thakre, Pranali Thakre
Implications of Multiple Energy Source Integration for Electric Mobility

This article optimizes electric mobility energy sources for power and energy. An electric vehicle installation cloud powers the smart grid. Energy storage devices can extend the EV driving range. Manage energy and power expenditures, proportionate distribution, and energy sector interfacing controls to meet driving cycle needs. This study provides a new electric vehicle (EV) power and energy optimization method for all demands. Energy management principles underpin the solution. Driving requires long-term and short-term energy. Power Management operations make immediate power-splitting ratio decisions among several energy sources, while a smart energy layer makes long-term energy usage judgments based on longitudinal vehicle dynamics. This interdisciplinary challenge can be addressed systematically using the offered strategy.

Dipti Tamboli, Mohan Thakre, Pranali Thakre

Advances in Pharmacy, Nutraceuticals and Traditional Medicines

Design, In Vitro Evaluation of Sustained Release Matrix Tablet of Enalapril Maleate Employing Natural Polymer-Olibanum Gum and Its Resin Component

In order to offer a sustained release of tablets containing Enalapril Maleate by employing olibanum gum were tested as matrix components that could control release rate. Enalapril was chosen due to its short half-life and limited oral bioavailability (41%). In order to confirm the chemical interaction between drugs and polymers, FTIR and DSC investigation was conducted. Matrix tablet of Enalapril Maleate was formulated using varied concentrations of HPMC K 100 M, olibanum, its resin, and its carbohydrate component. The tablet was evaluated for pre-and post-compression studies. Within low concentrations ranging from one to 2% w/w, the resinous component of olibanum and olibanum gum has a retarding effect on release rate of drug from matrix tablets. Enalapril Maleate was released slowly and systematically over a period of more than 24 h by Enalapril Maleate matrix tablets formulated with olibanum and its resin component. Release rate and % polymer relation was found to be linear in each case. Enalapril Maleate matrix tablet exhibited good controlled release characteristics and found suitable for once, a day oral controlled release products.

Pravin B. Awate, Mahesh K. Gupta, Dipak P. Kardile, Vishwas C. Bhagat, Rajkumar V. Shete
Optimization of Thermo-reversible Nasal Gel of Carbamazepine for Better Control in Chronic Epilepsy

The aim of present work was to formulate thermosensitive in situ gel of carbamazepine (CBZ), an anti-epileptic agent. In situ nasal gel of CBZ was formulated by cold method using Pluronic F68 and Pluronic F127 as thermoreversible stimuli sensitive polymer along with two different grades of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose as mucoadhesive polymer. It is thought that the thermo-reversion and mucoadhesion would synergistically enhance the residence time of the drug in the nasal cavity and also impart better penetration of the drug to brain for the site-specific activity. The sustained release obtained from the viscous gel makes the treatment even better especially in the chronic epileptic conditions like tonic–clonic seizures. The prepared formulations were evaluated for pH, clarity, in vitro gelation, gelling strength, mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release and accelerated stability studies. Results have shown that final batches of in situ gels were having desired gelation temperature to provide pourable ‘Sol’ form at room temperature and ‘Gel’ form in the nasal cavity with a good gel strength and mucoadhesion required for nasal retention. Formulations showed polymer concentration dependent drug release retardation over a period of 6 h.

Utkarsha S. Shivsharan, Avinsah H. Hosmani, Yogesh S. Thorat
Antimicrobial Activities of Organic Solvent Extracts of Citrus aurentifolia, Eucalyptus globulus and Jasmine grandiflorium Against Certain Microorganisms

Bioassays for antimicrobial activities were carried out using peels, leaves & flowers of Citrus aurentifolia, Eucalyptus globulus and Jasmine grandiflorium respectively. Various organic solvents extract of these plants were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against clinically important organism viz. Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae NCIM2719, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC9763. The plants Extracts were isolated by means of a Soxhlet device and as per accordance to polarity of solvents. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was performed by agar well diffusion method The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration MIC of the plant extracts were 20 µl. The organic solvents extract of all the plants were active against all the investigated bacterial strains while ethanolic extracts were showing considerable activity. Accelerated gradient chromatography (AGC) gave fractions of the extract that were also active as antimicrobial crude extract fractions.

Vaibhav Gaikwad, Anil Landge, Dharba Sastry, Rushikesh Shelke
Evaluation of Phytochemical, Antioxidant of Fumaria parviflora (Lam.) Methanolic Extract of Whole Plant by HPTLC Analysis

Plants play a crucial role in contemporary medication and the Indian traditional medical system is well known for its use of Fumaria parviflora. Analysis using HPTLC showed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, and bitter principles in the plant’s methanolic extract. The HPTLC system also revealed its excellent antioxidant activity. The study concludes that F. parviflora has a wide range of phytoconstituents that contribute to its medicinal potential, confirming its traditional use in India.

Madhu Singh, Shamshad Ather, Himanshu Gupta, Kapil Singh Thakur, Mansee Thakur
Treating Fungal Infections by Herbal Transdermal Patches

Innovations in transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) have made important contributions to medical practice by providing advances in the delivery of treatment with existing and novel drugs. Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improve such character transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Drug delivery through the skin to achieve a systemic effect of a drug is commonly known as transdermal drug delivery system. The study aimed to formulate herbal transdermal patch and to evaluate its physicochemical properties. The Herbal transdermal patch was formulated by adding the extract of neem in the form of oil and ginger powder. Physiochemical tests viz. visual inspection, pH, thickness, weight variation, folding endurance etc. were performed to determine overall efficiency of patches. The antifungal efficacy was investigated with marketed antifungal patch and found reasonably comparable. The related parameters also were estimated in specified limits.

Sonam Toraskar, Vijay Chakote, Shweta Bahire, Pooja Patil
Current Advances in Tablet in Tablet as Drug Delivery System: A Review

Tablets are the most frequently used oral dosage form amongst the patient because of their simplicity, accuracy in the administration of dose, stability, and economy. Coating of the tablet is one of the most important techniques to mask the bitter taste, unpleasant odor and also for a better quality of tablets like color and texture. Commonly used coating techniques are aqueous or organic coating which has its limitations. As compared to other coating techniques tablet in tablet (Compression coating) is one of the first non-solvent coating techniques and it is also known as a dry coating or press coating. The present review consolidates and broadens on introduction, classification, recent advancement, and characterization of tablet in tablet technology. The one-step dry coating (OSDrC®) technology which is used to manufacture tablet in tablet is based on three compression processes. It does not require a separate procedure for the production of the core tablet as both the layer (core layer and surrounding compressed coating layer) are formed into the same tablet press on one turret. Compression coating technology is not only used to preserve the drug from the atmosphere but also to attain the desired release of the drug at a specific site.

Satish Vasant Mandave, Narendra Kumar Pandey
Design and Optimization of Novel Floating Agent Saccharomyces boulardii Probiotic Formulation Based Floating Tablet of Valsartan

Saccharomyces boulardii is the unique yeast probiotic which can grow under aerobic or anaerobic conditions and generates CO2. In present investigation this property of yeast used to develop floating drug delivery system by entrapping generated in situ CO2 gas. Valsartan is a highly selective and orally active antihypertensive drug which has absorption window in the acidic environment of stomach. Central composite design response surface methodology technique used, so as to explore the effect of formulation variables such as amount of Saccharomyces boulardii preparation and calcium hydroxide on floating lag time and % drug release after 12 h. An optimal formulation selected using numerical and graphical optimization technique Valsartan formulation containing this novel floating agent is suitable for gastro retention and it increases its bioavailability. The experimental values and predicted values of an optimized batch are in compliance with each other.

Chittam Suvarna, Bhosale Ashok
Isolation and Characterization of Bioactive Compound from Euphorbia pulcherrima (Wild) Leaves

Medicinal plants have played vigorous role in life of humans also used to treat several diseases. Poinsettia is a popular ornamental crop, mostly during the Christmas season also known as the Christmas Flower. The dried powder of Euphorbia pulcherrima was subjected to soxhlet extraction by using solvent like water, methanol and petroleum ether. This extracts yielded terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponin, and steroids, triterpenes. These were identified as germanicol acetate, germanicol, brain, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosteryl 3-d-glucoside, and rutin. The isolated beta-sitosterol from fraction of ether extract has been characterized by thin-layer chromatography, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Nuclear magnetic resonance. Therefore, it is needed to isolate and detect more bioactive constituents and clarify their structure, activity, with this plant. It is also highlighted for more detailed research and clinical trials to explore its pharmacological activity and clinical efficacy.

Prashali Shinde, Gurdeep Singh
High Performance CeO2 Nanoparticles for Real-Time NO2 Detection

Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared via cost-effective sol–gel route. XRD, SEM, and EDAX techniques was utilized to the crystallographic, morphological, and compositional analysis. Gas sensing characteristics of CeO2 sensor were investigated through customly invented gas sensing unit. CeO2 NPs annealed at 500 °C delivers admirable selectivity towards NO2 gas. CeO2 sensor examined at distinctive working temperatures (150, 200, and 250 °C) and gases such as NO2, CO2 and CO. CeO2 NPs sensor presents prominent sensitivity (33%) towards oxidizing NO2 gas at 200 °C with remarkable stability (75.7%).

R. N. Dhanawade, N. S. Pawar, G. M. Hingangavkar, Y. M. Jadhav, T. M. Nimbalkar, M. A. Chougule, R. N. Mulik, V. B. Patil
Achieving Germ-Free Rejuvenation of Skin by Medicated Beauty Soap with Richness of Essential Oils

The herbal soap was formulated using the Essential oils and fruit extract of Carica papaya, Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum, Prunus amygdalus and Aloe barbadensis. Ayurvedic ingredients are well known that limited or do not have any side effect on the human body. The work was aimed to formulate a medicated soap for dermal infections using the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum. The work was initiated with extraction of active constituents by Soxhalation. Medicated Soap was formulated using three types of oils: Coconut, Almond and lemongrass oil. The medicated soaps were further evaluated for their physiochemical tests appearance, pH, the determined % free alkali content was 0.08%, moisture content about 5.8%, and total fatty matter was determined about 2.80%. The alcohol insoluble content was investigated as 1.02 g. The microbial and stability tests were found to comply with specified limits and as per ICH guidelines.

Pooja Patil, Mithun Maniyar, Pradnya Mane, Bhagyashree Yadav, Pratiksha Mali
In Silico Prediction and Screening of Potential Immunomodulators Using Autodock Vina

The recent drug discovery emphasizes new targets, compound efficiency, and safety in pharmacological models. The main objective of the study is to identify the immunemodulatory potential of Pimpinella anisum phytoconstituents using in silico approach. With the provision of autodock vina, we consider a protein–ligand interaction approach to drug discovery based on the screening of small molecules and a protein at the atomic level. Position and orientation of ligand and binding affinities are basic steps in docking. The current protocol encompasses, ligand selection, protein preparation, target, ligand optimization, analysis of target active binding sites, and binding affinity. Pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated using SwissADME and drug likeness by using Lipinski’s rules. The present study, anethole, anisaldehyde, trans-anethole, cisanethole, estragole, and linalool were docked with nitric oxide (NOs). Molecular docking exposed the remarkable binding affinity between − 9.4 and − 5.9 kcal/mol. Author conclude that, bioactive compounds from Pimpinella anisum can be used as immunemodulatory agents.

Snehal Kashid, Ashish Suttee, Prasad Kadam
Phytochemical Studies and Anticariogenic Activity of Some Folklore Plants for Dental Care

Oral diseases are a major health problem worldwide. The increasing failure of chemotherapeutics and antibiotics resistance exhibited by pathogenic micro-organisms has led to the screening of several medicinal plants for their anticariogenic activity (Indrani and Kalpesh in Asian Journal of Traditional Medicines 11:88–98, 2016) [1]. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anticariogenic activity of some folklore plants for dental health. Argemone mexicana, Pongamia pinnata, Solanum virginianum and Thevetia peruviana were tested against the bacteria that cause dental carries. Ethanolic extracts were prepared by maceration and soxhlet methods and they studied for phytoconstituents by chemical tests. A. mexicana seed extract produced greater zone of inhibition when compared other extracts. The MIC of A. mexicana seeds extract was found to be lower hence; it was decided to study the antimicrobial constituents of the A. mexicana extract by TLC-bio autography. Our findings of anticariogenic activity on the plant extracts against selected bacteria and phytochemical analysis revealed that these plants possess antimicrobial substances.

M. I. Mujawar, E. N. Gaviraj, S. P. Ghunaki
Evaluation of Ondansetron Hydrochloride Interactions with Mannitol

The present study is to evaluate Ondansetron Hydrochloride (OND) interaction with Mannitol. Attempt has been made to prepare physical mixtures of OND with Mannitolin different proportions. The mixture was subjected to room temperature and accelerated temperature as per ICH guideline 1996. The interaction was studied by IR, UV Absorbance, TLC, Dissolution and DSC. From the study it was clear that C = O is the major site for interaction and more interaction is observed in case of accelerated condition than the room temperature. From the data obtained, it is observed that Mannitol showed the interaction with OND Mannitol cause significant reduction in dissolution of OND.

Mangala J. Khandekar, Swarup R. Lahoti, Ravindra G. Kulkarni, Aasiya N. Choudhary
Phytochemical Screening, Isolation, Characterizations of Stem Extract of Parkinsonia Aculeate Linn

Stem of Parkinsonia aculeate was extracted with ethyl acetate. The extracts were screened for the active components present. The ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of Flavonoids, Saponin, Tannin, and Carbohydrate. Ethyl acetate was chromatographed. The flavonoid fraction was isolated using Column Chromatography over Silica gel Column (230–400 mesh) and eluted with the solvent mixture of CH3C1:CH3OH in the ratio (9:1 V/V). The Flavonoid fraction collected was purified using re-crystallization method and a small amount of yield was obtained.

Snehal Patil, Sunil More, Sneha Ghule, Shweta Bahire

Chemical and Physical Processes

Tailored Synthesis of CuO/2D-BiVO4 for Enhanced CO2 Photoreduction to Methanol

Herein, we report on the one-pot synthesis of CuO/2D-BiVO4 nanostructures for natural sunlight induced CO2 reduction to CH3OH. The crystal structures, morphological features, and band gap values were carefully examined using XRD, FESEM, and UV-DRS techniques. The heterogeneous catalysis experimentation revealed that CuO/2D-BiVO4 nanostructures with an optimum concentration of 10 mol% CuO decoration showcased excellent catalytic conversion of CO2 gas to CH3OH throughout 8 h. A comparison of various light sources such as ultra-violet, visible, white light, and natural sunlight is presented. Among the various light sources employed for photocatalytic activity, the maximum CH3OH production yield of 27.435 µmolg−1 h−1 was observed in the presence of natural sunlight. Tailored CuO/2D-BiVO4 nanostructures with conveniently formed heterojunctions depicted enhanced activity when compared to pristine BiVO4 nanosheets. It is anticipated that the work presented here will provide deeper insights into the ever-growing field of renewable energy generation and carbon neutral technology.

Prasad Kulkarni, Aniruddha Chatterjee, Ganesh Kotiye, Shravanti Joshi
Synthesis and Evaluation of Some Fused Ring System of Thiazole for Their Antimicrobial Activity

A series of novel N-2 [2-chloro-4(3,4,5-trimethoxy phenyl azetidine-1-yl)-N4(substituted aryl)-1,3-thiazole-2,4-diamine(4a-j) werw synthesized starting from 3,4,5-trimethoxy benzaldehyde thiaosemicarbazone(1). the compound (1) was obtained by condensing 3,4,5-trmethoxy benzaldehyde with thiosemicarabzide in methanol. 3,4,5-trimethoxy benzaldehyde thiaosemicarbazone(1) on treatment with chloroacetyl chloride afforded 4-chloro [2-(3,4,5-trimethoxy benzylidine) hydrazinyl]-1,3-thiazole(2). Compound 2 was reacted with chloroacetyl chloride and trethylamine to obtain the corresponding 4-chloro-N[2-chloro-4(3,4,5-trimethoxy phenyl)azetidine-1-yl]-1,3-thiazole-2-amine(3). Various substitution on compound(3) with secondary amines yielded series of compounds (4a-j). The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, Elemental analysis and Mass spectral studies. All the compounds were screened for their antimicrobial properties. Disc diffusion values of compound 3 and 4(a-j) revealed that the some of synthesized compounds were showing potent antibacterial activity.

Ramdas Naiknaware, Ravi Ajudia, Hemant Bansode, Sweta Bahire
Experimental and CFD Analysis of Heat Transfer Enhancement in Channel

Energy is necessary for economic progress, which is beneficial for emerging nations. The connection between rising energy consumption and economic development is not necessarily a simple linear one, though. The high levels of energy consumption in industrialized nations are responsible for their high standards of life. Experiments were conducted in the current work to improve heat transfer in channel with various rib arrangements, and a technique for heat transfer and fluid flow analysis in a channel with rib utilizing CFD tool. Average wall temperatures for steady state conditions were computed for the various mass flow rates and compared to test findings. The findings of the experiment demonstrate that as the mass flow rate of the flowing fluid increases, so does the rate of heat transfer from the test surface. It also demonstrates how the addition of ribs to the test surface improves forced convection heat transfer.

Vaibhav H. Bansode, Munna Verma
Heat Transfer Augmentation in Forced Convection with Regularly Spaced Inserts—A Review

Heat transfer augmentation techniques are widely used to enhance performance in the Process industries, Thermal Power Plants, Heat Exchangers, Air conditioning, Refrigeration industries, Automobiles etc. In heat transfer enhancement basically two types of techniques are used, Passive technique and Active technique. Out of these techniques Passive technique used widely used, as it does not consume energy to operate it. Researcher have investigated the performance parameters with different type of twisted tape. In this paper the detailed review of regularly spaced insert is discussed. In the regularly spaced inserts attempt is made to reduce pumping power by reducing obstacles in the flow. All the researcher has used twisted tape insert for study of regularly spaced inserts. In some of the research work special type of tube section is used like convergent divergent tube. Some of the researcher has found that regularly spaced insert helps for the enhancing overall performance ratio whereas some of them found that it affects adversely. Overall Enhancement Factor found to be improved between 1 and 1.66 at various Reynolds numbers.

Suryaji S. Kale, S. S. Gawade
Thermoluminescence Studies in Europium Doped KSr2Br5 and CsBa2I5 Halide Phosphors

Divalent Europium (Eu2+) doped alkali halides KSr2Br5 and CsBa2I5 phosphors are synthesized by wet chemical method. These phosphors are characterized for Thermoluminescence (TL) properties. Different γ-dose using Co60 source are used to irradiate the samples. For CsBa2I5:Eu2+, thermoluminescence curve shows maxima at 207.5 °C and for KSr2Br5:Eu2+, TL maxima peaks around 261.74 °C which are related to the defects at trap depths. Kinetic parameters of the peak are calculated. The activation energy value for KSrBr5 and CsBa2I5 are 1.5 eV and 0.811 eV respectively, suggest a possible good stability of the trapped charges produced during irradiation. Hence, Eu (0.5%) doped KSr2Br5 and CsBa2I5 phosphors could be used for possible TL Dosimetry applications.

Chhagan D. Mungmode, Dhananjay H. Gahane, Chetan V. Chanmal, Sanjiv V. Moharil

Deployable Environment or Health Care Technologies

Analysis and Design of Pyrolysis System for Islampur City

Plastic waste has enduring life and currently, Islampur Municipality does not have any treatment technology for the disposal of plastic waste. 1.2 tons of plastic waste is dumped in the dumping yard every day. The 16 acres of dumping yard are 85% filled with earlier dumped Municipal solid waste. There are 6 technologies invented by researchers for effective plastic waste disposal. In this paper, these methods are compared and the suitability of pyrolysis technology is analyzed and designed for Islampur City. The main goal is to find methods of getting rid of plastic trash without harming the environment, and to replace that trash with environmentally safe items.

Shridhar Kumbhar, Priyanka Bamane
Intermittent Water System—A Review of Literature

This literature review tries to examines the concept of intermittent water distribution network systems, which provides the water to consumers for only a few hours in a day. The review explores the reasons for the widespread use of Intermittent Water Systems (IWS) in few countries, including cost-effectiveness and water conservation. However, it also discusses the negative impacts of IWS, such as increased health risks due to the proliferation of waterborne diseases and social inequality resulting from differential access to water, inoperative water meters, resulting in revenue loss. Overall, the literature suggests that while IWS may provide short-term benefits in terms of cost and water conservation.

Nitin P. Sonaje, Mukund M. Pawar
Extraction of Cellulase from Soil Microorganisms by Using Banana Peels as Substrate

Higher production of essential food commodities and the lack of adequate methods and facilities for managing these, as well as their components, by-products and residues, have led to tremendous losses and waste. Bananas are one of the most widely consumed fruit and are available throughout the year. In this study, attempts were made to use Banana peels as a substrate for production and extraction of cellulase by Bacillus subitilis. Optimization and characterization studies were also carried out. On quantitative analysis, it was found that B.subtilis showed an activity of FPase 0.09 IU/ml and CMCase 0.182 IU/ml respectively. Further, partial purification of the extracted cellulase was also carried out. Enzyme activity of purified enzyme was 0.2144 IU/ml when assessed by DNS method. This method revealed a much easier and low expensive protocol for the production of extracellular enzyme cellulase by solid-state fermentation.

Samir Pachpute, Chetan Pawar, Sanjana T. Philip
In Vitro Leaf Injection Method for Detecting the Pathogenicity of Pomegranate Bacterial Blight Pathogen

Pomegranate is called as ‘fruit of paradise’ due to its multiple uses. However, pomegranate yield is adversely affected by infection by various phytopathogens. One of the hazardous pathogens is Xanthomonas axonopodis pv Punicae causing bacterial blight, the disease commonly known as Telya disease. In current research work, the pathogen was isolated from infected pomegranate fruits and leaves. The pathogen was studied for its cultural, morphological, biochemical and genetic characters. The pathogenicity of the isolate was determined by in vitro pathogenicity test in petri plate. The fresh healthy leaves were removed from the plant. Those leaves were artificially injected with the isolate. The leaves were observed for development of symptoms.

Mrudula M. Bendigeri, Girish R. Pathade, Yasmin C. Attar
Disha: The Facility Locator for the Disabled

With the advancements in digital and information technology, various kinds of maps are becoming a necessity for information and navigation technologies. Paper based maps can be easily read through even by a disabled person but such kind of maps lack some functions and facilities, that a normal disabled user is not able to access. For that easy road to road navigation, user interface, cognitive and voice assistive technology becomes a necessity for a disabled person. Furthermore, more advanced and optimal techniques must be considered to the disabled user’s maximum benefit. Therefore, we have proposed android based system that will be beneficial for disabled human beings. So disabled human beings can easily find services which are offered to them easily.

Kuldeep Vayadande, A. Dhiwar, D. Khadke, R. Golawar, S. Khairnar, S. Wakchoure, S. Bhoite, D. Prasad
Face Mask Detection and Recognition Using CNN Deep Learning Models

In the pandemic situation, the corona virus-2019 is unfortunately highly transmissible all over the world. To wear mask is one of the precautionary measures that reduces the risk level in the public place. In this study, our focus is classification of with mask and without mask peoples in public places. To deal with this problem deep learning technique is used here. We have used different algorithms for more precise classification of with mask and without mask dataset. The result of this study reveals that, the Admax algorithm showed 97.92 percent accuracy level as compared to other algorithms. In future, for similar kind of studies this algorithm is strongly recommended that can help to classify the image objects more precisely.

Aniket Muley, Tukaram Navghare, Vinayak Jadhav
Ergonomics-Based Postural Assessment of Rural Water Fetcher

The ergonomics tools REBA and RULA are used for evaluation and ergonomic assessment in carrying, handling, lifting and moving loads. A RULA and a REBA ergonomic tool are used to evaluate complex manual water fetching activities, and this study on water fetching activities mainly involved women from rural areas. Based on this ergonomic tool, observations, video recordings, and photographs of women fetching water were taken. The reviewed literature and postural activity guidelines were proposed for a summary analysis of women's water fetching activity and discomfort. The basic objective of the water fetching study is to determine the level of ergonomic strain in different water fetching activities. Another objective of water fetching activities is to determine the level of strain and musculoskeletal disorders in different body segments and to take corrective measures to reduce the health risk in water fetching activities.

Sonali Patil, Sanjay More, K. K. Sangale, Rakesh Birajdar, Muntasim Bhaijan
Design and Implementation of Plastic and Microplastic Collection System

Plastic trash contaminates the earth and it’s environment and has adverse effects on all living beings including humans. There is a need to devise plastic management strategies at a large scale as plastic manufacturing is rising and the current practices used for waste management are ineffective. Plastic is not biodegradable and it can move far in the aquatic environment. Scientists have started quantifying plastic waste in freshwater and plastic debris is now been observed on beaches, lakes, rivers, and riverbanks. There are numerous sources of plastic waste, and their introduction into the environment can occur at any point in the plastic product's life cycle. Current systems and machines to manage plastic contamination focus on large plastic contaminants. This project aims to bridge the gap between a separate system for macro and micro-plastics by trapping them both in a single system.

Abhishek N. Bhagat, Kashmira V. Dixit, Amarnath D. Landge
Ward Assignment Prediction in Multi-speciality Hospital Using DDPGO Technique

In a current crisis of pandemic hospitals are unable to allocate the ward to patients in efficient manner. Patients have to visit the Emergency Department and register their information and medical condition. Then the Emergency Department will run the deep learning algorithm with curriculum learning after that the process data is passed to DDPGO to find out the appropriate ward depending on the state and patient type to allocate the suitable ward to the approached patient. While carrying out this process the deep learning algorithm self-trains itself on curriculum data and improves itself each time the process is run. We have 7 different types of wards which can be allocated to the different patients requesting the services. This type of system will help hospitals to allocate wards whenever there is a huge health crisis just as a pandemic as well as it will help improve the process of ward allocation.

Gajanan Krishna Bhoi, G. A. Patil, U. L. Kulkarni
Evaluation of Some Medicinal Plants as an Antimicrobial Agent for Drinking Water Treatment

Plants are the richest resource of drugs of traditional systems of medicine, modern medicines, nutraceuticals, food supplements, folk medicines, pharmaceutical intermediates and chemical entities for synthetic drugs. The use of plants and plant products as medicines could be traced as far back as the beginning of human civilization. In the present Study, Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Ocimum tenuiflorum (Tulsi), Syzygium aromaticum (Clove), Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Aloe vera (Aloe) was tested for drinking water treatment. Various doses of different selected medicinal plants powder were given on water sample and tested for antimicrobial capacity against the water borne pathogens. Syzygium aromaticum powder was found to be effective against human pathogenic bacteria like S. typhi and E. coli. Also, other selected medicinal plants show best results for drinking water treatment.

Sachin G. Chonde, Sonal G. Chonde
Identification and Analysis of Musculoskeletal Disorder Among Indian Truck Driver

Truck driving is one of growing and demanding profession in India, there are many people from Rural and Urban society engaged in Truck Driving. Indian Truck drivers face work related concerns and injuries due to musculoskeletal disorders. Truck driving is overstressed, stubborn and prolonged static postures while performing the duty while operating from limited space of truck cabin, which many times not designed as per Indian Anthropometry. During driving, driver faces numerous discomforts like continued sitting positions, considerable pressure to neck, upper, lower back and uneasy environment. Work related musculoskeleton disorders are observed due to these discomfort factors. Study was directed to identifying the problems concerned to musculoskeletal disorder among Indian Truck Drivers, its linked factors and their outcomes. A survey in questionnaire form was done which had Demographic, professional and data related to musculoskeletal disorders, their reasons and their consequences. Around 100 Truck drivers contributed to the study.

A. B. Rathod, R. T. Vyavahare
A Comprehensive Review of COVID-19 Detection and Prediction Using of ML/DL Method

COVID-19, a new coronavirus, causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). As of late, COVID-19 spread to more than 500 million individuals throughout 230 nations and territories, turning it into a pandemic. Traditional diagnosis methods are no longer effective due to the exponential rise in infection rates Machine learning (ML) and Deep learning (DL), two intelligence techniques that have been developed by numerous researchers, can assist the healthcare industry in providing prompt and accurate COVID-19 detection. As a result, this work offers an in-depth analysis most recently ML and DL methods for COVID-19 analysis. In-depth investigations are released between December 2019 and November 2022. Generally speaking, this document contains more than 200 studies that were carefully chosen from a variety of publications, including MPDI, ScienceDirect, Springer, Elsevier, and IEEE. For identifying COVID-19 and forecasting outbreaks, SVM is the most widely used machine learning method, and CNN is the most widely used deep learning algorithm. The most often utilized metrics in prior investigations were accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The research community will receive guidance from this review paper regarding the expected development of machine learning and deep learning for COVID-19 and motivation for their prospective work.

Md. Sadab, Deepak Kumar, Ved Parkash
Construction of Spreadability Testing Apparatus

Researchers always encounter a problem in the establishment of reliable technique for measurement of spreadability characterization of semisolid topical–mucosal preparations. The parallel-plate method is the most widely used method for determining and quantifying the spreadability of semisolid preparations. This method is less precise and sensitive, and the data it generates must be manually interpreted and presented. The present invention relates to an apparatus for measuring the spreadability of semisolid formulations. The apparatus works on the principle of centrifugation forces. The fixed amount of semisolid formulation (0.5–1 g) under evaluation is poured in the center of disc and rotated at 500–800 rpm for 30 s. The centrifugal force generated during disc rotation circularly spreads the semi solid preparation. The spreadability is evaluated based on the diameter of semisolid formulation spread on the circular plate. The present investigation is a reliable technique to evaluate spreadability characterization of semisolid preparations.

Vrunal V. More, Prajakta K. Khule, Mithun G. Maniyar, Anil V. Landge, Pradip A. Jadhav
Elucidation: Reduction of Environment and Health Issues Due to Non-exhaust Pollution

With concern environment and health, brake friction emission is a very hot issue that creates bad effects on the environment. The brake pad composition contains many metallic and other ingredients; some of them form toxic oxides and pollute the environment. The environment agencies of various countries have found the bad effect of brake pads emitted pollutants like Asbestos, Pb, Sb, Cu, etc. on plants, animals and human beings. The use of Asbestos is banned by the environment protection agency because it is found to be carcinogenic. To reduce the effects of harmful pollutants on the environment it is necessary to develop eco-friendly organic friction material. In the present work, friction material is developed with some natural ingredients. The physical, mechanical and tribological characterization is done as per ASTM standards. Thermal behavior and morphological properties are studied by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM).

S. P. Jadhav, S. H. Sawant

Mechatronics, Micro-nano Related for Bio and Societal Applications

Influence of Uneven Patch Zeta Potential on Electroosmotic Mixing Characteristics in a Heterogeneously Charged Micromixer

The effects of unequal patch zeta potential modulation between walls on flow and mixing characteristics for the electroosmotically driven flow in a plane micromixer are examined utilising numerical analysis. To investigate the flow field, recirculation velocity (UR), dimensionless flow rate (Q), mixing efficiency and dimensionless species concentration field, the ratio of the patch zeta potential of the top to bottom wall $$\left( {\zeta_{{\text{r}}} } \right)$$ ζ r , diffusive Peclet number (Pe) and the patch zeta potential of the bottom wall $$\left( {\zeta_{{\text{P,bottom}}} } \right)$$ ζ P,bottom are varied within the physically justified range. It's been found that UR strengthens with $${\upzeta }_{{\text{P,bottom}}}$$ ζ P,bottom . Interestingly, the value of UR is insensitive with $$\zeta_{{\text{r}}}$$ ζ r up to $$\zeta_{{\text{r}}}$$ ζ r  = 1. and UR enhances with $$\zeta_{{\text{r}}}$$ ζ r when $$\zeta_{{\text{r}}}$$ ζ r  > 1. Furthermore, as $$\zeta_{{\text{r}}}$$ ζ r and $$\zeta_{{\text{P,bottom}}}$$ ζ P,bottom rises, the flow rate decreases. The critical limit of Pe is obtained such that $$\eta$$ η is 100% and it increases with increasing $$\zeta_{{\text{r}}}$$ ζ r at higher $$\zeta_{{\text{P,bottom}}} \left( { = 3} \right)$$ ζ P,bottom = 3 . Moreover, $$\eta$$ η drops with Pe and rises with increase in $$\zeta_{{\text{r}}}$$ ζ r for larger Pe.

Sumit Kumar Mehta, Anindya Nath, Sukumar Pati
Heat Transfer Enhancement in Micro-fin Tube Using Coil Wire Insertions of Different Lengths

Heat transfer augmentation techniques are generally employed in thermal power plants, refrigerators, radiators for space vehicles, automobiles, process industries, heating and cooling in evaporators, air-conditioning equipment, etc. Inserting coiled wire in microfin tubes are a typical technique that offers a higher heat transfer increase and, at the same time, only a mild pressure drop. One of the passive heat transfer augmentation techniques been used is coiled wire insert and are widely used tubes in several heat transfer applications. Flow conditions as well as Reynolds number directly affect the thermodynamic performance of heat exchange components. Rate of heat transfer, Heat Transfer Coefficient, Pressure drop in case of microfin tube with coil wire insertion is higher than that of without coil wire insertion. Friction factor decreases with the increment in mass flow rate of hot water for the microfin tube with and without coiled wire insert. Wire coils at a constant pumping power shows an increase in heat transfer at low Reynolds number.

Roheshkumar S. Lavate, K. B. Sutar, Avishi Saini, Ankita Shakshi, Parth Sethi
Numerical Study of a Miniature Concentration Gradient Generators (CGGs) of Various Shapes

Microfluidic devices in the miniaturized chip format are famous for performing laboratory functions and are used in a wide array of biomedical applications such as rapid clinical diagnosis, forensic science, flow cytometry, and analysis of blood chemistry, protein and DNA. In many biochemical applications studies of CGG helps to get the trends of cells and molecules in different samples such as extracting the maximum information of tumour cells in response to several drugs varying in concentration so as to obtain the minimal sample which is helpful for basic biomedical research in cancer treatment. This paper analyses concentration gradient generators (CGGs) of various shapes having two inlets and five outlets for water and ethanol fluids. The study resulted that the square-shaped CGG performed better than the other designs. It also demonstrates the no significant effect of Reynold number variation on the concentration gradient for Straight CGG.

Sachin Gavali, Prashant M. Pawar, Digvijay D. Ronge
Computational Analysis of Fluid Flow in Split and Recombine Micro-channel with Circular Obstacles

The microchannel plays a vital role in the microfluidics and have vast application in different areas like Lab-on-a-chip, Micro reactors, micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) biological applications, etc. The mixing in microchannel governs the performance. The computational study of split and recombined micro channels with obstacles is presented in this paper. The computational study of arrow type microchannel is performed by using COMSOL Multiphysics software at different Reynolds number (Re). The sway of the Reynolds number, form, and size of the barriers is reported along with the suggestions regarding the future scope.

Sanjay A. Pawar, Vimal Kumar Chouksey
Comparison of Experimental and Analytical Results of Impact of Various Geometrical Configurations on Pressure Drop Through Micro-channel

Shape and size of micro-channel have remarkable effect on the heat transfer and the pressure drop performance. This paper mainly focuses on the effect of various geometrical configurations of micro-channel heat sink performance. The performance parameters considered for the study are Reynolds number, friction factor, uniformity of flow and pressure drop. In this study, the surface area of all micro channels is kept constant, so that the any performance variation can be attributed solely to the variation in geometry of the micro channel. Different geometrical configurations of micro channel considered in this study. Experimental analysis is carried out for different flow rates of coolant through the micro channels. In this work, the copper micro channel having hydraulic diameter as a 1340 µm is used in experimental analysis. The experimental results obtained in this study are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical results from literature. This work is proposed to help in selecting suitable geometry for micro channels having the less pressure drop per unit length along with less pumping power and reduced weight and size of the device.

Sachin M. Kale, Digambar T. Kashid, Avinash K. Parkhe, Sandip S. Wangikar, Chetan C. Jadhav, Sunil S. Gaikwad
Manganese Oxide Nanofibers for High Performance Supercapacitors

Here we reported the facile electrospinning technique for the synthesis of MnO2 nanofibers (NFs) electrodes envisaged in energy storage application. As-spun MnO2 NFs are followed by annealing at 500 °C to remove polymer matrix. Rough and randomly oriented morphology of the fibers was confirmed through SEM analysis. Structural and wettability studies of synthesized electrodes were carried out using Raman Spectroscopy and Contact Angle Measurement respectively. While, electrochemical properties of MnO2 NFs electrode were studied with the help of cyclic voltammetry as well as galvanostatic charge–discharge measurement, which revealed 336 F/g specific capacitance for 5 mV s−1 scanning rate, 27.7 Wh/kg specific energy, 83.3 kW/kg specific power with a Coulombic efficiency of 98% in 1 M NaOH aqueous electrolyte solution.

S. S. Gavande, A. C. Molane, A. S. Salunkhe, Y. M. Jadhav, T. M. Nimbalkar, R. N. Mulik, V. B. Patil
A Critical Review of Recent Research on the Application of Nanofluids in Heat Exchanger

Heat exchangers (HEs) are the devices that are used to transfer heat from one medium to another. Heat is not mixed together in this type of heat exchanger. A number of research studies have been conducted in order to improve heat transfer through HEs. Nanofluids are used as a coolant in HEs to improve their effectiveness. The nanofluids have been used in HEs recently in various HEs such as pipe-in-pipe heat exchangers, shell and tube HEs, plate heat exchangers and many other heat exchangers. However, several novel developments in the use of HEs and nano-fluids have been made.

Shital Waware, Sunilkumar Harsur, Ramdas Biradar, Pallavi Jadhav, Kamalkishor Maniyar, Pushparaj Warke
CFD Analysis of Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing with Rectangular Top Inlet

Journal bearings have wider range of applications owing to their theoretically infinite life span and high load carrying capacity at high speeds. An accurate performance prediction of journal bearing will lead to longer bearing life and reduced energy losses. In this work CFD analysis is used to simulate the fluid flow in a journal bearing. With help of advanced computational facilities and dedicated software tools hydrodynamic action of journal bearing can be predicted more accurately. This work simulates a journal bearing with a top inlet as close to the practical cases. Top inlet case for various eccentricities, operating speeds, and lubricants are simulated in this work. Pressure and temperature profiles and contours of the respective bearings are presented. Simulated results can be adopted for designing a bearing with top inlet.

Smeet Ashar, Abhijeet Chavan, Pradnya Patil
Brain Tumour Segmentation Using cGAN with Residual (ResNet) Technique

A brain tumour is a malformed cell growth that can be either cancerous or non-cancerous. The most dangerous disease is a brain tumour, which can be detected. The tumour can be detected easily and reliably using automated techniques on MRI images. Many researchers have proposed several methods for effective tumour detection, including efficient diagnosis and segmentation of brain tumors. We propose conditional generative adversarial networks (cGAN)-based approach for brain tumour segmentation in this paper. cGAN is made up of two networks: the generator, which generates the brain tumour segmentation map, and the discriminator, which validates the generator output. Encoder-decoder architecture is used in the proposed generator. It encodes the input brain MRI slice into a set of features using the encoder network, and then uses the decoder network to generate the brain tumour segmentation map from the encoded features. To maintain structural consistency, feature maps generated by a specific encoder are shared with the corresponding decoder via skip connections i.e. ResNet. Unlike previous encoder-decoder architectures, we ran the encoder feature maps through a convolution layer before passing them to the appropriate decoder. It aids in the refinement of the encoded features. We trained the proposed network for brain tumour segmentation using the BraTS-15 training set. Its testing set, on the other hand, is used to validate the proposed network for brain tumour segmentation. The experimental analysis compares proposed and existing methods for brain tumour segmentation using the Dice similarity coefficient and the Jaccard index. When compared to existing methods, the proposed method outperforms them all for brain tumour segmentation.

Meenakshi M. Pawer, Suvarna D. Pujari, Swati P. Pawar, Anchit Narwadkar
Effect of Patch Length on Electroosmotic Mixing Characteristics Inside a Heterogeneously Charged Micromixer

The flow and mixing attributes within a micromixer with heterogeneous surface charge is investigated. The finite element approach is used to numerically compute the governing transport equations. By varying the patch lengths (HP) and the diffusive Peclet number (Pe) in the physically reasonable span, the flow field, dimensionless flow rate, recirculation velocity (UR), species concentration field, and mixing efficiency ( $$\eta$$ η ) are explored. It reveals that as patch length is increased, the size of the regions of recirculation and UR both augment while an increment in patch length diminishes the flow rate. Moreover, as HP increases, the homogeneity of the outlet dimensionless species concentration improves and gets closer to 0.5. There is a critical Pe (Pecri,1) over which mixing efficiency is 100% for all HP and Pecri,1 increases as HP increases. Contrarily, for Pe > Pecri,1, mixing efficiency decreases as Pe increases.

Anindya Nath, Sumit Kumar Mehta, Sukumar Pati
Breast Cancer Detection Using Deep Neural Network (DNN) on Histopathological Data

The leading cause of death for women in both developed and less developed nations is breast cancer (BC). It may be possible to treat cancer patients effectively by classifying the subtype of malignant (cancer) lesions. With the recent development in computer vision and deep learning, convolution neural networks (CNN) achieved enormous success in image classification and widely used in medical image processing. To recognize the subtype of cancer automatically of the whole slide images (WSI), which is computational impossible. The proposed Multi-Scale, Multi-Channel feature network for breast histopathological image classification follows the knowledge sharing strategy by sharing learned features at each stream across the network and the attention mechanism. The proposed module achieved accuracy for different magnification factors (MF) (40×, 100×, 200× and 400×) but the superior accuracy i.e. 99.25% for multi-class and 99.70% for binary at 200× MF. We observed that Deep Neural Network (DNN) model were better than existing models like VGG16, Xception and ResNet152, MuSCF-Net.

Suvarna D. Pujari, Meenakshi M. Pawar, Swati P. Pawar, Mohua Biswas
Image Processing for Protein Detection in the Egg Using a Micro Fluidics System

Micro fluidics system has great attention in recent years because of their interdisciplinary nature. It has a wide application in various fields, especially in biomedical applications. In a food, protein is one of essential element to grow the body therefore it becomes significant test the protein level in food. Egg is the common food used in daily diet to fulfill the need of protein. Egg protein testing is carried out in laboratories in traditional way that consumes the reagents (CuSO4 and NaOH) in bulk, requires lengthy reaction times as sample quantity more. Micro-fluidics eliminated these limitations as quantity of sample and reagent is too less. This research focuses on Image processing algorithm for the detection of protein in egg samples. The image processing algorithm is based on color detection as the protein level is indicated by faint to dark violet i.e. low protein to high protein respectively. In this work microchannel for microfluidics system has been designed and fabricated by using soft lithography method. The mould for microchannel has been fabricated using CO2 Laser machining on PMMA (methyl methacrylate) material and Channel has been fabricated by using PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) material. Images for 10% to 100% protein level of known sample at the interval of 10% have been collected from outlet at the cannel by using camera. The collected images of known sample have been imported for image processing and datasets have been created. Randomly, the known samples have been tested for the validation.

Sachin M. Khomane, Pradeep V. Jadhav, Saurabh S. Kale, Revansiddha S. Gaur, Suryakant B. Nilgar, Siddheshwar K. Mali, Prasanna S. Thalpati
Minimization of Droplet Size Using Baffle in T-Junction

With the advent of lab-on-a-droplet based strategies for various applications, the droplet generation process in miniaturized devices has received notable attention from the research community. For long, researchers have developed varied strategies of tuning the size and frequency of droplets so as to reduce reagent consumption, production of waste and increase controllability and portability for microfluidic usage. Hence, in the interest of minimizing droplet size, a novel technique of incorporating baffle in a microfluidic T-junction for generating monodisperse droplets of smaller size than the conventional T-junction is proposed in this study. Through comprehensive 3-D numerical simulations using the Level-Set method, it has been found that the inclusion of baffle in the T-junction reduces the droplet size by 22.5%, thus meeting demands of minimized size monodispersed droplet generation without encountering fabrication complexity issues.

Manash Protim Boruah
Development of a CFD Based Artificial Neural Network Metamodel for the Design of Micromixer

Microfluidics has enabled researchers to explore the physics of fluid in the regions of micro in size. Use of Machine Learning techniques in microfluidics to predict flow behavior and reduce time is an unexplored area. A Y-shaped micromixer was designed and its five design variables were identified. A sample size was designed by general factorial method and the simulation experiments were conducted using a CFD solver. The evaluation criteria was mixing index at the outlet of Y-shaped micromixer. Based on results of 1024 simulations, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) metamodel was developed. Finally the metamodel was validated against the simulation results for the values of design variables outside the full factorial sample. The results show that the metamodel shows agreement with the simulation results with 0.6% difference.

Digvijay Ronge, Prashant Pawar
Modeling and Simulation of Check/Flap Valve Used in Micropump Applications

Check/flap and fixed geometry or diffuser/nozzle valves are being used in micropump applications to direct the flow in the preferred direction. Out of these two types, the check valves are preferred due their advantages with respect to the flow rate and the pressure. The Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) module was employed to simulate the check valve. The effect of inlet pressure on the flap valve displacement and flow rate was studied. The range of inlet pressure considered was 5–40 mbar. The study results reveal that the displacement of the flap valve and flow rate increase with increase in the inlet pressure.

Ranjitsinha R. Gidde, Amarjit P. Kene, Prashant M. Pawar
Characterization of Polydimethylsiloxane for Viscoelastic Properties of Using DMA

In the micropump, the diaphragm is a vital component and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is used for fabricating the diaphragm. This PDMS is soft polymers and highly biocompatible compliant. For the micropump, the flow rate depends on swept volume which in turn depends on the diagram. Hence, the viscoelastic characterization of PDMS materials is a vital one. Accordingly, a viscoelastic characterization of PDMS is essential to investigate loss and storage moduli which have significant influence on diaphragm used in micropump applications. In the present study, PDMS layers of different proportions have been examined for loss and storage moduli using Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA).

Ranjitsinha R. Gidde, Amarjit P. Kene, Prashant M. Pawar
Techno-Societal 2022
Prashant M. Pawar
Babruvahan P. Ronge
Ranjitsinha R. Gidde
Meenakshi M. Pawar
Nitin D. Misal
Anupama S. Budhewar
Vrunal V. More
P. Venkata Reddy
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Electronic ISBN
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