Skip to main content
Top

2024 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

15. Tenability

Authors : Haukur Ingason, Ying Zhen Li, Anders Lönnermark

Published in: Tunnel Fire Dynamics

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

Activate our intelligent search to find suitable subject content or patents.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

One of the most important issues during a fire in a tunnel is the possibility for a safe escape. During an evacuation, tunnel users may be exposed to toxic gases, radiation, high temperatures and dense smoke. In this chapter the most important consequences of exposure to gas components, radiation and convective heat are presented. Examples of asphyxiant and irritant gases and the effect on evacuating people are presented. Different models for estimating time to incapacitation and other endpoints due to exposure are discussed.

Dont have a licence yet? Then find out more about our products and how to get one now:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 390 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe




 

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 340 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Versicherung + Risiko




Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Literature
1.
go back to reference Hull TR, Stec AA (2010) Introduction to fire toxicity. In: Stec A, Hull R (eds) Fire toxicity. CRC Hull TR, Stec AA (2010) Introduction to fire toxicity. In: Stec A, Hull R (eds) Fire toxicity. CRC
2.
go back to reference Tan K-H, Wang T-L (2005) Asphyxiants: simple and chemical. Ann Disaster Med 4(1):S35–S40 Tan K-H, Wang T-L (2005) Asphyxiants: simple and chemical. Ann Disaster Med 4(1):S35–S40
3.
go back to reference Purser DA (2008) Assessment of hazards to occupants from smoke, toxic gases, and heat. In: The SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering, 4th edn. National Fire Protection Association, Quincy Purser DA (2008) Assessment of hazards to occupants from smoke, toxic gases, and heat. In: The SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering, 4th edn. National Fire Protection Association, Quincy
4.
go back to reference Nelson GL (1998) Carbon monoxide and fire toxicity: a review and analysis of recent work. Fire Technol 34(1):39–58CrossRef Nelson GL (1998) Carbon monoxide and fire toxicity: a review and analysis of recent work. Fire Technol 34(1):39–58CrossRef
5.
go back to reference Varon J, Marik PE, Fromm RE, Gueler A (1999) Carbon monoxide poisoning: a review for clinicians. J Emerg Med 17(1):87–93CrossRef Varon J, Marik PE, Fromm RE, Gueler A (1999) Carbon monoxide poisoning: a review for clinicians. J Emerg Med 17(1):87–93CrossRef
6.
go back to reference EPA (2012) Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs): hydrogen fluoride results. United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA (2012) Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs): hydrogen fluoride results. United States Environmental Protection Agency
7.
go back to reference Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals, vol 4 (2004) Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals, vol 4 (2004)
8.
go back to reference ISO (2012) Life-threatening components of fire – guidelines for the estimation of time to compromised tenability in fires. International Organization for Standardization ISO (2012) Life-threatening components of fire – guidelines for the estimation of time to compromised tenability in fires. International Organization for Standardization
9.
go back to reference IDLH (1994) Documentation for immediately dangerous to life or health concentrations (IDLHs) – chemical listing and documentation of revised IDLH values (as of 3/1/95). NIOSH IDLH (1994) Documentation for immediately dangerous to life or health concentrations (IDLHs) – chemical listing and documentation of revised IDLH values (as of 3/1/95). NIOSH
10.
go back to reference AFS (2011) Occupational exposure limit values. The Swedish Work Environment Authority AFS (2011) Occupational exposure limit values. The Swedish Work Environment Authority
11.
go back to reference ISO (2004) Estimation of the lethal toxic potency of fire effluents. International Organization for Standardization ISO (2004) Estimation of the lethal toxic potency of fire effluents. International Organization for Standardization
12.
go back to reference Levin BC, Paabo M, Gurman JL, Clark HM, Yoklavich MF (1988) Further studies of the toxicological effects of different time exposures to the individual and combined fire gases: carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide and reduced oxygen. In: Polyurethane ’88, Proceedings of the 31st Society of Plastics Meeting, Lancaster, PA. Technomic Publishing Co, pp 249–252 Levin BC, Paabo M, Gurman JL, Clark HM, Yoklavich MF (1988) Further studies of the toxicological effects of different time exposures to the individual and combined fire gases: carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide and reduced oxygen. In: Polyurethane ’88, Proceedings of the 31st Society of Plastics Meeting, Lancaster, PA. Technomic Publishing Co, pp 249–252
13.
go back to reference Purser DA (2010) Toxic hazard calculation models for use with fire effluents data. In: Stec A, Hull R (eds) Fire toxicity. CRC Purser DA (2010) Toxic hazard calculation models for use with fire effluents data. In: Stec A, Hull R (eds) Fire toxicity. CRC
14.
go back to reference Purser D (2014) Models for toxicity and tenability limits. Personal communication, January 5 Purser D (2014) Models for toxicity and tenability limits. Personal communication, January 5
15.
go back to reference Pauluhn J (2016) Risk assessment in combustion toxicology: should carbon dioxide be recognized as a modifier of toxicity or separate toxicological entity? Toxicol Lett 262:142–152CrossRef Pauluhn J (2016) Risk assessment in combustion toxicology: should carbon dioxide be recognized as a modifier of toxicity or separate toxicological entity? Toxicol Lett 262:142–152CrossRef
16.
go back to reference Pauluhn J (2017) Corrigendum to “Risk assessment in combustion toxicology: Should carbon dioxide be recognized as a modifier of toxicity or separate toxicological entity?” [Toxicol Lett 262:142–152, 2016]. Toxicol Lett 275:27CrossRef Pauluhn J (2017) Corrigendum to “Risk assessment in combustion toxicology: Should carbon dioxide be recognized as a modifier of toxicity or separate toxicological entity?” [Toxicol Lett 262:142–152, 2016]. Toxicol Lett 275:27CrossRef
17.
go back to reference BFS (2011) Boverkets allmänna råd om analytisk dimensionering av byggnaders brandskydd. Boverkets Författningsamling BFS (2011) Boverkets allmänna råd om analytisk dimensionering av byggnaders brandskydd. Boverkets Författningsamling
18.
go back to reference Ingason H, Lönnermark A, Li YZ (2011) Runehamar tunnel fire tests, SP Report, vol 2011. SP Technicial Research Institute, p 55 Ingason H, Lönnermark A, Li YZ (2011) Runehamar tunnel fire tests, SP Report, vol 2011. SP Technicial Research Institute, p 55
19.
go back to reference Ingason H, Lönnermark A (2005) Heat release rates from heavy goods vehicle trailers in tunnels. Fire Saf J 40:646–668CrossRef Ingason H, Lönnermark A (2005) Heat release rates from heavy goods vehicle trailers in tunnels. Fire Saf J 40:646–668CrossRef
20.
go back to reference Lönnermark A (2005) On the characteristics of fires in tunnels. Doctoral thesis, Department of Fire Safety Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden Lönnermark A (2005) On the characteristics of fires in tunnels. Doctoral thesis, Department of Fire Safety Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
21.
go back to reference Brandt AB (2003) Presentation of test result from large scale fire tests at the Runehamar tunnel. In: Ingason H (ed) International symposium on Catastrophic Tunnel Fires (CTF), SP Report 2004:05. SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, Borås, pp 117–120 Brandt AB (2003) Presentation of test result from large scale fire tests at the Runehamar tunnel. In: Ingason H (ed) International symposium on Catastrophic Tunnel Fires (CTF), SP Report 2004:05. SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, Borås, pp 117–120
22.
go back to reference Lighty JS, Pershing DW (1993) Control of pollutant emissions from waste burning. University of Utah Lighty JS, Pershing DW (1993) Control of pollutant emissions from waste burning. University of Utah
23.
go back to reference Risholm-Sundman M, Vestin E (2005) Emissions during combustion of particleboard and glued veneer. Holz Roh Werkst 63:179–185CrossRef Risholm-Sundman M, Vestin E (2005) Emissions during combustion of particleboard and glued veneer. Holz Roh Werkst 63:179–185CrossRef
24.
go back to reference Grønli M (1996) A theoretical and experimental study of the thermal degradation of biomass. Doctoral Thesis, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim Grønli M (1996) A theoretical and experimental study of the thermal degradation of biomass. Doctoral Thesis, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim
25.
go back to reference Zevenhoven R, Axelsen EP, Kilpinen P, Hupa M (1999) Nitrogen oxides from nitrogen-containing waste fuels at FBC conditions – Part 1. In: The 39th IEA FBC meeting, Madrid Zevenhoven R, Axelsen EP, Kilpinen P, Hupa M (1999) Nitrogen oxides from nitrogen-containing waste fuels at FBC conditions – Part 1. In: The 39th IEA FBC meeting, Madrid
26.
go back to reference Simonson M, Tuovinen H, Emanuelsson V (2000) Formation of hydrogen cyanide in fires – a literature and experimental investigation. SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, Borås Simonson M, Tuovinen H, Emanuelsson V (2000) Formation of hydrogen cyanide in fires – a literature and experimental investigation. SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, Borås
27.
go back to reference Tuovinen H, Blomqvist P (2003) Modelling of hydrogen cyanide formation in room fires. SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, Borås Tuovinen H, Blomqvist P (2003) Modelling of hydrogen cyanide formation in room fires. SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, Borås
28.
go back to reference Hansson K-M, Samuelsson J, Tullin C, Åmand L-E (2004) Formation of HNCO, HCN, and NH3 from the pyrolysis of bark and nitrogen-containing model compounds. Combust Flame 137:265–277CrossRef Hansson K-M, Samuelsson J, Tullin C, Åmand L-E (2004) Formation of HNCO, HCN, and NH3 from the pyrolysis of bark and nitrogen-containing model compounds. Combust Flame 137:265–277CrossRef
29.
go back to reference Ingason H, Bergqvist A, Lönnermark A, Frantzich H, Hasselrot K (2005) Räddningsinsatser i vägtunnlar. Räddningsverket Ingason H, Bergqvist A, Lönnermark A, Frantzich H, Hasselrot K (2005) Räddningsinsatser i vägtunnlar. Räddningsverket
30.
go back to reference Lönnermark A, Blomqvist P (2006) Emissions from an automobile fire. Chemosphere 62:1043–1056CrossRef Lönnermark A, Blomqvist P (2006) Emissions from an automobile fire. Chemosphere 62:1043–1056CrossRef
31.
go back to reference Ingason H (ed) (2005) TG2.2 – Target criteria. UPTUN Report WP2 – Task Group 2 Ingason H (ed) (2005) TG2.2 – Target criteria. UPTUN Report WP2 – Task Group 2
32.
go back to reference Gehandler J, Ingason H, Lönnermark A, Frantzich H, Strömgren M (2013) Performance-based requirements and recommendations for fire safety in road tunnels (FKR-BV12). SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden Gehandler J, Ingason H, Lönnermark A, Frantzich H, Strömgren M (2013) Performance-based requirements and recommendations for fire safety in road tunnels (FKR-BV12). SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden
33.
go back to reference TRV (2011) TRVR Tunnel 11: Trafikverkets tekniska råd Tunnel. Trafikverket TRV (2011) TRVR Tunnel 11: Trafikverkets tekniska råd Tunnel. Trafikverket
34.
go back to reference Truchot B, Fouillen F, Collet S (2018) An experimental evaluation of toxic gas emissions from vehicle fires. Fire Saf J 97:111–118 Truchot B, Fouillen F, Collet S (2018) An experimental evaluation of toxic gas emissions from vehicle fires. Fire Saf J 97:111–118
Metadata
Title
Tenability
Authors
Haukur Ingason
Ying Zhen Li
Anders Lönnermark
Copyright Year
2024
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-53923-7_15