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Open Access 2024 | Open Access | Book

The 8th International Conference on Advances in Construction Machinery and Vehicle Engineering

ICACMVE 2023

Editors: Saman K. Halgamuge, Hao Zhang, Dingxuan Zhao, Yongming Bian

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering

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About this book

This open access book presents select contributions from the 8th International Conference on Advances in Construction Machinery and Vehicle Engineering (ICACMVE 2023), focusing on the recent advances and best practices of Construction Machinery and Vehicle Engineering, related technologies and sciences to meet the challenges in mechanical design, mechanical control and smart manufacturing. The contents focus on design engineering, automation in engineering, construction machinery, intelligence applications, new energy and others. Some of the topics discussed here include advanced manufacturing technologies, industrial engineering and automation, design of mechanical systems, control engineering, automobile engineering, performance analysis of energy systems, thermal modelling and simulations of different systems, optimization and intelligence. The wide range of topics presented in this book will be useful for beginners, researchers, and mechanical engineering professionals.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Mechanical Design and Power System Modeling

Frontmatter

Open Access

Rigid-Flexible Coupling Dynamics Analysis of Boom-Hoisting System of Wind Power Crane

Based on the slenderness of wind power crane boom and the complexity of working environment, a mathematical model of rigid-flexible coupling dynamics including wind load and vibration characteristic analysis is carried out for the boom-hoisting system. The equivalent spring-damping system, spatial pendulum system and elastic double-force rod are used to simulate the elastic vibration of boom, the swing of lifting weight and the elastic vibration of wire rope, respectively. The kinematic characteristics of each component are described using a hybrid coordinate system. Simulation of wind loads through an instantaneous wind model consisting of the average and pulsating wind. Derivation of dynamic model for wind power crane under wind load based on the Lagrange equation. Taking a certain type of wind power crane as the research object, based on the derived mathematical model and ADAMS model, the response curves of boom and lifting weight are solved in MATLAB and ADAMS respectively for the rotary working condition, to verify the rationality and accuracy of the mathematical model and to obtain the influence of wind load on the swing angle of lifting weight. The analysis results provide a certain theoretical basis for crane structure design, control system design and wind turbine hoisting.

Xuyang Cao, Guoyang Xu, Yongchang Hu, Jihong Zhou, Jian Kang

Open Access

Parametric Design Method of Hydraulic Buffer System for Low-Speed Heavy-Load Trailer

To address the problem of high-pressure low-frequency hydraulic impact on the hydraulic buffer system mounted on self-propelled hydraulic trailer, a parametric simulation and design framework is provided for the widespread use of integrated accumulator systems in the low-speed heavy-load vehicle. A mathematical model of the accumulator was established for theoretical analysis, and numerical simulation were conducted on corresponding parameters using AMESim. Finally, a routine method was proposed to achieve feasible arrangement of accumulators. In this study, for the problem of high-pressure impact conditions caused by severe fluctuations, the system performance could be increased by arranging different combinations of accumulators with different parameter configurations. Taking a commercial model of heavy trailer as an actual case, a reasonable parameterized design was carried out for its comprehensive accumulator buffer system, and verification was conducted.

Guanyu Min, Qing Zhang, Liwei Xu

Open Access

Algorithm Design of a Variable Height Wheel-Legged Robot with Fuzzy Theory and PID Fusion Control

A balancing control algorithm for a wheel-legged robot is designed for current logistics and distribution mobile robots. Since the wheel-legged robot is a nonlinear underactuated system, it is crucial to realize the balanced control and robustness of the wheel-legged robot in the absence of an accurate dynamics model. In this paper, an optimal control scheme for the wheel-legged robot based on the fusion control of variable-height adaptive fuzzy PID and conventional PID is designed. The balance of the wheel-legged robot is controlled by adaptive fuzzy PID control, the lifting and attitude changes of the two sides of the wheel-legs are controlled with high precision by traditional PID control, and the speed and steering control of the wheel-legged robot is not affected by the structure of the model, and is controlled by traditional PID control with linearization. The attitude of the robot is detected in real time using the BMI088 attitude sensor to realize the positional control. Experimental and simulation results show that the control algorithm of the wheel-legged robot designed in this paper is reliable, and the robot runs smoothly and robustly.

Xuyang Cao, Changlin Pu

Open Access

Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Excavator Positive Flow Control System

Due to the obstacle to the global optimal solution through the conventional sequential design, the multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) of an excavator positive flow control system was carried out with hydraulic components and controller programs as design objects simultaneously. The positive flow control system model was established on the basis of bench and field tests to describe the coupling relationship among different subsystems. The comprehensive performance function was proposed and the MDO was carried out with the multiway valve’s throttling characteristics, positive flow control parameters and spool geometries as design variables. Compared with the sequential design that only the control parameters were adjusted, the MDO searched a wider design space. The comprehensive working performance has been improved with the MDO of an excavator’s swing system, which is an example for forward designs of other complicated electro-mechanical-hydraulic systems.

Yuanliu Chen, Anlin Wang, Xiaotian Li

Open Access

Development of CDC Shock Absorber Design Software

In response to the low design efficiency caused by the numerous design parameters of existing shock absorbers, this research presents the design of an efficient software tool for obtaining the external characteristics of Continuous Damping Control (CDC) shock absorbers. Firstly, a mathematical model for the damping force of the shock absorber was established based on principles from fluid dynamics, elasticity mechanics, and throttle orifice models in the rebound and compression valve systems. Secondly, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) was developed to visualize the external characteristics and conduct simulation studies of the CDC shock absorber. Finally, experiments were performed on a shock absorber test bench to validate the external characteristics of the CDC shock absorber using initial structural parameters. The GUI software interface enables direct adjustment of the shock absorber's structural parameters and signal excitation, thereby enhancing the practical efficiency of the shock absorber. A comparison between simulation and experimental results reveals that the relative error rate is generally high when the velocity amplitude is 0.052m/s, with a maximum relative error rate of 24.44%. For other excitation velocity amplitudes, the relative error rate remains within 10%. This demonstrates the high accuracy and reliability of the established mathematical model for the CDC shock absorber, providing a solid theoretical foundation for studying the shock absorber's external characteristics.

Zhitao Liang, Zhiwei Zhao, Luyou Yue, Xinlong Yang, Xinxing Zhang, Bing Zhang

Open Access

Research on Dynamic Simulation of Crane Movable Pulley System with Defects

The movable pulley block failure can lead to catastrophic crane accidents, so the dynamic performance of a defective movable pulley block system is essential. Based on ANSYS contact analysis through APDL command, a pulley block simulation platform is developed, which can be used for dynamic analysis of defective pulley systems. Firstly, a parameterized 2D contact model is established and validated through static analysis. Then, dynamic simulation analysis for the intact pulley block under two working conditions is performed: lifting from the ground and sudden unloading. Finally, COMBIN 37 is used as a defective element, and dynamic simulations are analyzed for the faulty pulley system with hook or wire rope rupture. The analysis results show that the longer the unloading time and the shorter the wire rope length will lead to a minor impact under hook rupture and sudden unloading conditions. Meanwhile, if the unloading time is consistent, the dynamic analysis of the intact pulley block under sudden unloading and defective pulley block with hook rupture are equivalent. It is worth noting that when the steel wire ropes on both sides of the moving pulley break simultaneously in a defective system, it will cause a more significant horizontal impact force. This study demonstrates that ANSYS contact analysis with COMBIN 37 as the defective element can accurately and efficiently apply the dynamic simulation of a crane movable pulley system with defects.

Shuo Li, Hongsheng Zhang, Xiangxiang Wang

Open Access

Design and Dynamic-Static Characteristics Analysis of Electric Fuel Pump Boost Valve

In response to the challenges of significant power loss and the difficulty in quickly blocking fuel reverse backflow in one-way valves used in electric fuel systems for aerospace engines, this paper proposes a pump boost valve with a main valve spool designed as a baffle structure and equipped with a backflow damping mechanism. The aim of this boost valve is to achieve flow distribution between the main and auxiliary fuel circuits during engine startup, thereby reducing ineffective power loss. The baffle spool design is implemented to block reverse fuel backflow, while the backflow damping mechanism is incorporated to regulate the dynamic and static characteristics of the boost valve. Based on the proposed design, the working principle is analysed, and a dynamic model is established using AMESim for the modelling and simulation study of the boost valve's dynamic and static characteristics. Comparative experiments are conducted between the newly designed boost valve and traditional boost valves, and the accuracy of the simulation model is validated through experimental verification. The experimental results confirm that the newly designed boost valve outperforms traditional valves in terms of reducing power loss and effectively blocking fuel reverse backflow. Additionally, through the analysis of parameters such as spring stiffness, spool diameter, and backflow damping hole, this study optimises the static and dynamic characteristics of the electric fuel pump. By optimizing these structural parameters, the performance of the electric fuel pump is improved, leading to enhanced stability and responsiveness.

Guolei Si, Binjie Li, Mengru Li, Caibo Zhou, Liang Lu, Zize Zhang

Open Access

A Study on the Parameters Matching of Dynamics System Electric Bulldozer

In this paper, the parameter matching of dynamics system electric bulldozer was proposed. Firstly, Structure and parameters of the electric bulldozer were introduced. Secondly, the speed and power of the motor were calculated. Finally, power battery parameter was calculated. The results show the peak torque of the drive motor is 800 N·m, the peak power is 100 kW, the maximum rotational speed is 3000 rpm, the rated rotational speed is 1200 rpm and discharge power of the power battery are 235kw.

Congfeng Tian, Piqiang Tan, Wenpu Wang, Bin Hu, Zhaoliang Wang, Jinbao Song, Hanxiao Xi

Open Access

Design and Application of Hydraulic Inverted Pendulum

This paper briefly describes the designing process of a hydraulic inverted pendulum including hardware and software design. First, the mechanical structure, including the components of the platform will be introduced. Second, the electrical system including controllers for receiving signals from sensors which measure the variables important for controlling inverted pendulum is about to be shown. Afterwards, the paper will present a mathematical model of the whole platform, then shows up an open loop simulation established by AMESim and Simulink in order to analysis its dynamic characteristic. By comparing the simulation result and reality, the rationality of mathematical model is finally verified.

Guyue Ding, Yongming Bian, Meng Yang

Open Access

Mixed Linear Quadratic Regulator Controller Design for Path Tracking Control of Autonomous Tracked Vehicles

With the advancements in autonomous driving technology, artificial intelligence and computer science have facilitated the autonomous operation of machinery. Industrial production efficiency is enhanced by this autonomy in construction machinery. Furthermore, personal safety for machine operators is also improved. Among these advancements, path tracking control emerges as a critical component for the automation of construction machinery. It primarily focuses on the lateral and longitudinal control of the machinery, enabling stable tracking of a predefined path even under challenging operational conditions. To enhance the accuracy and robustness of path tracking, this paper proposes a mixed linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller specifically designed for autonomous tracked vehicles. This approach uses the LQR control algorithm to suppress the noise generated by complex construction environments and accurately track the desired path. The effectiveness and practicality of this method are validated through simulation experiments.

Baiyu Tian, Tianliang Lin, Chunhui Zhang, Zhongshen Li, Shengjie Fu, Qihuai Chen

Open Access

Design Method of Rail Grinding Profile Based on Wheel Rail Contact Relationship

When the railway track is damaged, it is essential to grind it in in a timely manner to enhance the wheel-rail contact performance. This paper relies primarily on the rolling radius difference function as the main design basis, taking the expected distribution between the wheel and the rail as the boundary condition. In cases where the abscissa of the rail is known, the Euler method is used to solve the differential equation to obtain the optimized ordinate of the rail. The profile of the rail is optimized, and the feasibility of the design method is verified through programmed algorithm. Based on the application results of the rail grinding profile design on the Wuhan-Guangzhou line, the rail light strip position and contact point distribution are more reasonable after grinding, the dynamic performance of the vehicle passing is improved, and the wheel-rail wear rate is reduced.

Rui Song, Dilai Chen, Gang Shen

Open Access

A Review on Safety Management Strategies: Theory and Practical Application of Lithium-Ion Power Batteries

Battery safety in electric vehicles is a comprehensive engineering endeavor that requires meticulous consideration at every stage, including battery materials, battery pack design, and battery management systems (BMS). This review focuses on safety management strategies and practical applications of lithium-ion power batteries. The management of battery safety primarily encompasses charge and discharge safety, high-voltage safety, and thermal safety. Among these, charge and discharge safety management aims to prevent battery damage or safety incidents caused by overcharge or over discharge. High-voltage safety management involves detecting insulation faults, overcurrent, and other potential risks to prevent electrical hazards. Thermal safety management ensures individual battery cells, modules, and the battery pack maintain an optimal operating temperature range and uniform temperature distribution, thereby preventing thermal runaway.

Xiaojian Yi, Lin Hu, Shuang Liu, Changfu Zou

Open Access

Parameter Optimization Methods of the Hydraulic Regenerative Braking System Based on the Actual Working Condition

Hydraulic regenerative braking system is a kind of complex MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) system which is strongly nonlinear and multivariable, especially affected observably by the working condition. Moreover, it possesses the typical hybrid system characteristics since there are a multitude of nonlinear components internal which should result to continuous dynamic variation and discrete decision process. Hence, the traditional calculating method is difficult to analyze and evaluate the system accurately while operating on the actual working conditions. In order to solve the parameters optimization problem of the system which has significantly hybrid system characteristics constrained by the actual working conditions, this paper presents a new type of genetic algorithm by solving fitness function based on operation simulation, which provides a promising full condition optimization method for parameter optimization according to this kind of system. Simulation results show that this algorithm could optimize system configuration and enhance 3% for the braking energy recovery efficiency.

Tingting Luo, Nianning Luo, Jing Yang, Bo Huang

Open Access

Design and Development of Dynamic Test Bench for Electric Wheel Load Sensing Suspension

Based on the modular design idea, a new type of dynamic test bench for electric wheel load sensing suspension was designed and developed, including load-bearing platform module, vertical force loading module, electric wheel module, spring mass simulation module, etc., and the test bench has the functions of wheel jump simulation, steering simulation and wheel vertical force and lateral force detection. The finite element simulation results show that the strength of the test bench meets the requirements. The results of the virtual prototype simulation show that the test bench can accurately measure the vertical and lateral forces experienced during the dynamic operation of the wheels.

Yan Li, Pengbo Sun, Jiawei Chen, Xinbo Chen

Open Access

Dynamical Simulation Analysis of Faulty Gearbox in Quay Crane Under Dynamic Load

Dynamics simulations with faults can elucidate fault vibration characteristics, yet the vibrational properties of the quay crane lifting gearboxes under dynamic load excitation remain unclear. Based on multi-body dynamics theory, a multi-body dynamical model of the quay crane gearbox is established, simulating dynamic load excitation caused by cables and containers during the operation of a quay crane. The vibration responses under various working conditions and load types of different gear states are analyzed, and the corresponding fault frequency features are extracted by envelope spectrum. Simulations indicate that local gear faults enlarge the amplitude of gearbox vibrations, inducing the phenomenon of gear mesh frequency and its harmonics modulated by gear fault frequency. Based on these studies, a testbed for the quay crane gearbox is constructed. The experiment verifies the accuracy of the dynamic model and reveals that the simulation signal of load-as-dynamic-load is more consistent with reality than static load. The results provide a basis for fault diagnosis of quay crane lifting gearboxes under dynamic load, and can offer simulation data support for intelligent diagnosis models lacking fault samples.

Wenzong Feng, Qing Zhang, Zhuoxiang Chen, Jianqun Zhang, Haoyu Wang

Open Access

Optimal Design of Frame Structure of Center Axle Trailer Under Heavy Load Conditions

In recent years, the mid axle train has gradually entered the transportation market because of its large loading capacity and flexible steering. The static simulation of full load bending, full load torsion and full load braking were carried out for the upper and lower platforms of the trailer frame, and the stress and deformation were obtained. Through the topology optimization design, the pseudo density cloud image with material removal as the optimization objective was obtained. The response surface optimization method was used to adjust the main optimization parameters of the frame platform, and the sensitivity value of its influence on the strength, stiffness and mass of the lightweight frame was analyzed. Finally, the actual value of the optimization parameters was determined. The results showed that the strength, stiffness, and stability of the lightweight frame met the requirements, and the total weight loss of the lightweight frame is 437.07 kg, and the weight loss ratio reached 14.51%. Finally, the static strength test of the lightweight frame was carried out, and the results showed that the lightweight frame met the use requirements.

Dongyu Gao, Jinyu Ma, Huisai Zheng, Menzhe Zhang, Jingyi Zhao

Open Access

Simulation and Analysis of the Internal Flow Field of Mining Solenoid Pilot Valve Based on Fluent

During the commutation process, the electromagnetic pilot valve experiences turbulent kinetic energy dissipation, leading to unstable internal flow and generating noise in the valve. Based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the phenomena of impact and energy consumption in a new type of high-pressure and high-speed electromagnetic pilot valve were investigated. Then flow field simulations were conducted under various differential pressure and valve opening conditions, in order to obtain distribution maps of turbulent kinetic energy, pressure, and velocity. Finally, the simulation results were compared, and the results showed that increasing the outlet pressure and enlarging the valve port opening have a positive impact on mitigating the structural issues in the pilot valve.

Zhaoqiang Wang, Lijing Zhu, Lei Guo, Yangjun Lu, Peixing Li, Chenhun Lu

Open Access

Research on EMC Simulation of Electric Drive System of Electric Engineering Machinery

In order to suppress the electromagnetic interference in electric construction machinery, improve the stability and safety of the vehicle on the influence factors of electric construction machinery EMC system analysis, electric drive system due to the internal power electronic equipment for a long time in the high voltage, high current conditions and become the main influence factors of electric construction machinery EMC. The main methods to reduce electromagnetic interference of electric drive system grounding, shielding and filtering are expounded, which leads to the emulated research of EMC simulation of electric drive system of electric engineering machinery. The equivalent circuit model of battery, electronic control, motor and test system is established, and the low-pass filter composed of inductor and capacitor is designed. And the combined three electric system, test system, filter circuit composed of the model of simulation analysis, with or without filter input current, different frequencies of input and output voltage signals compared, the results show that adding filter can effectively improve the conducted interference, the use of RLC filter composed of four RLC components, can effectively improve the signal low frequency bias and high frequency distortion.

Qiaohong Ming, Yangyang Wang, Meiyu Zong

Open Access

Design of Expandable Electric Vehicle Drive Demonstration Teaching Platform

In recent years, the new energy vehicle industry has been vigorously developed, and the demand for new energy vehicle practitioners and their knowledge of electric vehicles has been continuously increasing. In the undergraduate education of vehicle engineering, there is an urgent need for an electric drive demonstration teaching platform. This design aims to solve the teaching demonstration function of multiple configurations of electric vehicle drive systems on the same platform. The electric vehicle drive demonstration teaching platform is designed as an expandable way, which can meet the requirements of various combinations of different motor forms, battery types and capacities, control methods, etc. for platform loading and demonstration, achieving diversification of the teaching platform. It can also conduct experiments on various types of new energy vehicle configurations through connecting racks The expansion of the demonstration teaching platform meets the needs of teaching demonstrations and experiments related to electric vehicle drive systems.

Zifeng Zhao, Zele Chen, Shaojia Huang, Jianguo Fan, Lijie Gao

Open Access

Design and CFD Simulation of Heat Transfer in Circular Pipes

A major issue for human growth is the energy crisis. In the current study, circular pipes are considered an energy-efficient technology viable in all seasons. It uses non-constant soil temperature and water flow in coldest regions. This model reports the thermal performance of pipes with different results in hot and cold climates. To degree thermal performance, pipe version changed into advanced and simulated with ANSYS 18.1 Fluid Flow (Fluent). Data was collected from two modelled summer and winter seasons. Continuity, momentum, and energy equation have been used for the simulation. Comparison analysis is also being carried out about the obtained results with previously published articles. The effects of summer and winter temperature and speed on performance were also evaluated. Further, the graphical interpretation is also carried for velocity and pressure distribution. The study highlights a drastic drop in temperature and velocity near the inlet and outlet region while Pressure is inversely proportional to velocity in these regions. It is also obtained from the simulation that the temperature pressure and velocity remain uniform in the fully develop region.

Furman Ali, Munawwar Ali Abbas, Bo Sun, Li Chen, Shahid Hussain

Open Access

Thermal Robustness Redesign of Electromagnet Under Multi-Physical Field Coupling

Aiming at the durability problem of the proportional electromagnet used in the proportional valve of engineering machinery, in order to improve its thermal failure resistance under random load conditions, a parametric redesign model of the proportional electromagnet was proposed based on the multi-physics coupling theory and robust optimization theory. This article takes the proportional electromagnet with a basin-type suction structure as the research object. The parameter model was verified through steady-state proportional electromagnet tests and temperature distribution tests. On the premise of ensuring the accuracy of electromagnetic calculation force, the conductivity and heat transfer parameters with fuzzy magnitude in the system were calibrated. Taking the key structural parameters of the proportional electromagnet and coil as the control factors, and the enameled wire diameter of the coil caused by the uncertainty of the production process conditions as the noise factor, an orthogonal experiment was designed based on the Taguchi method, and the thermal robustness redesign evaluation function of the proportional electromagnet was defined. Multi-factor weighted form. The thermal load of the proportional electromagnet obtained from the excavator field test was used as the response to calculate the heat source. Under the constraint of allowable temperature rise that can not cause coil insulation failure, a redesign method for key structural parameters that minimizes changes in system response under noise interference is given. Studies have shown that coil length and number of turns are the main factors affecting the thermal robustness of proportional electromagnets. The window shape of the coil is determined by the winding process and determines the magnetic properties and heat transfer capabilities of the system. The thermal robustness redesign method of proportional electromagnets proposed in this article has engineering reference value for the customized design of electromechanical products under magnetothermal coupling conditions.

Chenyu Liu, Anlin Wang, Xiaotian Li

Open Access

Reliability Optimization Design Method for Firearms Automaton Mechanism

In order to deal with the reliability optimization design problem of mechanisms containing multiple motion phases and multiple collisions, this paper takes the firearms automaton as an example and gives a general method to deal with such problems. Firstly, the motion stages are divided according to the automatic cycle diagram of the firearms automaton, and the discrete dynamics model of the firearms is established. Then the reliability model of the automaton mechanism is established based on the performance margin theory. Finally, taking the pressure coefficient of air chamber, the friction coefficient of the guide, the stiffness of the counter-recoil spring and the stiffness of the hammer spring as design variables, the optimized design variables are obtained through the calculation of the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm. The results of the optimized design are close to the idealized results of the existing products, which proves the rationality and effectiveness of the mechanism reliability optimization design method proposed in this paper.

Yichuan Fang, Yongjuan Wang, Pengchao Li, Tongguang Gu, Xin’an Gao

Open Access

Study on Kinetic Energy Conversion of Perforating Shaped Charge Jet in Perforating Completion

The energy of a perforating shaped charge is the cause of transient pressure fluctuations in a wellbore. Based on the law of energy conservation, the energy can be divided into the kinetic energy of a jet, the residual energy of a wellbore, and energy dissipation. The jet kinetic energy is used to penetrate a perforating gun, casing, and formation. The residual energy of a wellbore is used to cause wellbore pressure fluctuations. Based on the fluid–structure coupling principle, a jet penetration model was developed to improve the conversion rate of the jet kinetic energy, reduce the residual energy of a wellbore, protect wellbore safety, and reduce the downhole perforating completion accident. This model took into account a penetrating charge shell, explosive, liner, perforating gun, and casing. Meanwhile, the penetration process and kinetic energy conversion of a perforating shaped charge jet were studied. The obtained results indicated that the kinetic energy conversion of a perforating shaped charge jet is significantly affected by the cone angle of a liner, the thickness of a liner, and explosive mass. The 70°cone angle of a liner, its 1 mm thickness, and the 25 g explosive mass have the maximum kinetic energy conversion in the research range.

Zhenxiang Li, Fayong Yuan, Ruifeng Guo, Zhihang Chen, Zhengjin Zhang

Open Access

Characterization of Solder Mechanical Properties Based on Nanoindentation

This article systematically elaborates on the in-situ measurement of solder using nanoindentation technology, and combines numerical inversion methods to analyze its elastic–plastic and creep mechanical properties. The elastic–plastic and creep constitutive equations of solder are constructed, and the influence of temperature on the elastic–plastic and creep characteristic of solder is studied. This provides an effective in-situ measurement and analysis method for characterizing the mechanical properties of high-density micro solder interconnection structures in radar electronic equipment.

Wenjun Sheng, Zhihai Wang, Huiming Cheng

Open Access

The Research on Structural Design of Vehicle Integrated Display and Control Console

The display console and vehicle platform designed in this paper adopt an integrated structure design, the structure is simple and beautiful, easy to operate and easy to maintain, and the standard function module is selected as far as possible to meet the standardization requirements. Based on the design idea of generalization, serialization and combination, the display console is divided into unit design, which can be successively divided into: display unit, control unit, display and control processing unit and cabinet unit. Among them, the display unit and control unit learn from the mature design technology to ensure the design quality; The display and control processing unit is designed separately, with rigid connections to both the display unit and control unit externally, and the internal air duct is set up to meet the heat dissipation requirements. The cabinet unit is arranged under the display and control processing unit and the two are rigidly connected to ensure the overall structural rigidity and provide required installation space for user devices. The display console adopts split designs to support quick installation, disassembly and handling of four units. 3D design software is used to analyse the installation space, visual field, hand operation space, knee space and maintenance space of the display console to ensure that the display console has a good human–computer interaction function. The internal space of the display console is designed with three-dimensional wiring, the routing path of each cable in each unit is planned, and the cable can be customized in advance, which greatly improves the efficiency of on-site electrical assembly. Mechanical analysis software is used to simulate the main structure of the display console to ensure that the whole display console meets the mechanical performance requirements. The above design and analysis have certain guiding significance for similar design work of vehicle display console.

Xiancheng Luo

Open Access

Simulation Study on Driving Dynamic Characteristics of a Light Rocket Launcher

Taking a light rocket launcher as the research object, based on random road excitation and applying the theory of multi-rigid-body system dynamics, the multi-body dynamics model of a light rocket launcher is established, and its driving dynamic characteristics are studied. Considering the load-bearing characteristics of leaf spring and the use of tires, the driving dynamics simulation of light rocket launcher on C-class virtual road is carried out. Considering the vibration impact of the road surface on the rocket launcher, the vibration characteristic results of the rocket launcher are analyzed, and the ride comfort index is used to evaluate the driving reliability of the rocket launcher.

Qingtian Ma, Cungui Yu, Guanglei Li, Cheng Zhou, Shuang Liu, Junyi Ma

Open Access

Piecewise Linear Recursion Iterative Method for Form Finding and Force Analysis of Suspension Cable

The suspension cable structure has the advantages of saving steel, light weight, beautiful in shape, and has been widely used in long-span bridges. In recent years, the suspension cable structure has been used in the flexible photovoltaic supports of small and medium-sized spans. The existing piecewise catenary method and finite element method have the problems of initial value sensitivity and easy divergence due to the highly geometric nonlinearity of suspension cable structure, and a practical calculation method of piecewise linearization of the suspension cable is proposed in this paper. The suspension cable is divided into n (n ≥ 40) segments. First, the initial values of inclination angle and tension of the left end of the suspension cable are given roughly, and the position of the right end of the suspension cable can be obtained by piecewise recursive method according to the external forces. Based on the deviation between the calculated position and the target position of the right end of the cable, the values of the inclination angle and tension of the left endpoint of the suspension cable are modified, and the second iteration is carried out. In this way about 3–6 iterations, the calculated position of the right end of the cable can converge to the target position, and the exact geometry and internal force of the suspension cable can be obtained. The method can be used to calculate the internal force and deformation of suspension bridges under static loads, and the results accuracy fully meets the engineering design requirements.

Renjie Shang, Linghao Ren, Pianpian Huang

Open Access

Design of Fiber Winding for Thick-Walled Cylinder with Uniform Residual Tension

Fiber winding with metal cylinders as liners is the primary method used for producing high-speed rotors, flywheels, and pressure vessels. A design model was established for thick-walled cylindrical fiber winding by using the layer-by-layer stacking method of thin composite material rings in this article. The effect of liner structure and fiber type on prestress was analyzed. And the phenomenon of tension loss in no-twist fibers was studied. The winding tension of each layer was calculated accurately under the condition of uniform residual tension, which was the optimal process in engineering. Compared with the experimental results, the computational error of the model does not exceed 5%. The winding model developed in this article, which takes into account tension loss, can more accurately guide the design of winding tensions for thick-walled cylinders.

Zilong Yang, Fujiang Yang

Open Access

Research on the Design and Verification Process of Mechanical Penetrations in Reactor Compartment

Mechanical penetrations, as important pressure pipelines penetrating the reactor compartment, withstand high temperatures and pressures. The current complete design and verification process for mechanical penetrations. This article focuses on the problem of stress concentration and easy damage of the penetration components in the reactor compartment under high temperature and high pressure environment. Combining with the existing regulations of nuclear power plants and ships, finite element analysis method is used to analyze the stress of the penetration components under specific high temperature and high pressure and ship ultimate load coupling. At the same time, based on the simulation analysis results, the structural dimensions of the penetration components are optimized, and a mechanical penetration verification process is designed. The coupled thermal stress results of the penetration indicate that the stress of the penetration is too large at the tail of the sleeve, with the values of primary film stress Pm and primary bending stress Pb being 228.2 and 275.91 MPa, respectively. From this, it can be seemed that there is obvious stress concentration at the junction of the support ring and sleeve, as well as at the transition point of the insulation layer, which is the weakest area of the penetration.

Qian Zhang, Zuoqin Qian, Qiang Wang, Xinyu Wang

Mechanical Control and Fault Monitoring Analysis

Frontmatter

Open Access

A Machine-Vision-Based Hub Location Detection Technique for Installing Wind Turbines

A position detection approach based on machine vision is developed to address the issue that the traditional wind turbine hub lifting procedure relies on the location of engineers and cannot provide quick feedback on the position information. A camera and a range sensor are mounted on the suspended object to enable real-time detection of the fan hub’s posture state in relation to the engine room. A monocular camera positioning technique based on circular features is created for this detection method. The relative pose coordinates of the hub are computed using the position data given by the range sensor. A filter for the range sensor is created based on the hoisting features of the actual working circumstances. The filter applies a filter to the data from the ranging sensor, considerably reducing measurement error and enhancing detection technique stability.

Xuyang Cao, Yongchang Hu, Guoyang Xu, Shuai Song, Xiaochun Tie

Open Access

Fault Simulation and Experimental Validation of Accessory Transmission System

As an important part of the aero-engine, the accessory transmission system affects the operation status of the engine, and it is of great significance to carry out fault mechanism analysis and fault identification. This paper takes a certain type of aero-engine accessory transmission system as the research object, flexes the box using ANSYS, establishes a rigid-flexible coupling model under normal working conditions and fault conditions through ADAMS, and studies the vibration characteristics in single fault and multi-fault combination modes, such as unbalance of the shaft system, gear misalignment and gear broken tooth. Considering different load loading conditions, the dynamic simulation of the transmission system is carried out, the shafting displacement and box acceleration response are extracted, the time–frequency domain feature information of the vibration signal is analyzed, and the fault characteristics and fault types are corresponded one-to-one. The test bench for the principle prototype of the accessory transmission system is designed and built, and the experimental research is carried out. The results show that the simulation results have good consistency with the principle prototype test results, which verifies the rationality of the simulation model.

Yu Sun, Xuyang Cao, Yunbo Yuan, Guang Zhao, Song Ma, Haofan Li

Open Access

Adaptive Control of Drilling Rig Power Head Speed

In the drilling process, the adjustment of drill pipe rotational speed is essential to accommodate the variations encountered in different geological strata. However, the existing low automation level in drilling rigs and heavy operator reliance often result in suboptimal speed regulation, leading to low drilling efficiency. An adaptive control approach for power head speed based on a fuzzy clustering algorithm was proposed, which utilizes the fuzzy clustering algorithm (FCM) to cluster drilling parameters, including drilling pressure, rotational speed, and drilling speed, to identify of distinct strata. Furthermore, the rotational speeds of the clustering centers of different strata were used as the input rotational speeds of its control system, the simulation results show that the speed control can be realized by controlling the opening of the valve port, and the fuzzy PID control is used to realize the adaptive control of the speed and the tracking of the speed curve.

Xinxin Xu, Wanzhi Cai

Open Access

A Method of Assembling Clearance Measuring of Oil Film Bearing in Tandem Cold Mill

In order to reduce the certain number of oil film bearing burning accident, this paper proposes a novel method used to test static pressure pipes and measure the assembling clearance between sleeve and bush inside the bearing. On account of the theory of lubrication and the working mechanism for oil film bearing, through the development of a new set of hydrostatic oil supply system and test platform, provide the static supporting pressure and the disassembling and locking pressure. And based on this method, the assembling clearance measuring was carried out. The results show that the proposed measuring method has the ability to support the disassembling and assembling process of the oil film bearing. In addition, this method provides an important basis for the engineers of cold rolling mill on site to adjust the assembling clearance of oil film bearing. The application of this method effectively reduces the online burning accidents of the oil film bearing.

Bo Sun, Chuanjian Liu, Weimin Zhou, Zhan Xu, Heng Cao

Open Access

Fluctuation of Near-Wall Pressure During the Cavitation Bubble Collapse

Cavitation bubble collapse, which generates strong shock waves and high-velocity liquid jets, is responsible for the erosive damage to hydraulic components. In order to assess the fluctuation of near-wall pressure, in this work, an open-source package OpenFOAM is utilized for solving the Navier–Stokes equation. To track the liquid–air interface, the volume of fluid (VoF) method-based compressibleInterFoam solver is selected, and its shipped dynamic contact angle model is modified to obtain better accuracy when considering the wettability of substrates. Numerical methods are first validated by comparing with experiment, and then it is extended to study the effect of bubble diameter, pressure difference, and surface wettability on the fluctuation of near-wall pressure. Simulation results show that the initial sphere bubble goes through three stages of growth, shrinkage, and collapse near the wall. A larger bubble size leads to higher impact pressure due to the higher speed of the liquid jet. The difference in initial pressure in and out of the bubble has a great effect on the collapse behaviour. In addition, a hydrophobic surface, meaning hard liquid pining, can speed up the damping of near wall pressure. The findings in this work will be a guide to designing hydraulic components for limiting the erosive damages of cavitation bubble collapse.

Zhicheng Yuan, Haowen Li, Meng Yang, Yongming Bian, Li Chen

Open Access

Research on Equivalent Wind Load Spectrum Acquisition and Remaining Fatigue Strength Method of Double Active Arm Type Holding Pole

In order to study the wind load fatigue residual strength in in-service holding poles for preventing disasters, and improving load-bearing capacity reliability. Firstly, using the Davenport wind speed spectrum to simulate the wind speed, it will be the input load of the finite element dynamics model of the 2 × 40 kN double active arm type holding pole (DAATHP). The stress time history curve at the welding section of the main chord at the bottom of the tower shaft is obtained at the working condition with the wind angle of 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135°. The rain flow counting method derives the statistical characteristics of the mean, amplitude, and frequency of stress at four wind angles. Secondly, the frequency of wind load under four wind angles is extended, and the synthesized fatigue load spectrum is used as the equivalent wind load spectrum. Finally, the Paris-Eadogan equation is used to derive the calculation formula of fatigue residual strength of the main chord at the bottom of the tower shaft, and the functional function of the main chord is established and then the failure probability formula is derived by combining the equivalent wind load spectrum. It is found that, compared with the ANSYS calculation results, the error of the predicted stress spectrum of the proposed method is minor, only 7.95%. It is verified that the proposed method can efficiently obtain the equivalent load spectrum of the DAATHP. The results indicate that it is feasible and practical to apply the proposed method to calculate the remaining fatigue life of the DAATHP.

Wenwu Liu, Hongsheng Zhang, Nianli Lu

Open Access

Lateral Control of Autonomous Concrete Mixer Truck Based on Multiple Look Ahead Distances and Fuzzy Controller

Automated driving and working have been attracted considerable attention in the construction machinery industry due to their safety and efficiency. In this paper, multiple look ahead distances are calculated for lateral error and heading-angle error and multiple fuzzy inference engines are proposed with vehicle speed and the above-mentioned errors. Moreover, a kinematic model of mixer truck was proposed in this paper to address the length and width of the concrete mixer truck. Satisfactory simulation and experimental results have been obtained for different reference paths.

Ling Fu, Qiangrong Yang, Yanbin Liu

Open Access

Research on Bilateral Servo Control Strategy for the 3T Redundant Freedom Parallel Robot

In this paper, a force feedback position bilateral servo control strategy with position difference compensation for a 3T redundant degree of freedom parallel robot is proposed. We have designed master and slave controllers based on fuzzy control, and conducted single motor bilateral servo control experiments and single branch bilateral servo control experiments on the experimental platform. The experimental results show that this method can effectively reduce the error accumulation caused by using non redundant inverse kinematics methods to solve redundant parallel robots, and maintain good position following performance of the master slave robot, Improved the transparency of force displacement control in the master–slave remote control robot system.

Mingde Gong, Kongming Hu, Yue Zhang

Open Access

A Study on Weighting Factors in Cost Function of Model Predictive Control Algorithms

With the growing emphasis on environmental protection, the engineering construction industry is facing new demands. The widespread electrification of construction machinery has emerged as an inevitable trend. To align with this trend, this paper conducts research on the model predictive control algorithm (MPC) applied to permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM). The MPC algorithm primarily consists of the motor’s mathematical model and the cost function. This study focuses on analyzing the weight factor within the cost function. The spectrum of weight factor combinations concerning the dq-axis current is formulated across a broad range of intervals. The algorithm’s performance is assessed under various weight factors using experimental data from three-phase current operation, motor torque, rotational speed, and other parameters. Ultimately, a novel evaluation function is proposed in this study to quantitatively assess the algorithm’s performance across various combinations. The process involves identifying the optimal combination of weight factors for the cost function. This effort contributes significantly to establishing a robust groundwork for the general electrification of construction machinery.

Zhou You, Yongming Bian, Zhangjie Ding, Li Chen

Open Access

Study on Multiple Hydraulic Cylinders Synchronous Control Under Impact Load

In engineering, it is often necessary to use multiple hydraulic cylinders to drive the load at the same time. Under the impact load, because of the compressibility and leakage of hydraulic oil is inevitable, it is difficult to accurately control the speed of the actuator. Firstly, the compression and leakage of the hydraulic oil under the impact load are analyzed theoretically, and the main factors affecting the speed stability of the hydraulic cylinder are obtained. A multiple hydraulic cylinders synchronous control experimental circuit with electro-hydraulic proportional PID control is designed, which is composed of pump station, oil cylinders, displacement detection sensors and computer control system. The master–slave control strategy, electro-hydraulic proportional closed-loop control and fuzzy PID weighted control algorithm are adopted, and the simulation results show that this method can realize the stable control of hydraulic cylinder speed, and improve the synchronous control accuracy of multiple hydraulic cylinders, and the synchronous accuracy is within 0.5 mm. Finally, the experimental platform is built for practical verification, and through data acquisition and displacement monitoring of the system, it can be proved this method can realize the accurate synchronization of displacement driven by four hydraulic cylinders. The results show that the system is easy to control and has high synchronization accuracy, which can provide a reference for the design of multiple actuators synchronization control.

Jianjun Wang, Sulan Hao, Wenlei Li

Open Access

Research on Autonomous Operation Motion Control of Excavator

Accurate motion control is the premise for the unmanned excavator to complete the operation. In this paper, the motion control of a 22 t hydraulic excavator is studied. By establishing the dynamic model of the 4-degree-of-freedom excavator working device, the external interference caused by gravity, centripetal force, Coriolis force and inertia to the hydraulic cylinder is compensated. The bucket load and related parameters in the excavation process are identified online, and the motion control accuracy of the excavator is improved. Based on the dynamic model, the motion control method of the unmanned excavator is given. The simulation and experimental results show that this motion control strategy can effectively improve the autonomous operation accuracy of the excavator.

Mingde Gong, Zhong Jin, Yue Zhang, Wenbin Liu, Yue Ning

Open Access

A Review of Intelligent Vehicle Trajectory Tracking Control Methods Based on Overtaking Lane Change Scenarios

In order to achieve safe, comfortable, and stable control of lane-changing trajectories for intelligent vehicles, this paper reviews various trajectory tracking control methods for intelligent vehicles. Focusing on overtaking lane-changing trajectories, the paper provides a comprehensive review of research progress in PID, LQR, MPC, and SMC control methods both domestically and internationally. Striking a balance between addressing the challenges posed by non-integrity and multiple constraints of the vehicle, coping with the time-variability of the vehicle dynamics model, and ensuring the accuracy and computational efficiency of the vehicle model is essential for fostering the continuous development and enhancement of intelligent vehicle technology.

Dongzhao Yang, Lin Hu, Xiaojian Yi, Xin Zhang

Open Access

Research on Accelerated Degradation Test and Reliability Evaluation Method for Hydraulic Pumps Based on Parallel Energy Saving

Hydraulic pump is a product with high reliability and long-life, there exist many urgent problems like long test period, high cost and a larger power consumption in the reliability evaluation method of pump. A new kind of reliability test bench is built combined with parallel power-saving design concept, which based on principles of energy saving and power recycle. Multi-pumps reliability accelerated degradation test is achieved by applying step stress on the pump under test. Volumetric efficiency is selected as performance degradation evaluating index, the degradation of whose is much closed to real physics model. The accretion model for hydraulic pump reliability test is built based on inverse moment estimation method, by which hydraulic pump reliability level under different stress conditions is given. In the meantime, the method of concurrent accelerated degradation testing can serve as references of other core hydraulic components.

Jianjun Qi, Shaojia Chen, Dongfeng Wang, Liqin Wang, Rui Guo

Open Access

Analysis and Experiment Study About Vibration Compaction Based on Drucker-Prager Model

The relationship and the applicable conditions between Mohr–Coulomb model and linear Drucker-Prager model were discussed, and the results showed that when the friction angle was less than 22° Drucker-Prager model was more suitable for modelling the soil unit; When the friction angle was more than 22°, the Mohr–Coulomb model should be used. In order to further study the compaction characteristics of vibratory roller and the dynamic relationship between vibratory roller and soil, the finite element model of “vibrating roller-soil” was established. The simulation results showed that vertical stress of the soil distributed symmetrically along the axial direction of the vibrating drum, shift forward along the direction of the vibration drum, and decreased sharply with the increasement of the depth. Then experiments carried out showed that acceleration of the vibrating drum was positively correlated with the compaction times, which verified the model was basically correct. Moreover, the regression equation between the compaction degree and the effective value of acceleration was obtained, which provided the idea for the new compaction degree monitoring system.

Liying Ma, Macheng Gui, Shaoxiong Gui, Yuanwen Cao

Open Access

A Visual Detection Method for Train Couplers Based on YOLOv8 Model

Accurately identifying the coupler operating handle during the operation of the hook-picking robot has a significant impact on production activities. This article is based on the YOLOv8 model. Due to the limited variety of on-site coupler operating handles and working environment, it is difficult to ensure the richness of image categories in the dataset. Before the experiment, a series of expansion operations were performed on the dataset, such as rotation, translation, and brightness adjustment. Use the expanded images to simulate the images detected by the hook-picking robot in harsh environments. This model performs feature extraction and target recognition on the expanded coupler handle dataset, thereby achieving recognition of the coupler handle. The experimental results show that the accuracy of the model for the coupler handle in complex environments is 98.8%, which effectively reduces the time required for training and testing. Compared with the commonly used SSD300 model and YOLOv4Tiny model, it not only has higher accuracy, but also shows obvious advantages in parameter quantity, weight file size, and other aspects, which can be well deployed in actual production.

Wenning Zhao, Xin Yao, Bixin Wang, Jiayi Ding, Jialu Li, Xiong Zhang, Shuting Wan, Jingyi Zhao, Rui Guo, Wei Cai

Open Access

Dynamic Synovial Control Method of Four-Cable-Driven Parallel Robot Based on Interference Observer

Aiming at the problem of high-precision trajectory tracking of four-cable-driven parallel robot, a dynamic non-singular fast terminal sliding mode surface based on the estimation output of interference observer is proposed. Firstly, based on the combination of traditional fast terminal sliding mode control and non-singular terminal synovial control, the estimation value of interference observer is introduced, and a new nonlinear sliding mode surface is established to suppress the influence of unknown disturbance, and at the same time track the desired trajectory from unstable state to steady state. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory of the controller, the effectiveness of the control scheme is proved. Finally, in the Matlab/Simulink environment, a comparative simulation with the existing linear synovial film and non-singular fast terminal sliding mode is carried out, and the designed control method realizes high-precision fast tracking of the desired trajectory of the end grab under the uncertainty of modeling error, external interference and joint friction, which verifies the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed control method.

Ke Zhang, Jiabao Xu, Shenghao Tong, Huaitao Shi, Zhiqiang Duo, Cai He

Open Access

Multi-mode Sliding Mode Control of Four-Cable Parallel Robot Based on Wind Disturbance Observation

Aiming at the problem of accurate trajectory tracking of four-cable parallel robot under wind disturbance in the process of material handling in buildings, a multi-mode sliding mode control (MSMC) method based on wind disturbance observer is proposed. Firstly, the wind field model is established, and the comprehensive wind speed model is introduced into the accurate dynamic model as a wind disturbance factor. Secondly, the wind disturbance observer is introduced to estimate the total disturbance of wind disturbance error in real time, which effectively reduces the switching gain, thus effectively reducing the vibration and improving the control accuracy of the system. Combined with the dynamic performance of multimode sliding mode controller, it can be switched at will to reduce chattering. Compared with the traditional sliding mode control method SMC, the anti-interference ability of MSMC is verified. The results show that the designed multimode sliding mode controller can effectively suppress the influence of wind disturbance on the vibration of the end effector.

Shenghao Tong, Long Zhao, Huaitao Shi, Zhiqiang Duo, Cai He

Open Access

Finite Element Simulation of Loss Stroke Phenomenon of Shock Absorber Based on Fluid Structure Interaction

To provide a design reference with guaranteed performance for vehicle shock absorbers, the loss stroke mechanism is studied in this paper based on fluid–structure interaction (FSI) numerical method. According to the parametric model of cavitation mechanism and by applying fluid–structure interaction (FSI) numerical methods, the structural and fluid finite element mesh shock absorber models with high precision are both established. Furthermore, simulations for the proposed models are carried out based on ADINA software. By analyzing the simulation results, the specific position and the distribution of loss stoke, and the difference of cavitation phenomenon under diverse shock absorber loading speeds are revealed. The results indicate that cavitation of the shock absorber primarily centers around the shock absorber valve system, and this phenomenon becomes increasingly pronounced as the piston speed rises. Moreover, the cavitation effect is higher apparent when the shock absorber oil possesses higher viscosity. These findings offer valuable insights for the design and implementation of measures aimed at preventing performance distortion in shock absorbers.

Zhen-huan Yu, Na Zhang

Open Access

Research on TBM Disc Cutter Wear Prediction Based on CSM Model

The wear of disc cutters significantly impacts the efficiency and cost of TBM operations. In this study, we established a calculation model for radial wear based on the CSM formula and abrasive wear mechanisms. Experimental validation of the wear mechanism confirmed that abrasive wear is the primary mechanism responsible for disc cutter wear. The predictive model was subjected to engineering validation, where the calculated values from the model were compared and analyzed against actual on-site measurements. This validation process confirmed the accuracy and applicability of the model.

He Wang, Junkun Wei, Guangyu Yan, Haigen Zhao, Jianing Xu

Open Access

Research on Path Tracking Control of Driverless Trucks

Path tracking is a crucial function for achieving unmanned driving. This paper addresses the challenge of low tracking accuracy and poor stability in driverless trucks caused by uncertain model parameters and steady-state errors during path tracking. A linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller optimization by an improved genetic algorithm has been designed. Firstly, the paper formulates the dynamic model of a two-degree-of-freedom vehicle as well as the model for tracking error. Subsequently, path tracking control is achieved through the utilization of feedforward control and LQR feedback control algorithms. Secondly, the weight coefficient of the LQR controller is enhanced through the utilization of an improved GA in order to boost the precision of path tracking. Ultimately, the devised controller undergoes simulation and validation in the TruckSim-Matlab/Simulink platform across diverse operational circumstances. The findings from the simulation demonstrate that the controller, optimized through improvements in the genetic algorithm, exhibits excellent tracking accuracy and stability.

Wei Song, Junying Min, Tao Zhang, Yong Zhang, Fengkui Zhao

Open Access

Prediction of Mechanical Properties and Analysis of Damage Evolution of Fiber Bundles in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials

Fiber bundles are an important component of woven composite materials, and predicting the mechanical properties of fiber bundles can provide a basis for the study of the mechanical properties of woven composite materials. This paper establishes the micro representative volume element (RVE) model of composite materials, and obtains the equivalent elastic constant of yarn through the model homogenization theory and periodic boundary conditions. Strength prediction is performed through the VUMAT user subroutine of ABAQUS. This paper uses the maximum stress standards and Von Mises standards to predict the damage initiation of TC33 carbon fiber and epoxy resin matrix, respectively. Combined with the constant degradation method, the simulation of the damage behaviors of the micro model is achieved, and the equivalent strength of the fiber bundle is obtained. The effectiveness and correctness of this method are verified by comparing the numerical model results with the Chamis theoretical model results. The accurate prediction of mechanical properties and damage process of fiber bundles provides theoretical support for the analysis of mechanical properties of composites, and has guiding significance for the performance design of composite materials.

Rongjiao Guo, Renjun Yan

Open Access

Kalman Filter-based Vibration State Estimation and Optimal Control of a Special Vehicle

Take a certain type of special vehicle as the research object, establish the four-degree-of-freedom suspension vibration time-domain simulation model of the semi-vehicle, and use the Kalman filter algorithm for the vibration state of the vehicle in the driving process. By designing the Kalman observer of the linear suspension system, the state estimation of the vertical displacement and vertical acceleration of the front and rear suspensions and the body of the vehicle travelling on the uneven road surface is carried out, and the simulation analysis of the estimation effect is carried out, and the simulation results show that: the algorithm is able to estimate the relevant parameters of the vehicle vibration more accurately under the random road surface of E-level. Based on the state estimation value, a linear-quadratic optimal control method is adopted for the active control of suspension, which provides a basis for the design and optimal control of active suspension for subsequent special vehicles.

Bowen Zhang, Ming Zhang, Yunbo Zhou

Open Access

Analysis on the Precooler Outlet Compensation Pipe Rupture of Civil Aircraft

This paper focused on the rupture problem of precooler outlet compensation pipe of civil aircraft, the design concerning was discussed. Based on the design proposal, aging mechanical from two aspects of temperature and high velocity sand dust flow were calculated and tested. Root cause of pipe rupture is identified and the result shows silicon rubber could not suffer high temperature up to 250 ℃ and velocity up to 150 m/s.

Nannan Du

Open Access

An Efficient Strategy for Creep-Fatigue Assessment of Pipelines with Complex Local Structures and High Computational Demands

Thermal pipelines are extensively utilized in power plants, and they operate in high-temperature and high-pressure environments. Consequently, creep and fatigue are two crucial factors that need to be considered in the design and operation of main pipelines. Assessing the safety of main pipelines considering creep-fatigue is of paramount importance. However, the current assessment of main pipelines faces challenges such as large computational requirements and susceptibility to complex local structures, making efficient evaluation a longstanding problem. Furthermore, there is a lack of commercially available software capable of automating the creep-fatigue assessment for structurally discontinuous pipelines. To address these issues, this paper proposes an efficient strategy for evaluating creep-fatigue in pipelines with complex local structures and significant computational requirements. By approximating non-critical irregular pipelines with equivalent stiffness of regular pipelines, computational accuracy and efficiency are improved. The proposed approach also enables the identification of critical locations prone to creep-fatigue. Additionally, a post-processing software based on ASME standards and utilizing existing commercial finite element software has been developed to automate the assessment of main pipelines. Compared to other computational strategies, this approach significantly enhances computational efficiency.

Mingda Han, Hetong Liu, Yujian Tang, Yibo Zhang, Weixu Zhang

Open Access

Fatigue Life Assessment of Ship Hatch Corner Based on Hot Spot Stress Method

The hatch corner of ship is the most prone area for stress concentration, which makes the fatigue problem of hatch corner particularly serious, and becomes a position that is easily damaged. Firstly, the hot spot stress method based on surface extrapolation is introduced, and the hatch corner of a bulk carrier is selected as the research object, the scale model test is designed and carried out, the finite element model is established, and the parameters of the corner form and different transition radii are analyzed. The CCS calculation specification evaluates the fatigue strength of hatch corner, and compares the test results with the finite element calculation results. The results show that the hot spot stress method has good adaptability to the fatigue assessment of hatch corner, and the fatigue strength evaluation of hatch corner needs to select the corresponding S–N curve according to the position of the maximum hot spot stress. The form of corner and the increase of transition radius are of great significance for alleviating stress concentration effect and improving fatigue life of corner, which provides reference for fatigue resistance and optimal design of hatch corner structure.

Langhao Qiao, Renjun Yan, Yu Qiu

Intelligent Manufacturing and Mechanical Performance Research

Frontmatter

Open Access

Research on the Swing Characteristics of Lifting Load Based on the Contact Relationship Between Pulley and Wire Rope

In the process of lifting operations, the complex contact relationship of the rope-pulley system is inevitably related to the swing of the lifting load. However, in previous research, the quality of the pulley and wire rope is often overlooked and the wire rope is simplified as a spring. The object of this paper is to use virtual prototyping technology to establish the rope-pulley system model that the mass and contact relationship of the pulley and wire rope are considered, and to investigate the influence of the contact relationship of the rope-pulley system on the swing characteristics of the lifting load. According to the characteristics of the rope-pulley system, the matching parameters and winding ratio of the rope-pulley system are selected as the research variables. The research method of this paper is to establish three discrete system simulation models of the rope-pulley system with different winding ratio by ADAMS/Cable module. Simulation results show that as the winding ratio of the rope-pulley system increases, the swinging amplitude of the lifting load increases; and the change in wire rope diameter has a more obvious effect on the sway of the lifting load than the change in the angle of pulley groove. The results of the study can provide a certain reference for the study on the swing of lifting loads with the rope-pulley system.

Xuyang Cao, Zhihe Xu, Siqi Wang

Open Access

The Influence of Parameters and Load on the Spin Angle of Multilayer Strand Wire Rope

The spin characteristics of multi-layer strand wire ropes can reduce the control accuracy of the crane lifting system, resulting in the crane being unable to meet the high-precision operation requirements. An object of this paper is to know about the influence of different parameters on the spin characteristics of multi-layer strand wire ropes. This article first theoretically analyzes the effects of wire rope twist angle, wire diameter, material, and load on the rotational characteristics of multi-layer strand wire ropes. In addition, we use CREO to establish a parameterized model for multi-layer strand wire ropes, and then set the material properties, contact parameters, and boundary conditions of the model in ABAQUS. Finally, the dynamic simulation of the multi-layer strand wire ropes model was completed. The results indicate that when the multi-layer strand wire rope is in a steady state, the twist angle has the greatest impact on the rotation angle, and under the same conditions, the rotation angle increases with the increase of the twist angle. The rotation angle at steady state is basically consistent with the theoretical calculation results, indicating that the theoretical influence of wire rope twist angle, wire diameter, material, and load on the rotation characteristics of multi-layer strand wire ropes is accurate.

Siqi Wang, Xuyang Cao, Dianlong Wang, Zhihe Xu

Open Access

Moment-Frequency Characteristics of Limited-Angle Torque Motors for Direct-Drive Servo Rotary Valve

Direct-drive rotary valve (DDRV) is directly driven by a limited-angle torque motor (LATM), which is characterized by anti-pollution, high efficiency and high frequency response. A LATM is designed for the DDRV. The main dimensions and electromagnetic parameters of the motor are calculated by analytical expression of electromagnetic torque. The torque–angle characteristics and torque characteristics of LATM were analyzed by using finite element method for ensure that the motor can have stable torque output in a wide range of turning angle, the results of theoretical and simulation agree well. On the basis, the motor was improved. The results show that the motor has a working angle of ≥±20°, the torque fluctuation within the working angle is less than 5%, and is suitable for driving the DDRV.

Junfeng Shan, Youcheng Shi, Hong Ji, Shengbing Cao, Zheng Li, Hucheng Zhang

Open Access

Simulation Research on Cutting of Shield Machine Cutter Tool Based on Anisotropic Composite Materials

In order to study the cutting force and variation of anisotropic composite materials such as plastic vertical drainage board left in soft soil foundation by the cutter on the cutterhead of shield machine. Finite element model of orthogonal cutting theory based on macroscopic anisotropic composite materials was established by numerical simulation. Based on the above model, the finite element analysis software LS-DYNA was used to numerically simulate the cutting of plastic vertical drainage board by shield machine cutter in a project in Singapore. Meanwhile, the single cutter test device and triaxial force sensor were used to build a test platform to focus on the cutting ability test of the cutting tool on the plastic vertical drainage board under the cutting conditions of 0° and 90°. The validity and rationality of the simulation model are verified by comparing the simulated cutting force value with the experimental value. The results show that the cutting process of the plastic vertical drainage board is from the notch generation to the notch expansion and then to the final breaking process. So it can be concluded that the sharp-edge cutter is more suitable for the cutting of the plastic vertical drainage board. In the actual construction, ensuring the wear resistance and impact resistance of the sharp-edge cutter is the key to improve the service life. Sponsored by Shanghai Rising-Star Program (22QB1401900).

Qiuping Wang, Wanli Li, Daozhi Wang

Open Access

Simulation of the Influence of Rotational Speed on the Crushing of Cement Agglomerates

The uniform dispersion of cement agglomerates during the concrete mixing process affects the overall homogeneity of concrete and adversely affects its strength. To investigate the effect of mixing speed on the crushing of cement agglomerates, this article uses the discrete element software EDEM to simulate the process of crushing of cement agglomerates by collision with aggregates during the mixing process. Within the traditional mixing speed, three different mixing speeds are set to study the crushing ratio of cement agglomerates. The results show that, when other parameters are unchanged and the mixing speed is certain, the breaking of cement bonds shows a rapid increase in time and then a slow increase in time and finally tends to stabilize. To make the cement agglomerates uniformly dispersed, the mixing time should be maintained for more than 15 s at a speed of more than 60 rpm. When the speed is below 50 rpm, the mixing time should be extended and the mixing intensity should be increased.

Binqiang Wang, Jianjun Shen, Feng Jia, Zehang Sun

Open Access

Study on Wind-Induced Response and Wind Vibration Coefficient of Tower Crane Under Different Wind Speed Spectra Excitation

The wind-induced response and wind vibration coefficient of tower cranes under different wind speed spectra and wind direction angles are investigated to reveal the influence of wind speed distribution on the wind vibration characteristics of tower cranes. Firstly, the theoretical formula for the wind vibration coefficient based on random vibration theory is derived. Then, the APDL modeling method establishes a parametric finite element analysis model with the QTZ25 tower crane as a research object, and wind speed time history at various heights is simulated using the harmonic synthesis method. Finally, the wind speed is converted into wind loads, and the finite element model of the QTZ25 crane is subjected to random vibration analysis and spectra analysis under wind loads. The displacement time history response and displacement power spectral density at different heights are obtained, and the wind vibration coefficients are derived accordingly. The analysis results show that the wind vibration coefficient in descending order is Simiu, Davenport, and Harris wind speed spectra excitation (WSSE), respectively. The maximum deviation of the wind vibration coefficient is 12.01% at 26.09 m height with a 45° wind direction angle. In contrast, the maximum deviation of the wind vibration coefficient is 18.57% at the same height with a 0° wind direction angle. This study demonstrates that the wind-induced response of the QTZ25 tower crane remained the same under different wind speed spectra. Meanwhile, the wind vibration coefficient varied for different heights and wind direction angles, and the wind vibration coefficient was higher under Simiu WSSE and lower under Harris WSSE.

Xiangxiang Wang, Hongsheng Zhang, Wenwu Liu

Open Access

Structural Stability Analysis of a High Power PEMFC Stack

An automobile fuel cell stack mounted horizontally will be subjected to a large impact in the direction parallel with the cells. This may cause interfacial slippage between cells, showing a downward bowing phenomenon, which may cause decay in the performance, and even stack leakage. Therefore, ensuring structural and mechanical integrity is very important in stack assembly design, especially for high power stacks with hundreds of unicells. In this paper, the authors presented numeric analysis for a 300 kW stack with 550 unicells, and analyzed the local vibration from the stack global modes based on finite element analysis (FEA), further evaluated the vibration responses, such as deformed shape and directions, then modified the stack structurally by applying the reinforcement bars, and finally confirmed the robustness of the reinforced stack. It is demonstrated that with proper design, a single stack with hundreds of unicells can be produced for vehicle applications.

Ting Chen, Jie Pan, Xiao Zhang, Dong Guan, Zhen Chen

Open Access

Research on Characteristics of Three-Chamber Hydraulic Cylinder Driving Loader Boom

When the loader boom is lifted and lowered, the hydraulic pump operates at high peak power levels. In this process, the hydraulic valve port dissipates the gravitational potential energy of the boom. Consequently, the dissipated energy is converted into thermal energy, resulting in elevated hydraulic oil temperature and reduced energy efficiency. This paper proposes a gravitational potential energy recovery system based on three-chamber cylinder and a hydraulic accumulator. The system utilizes the hydraulic accumulator to balance the weight of the loading boom and achieve energy recovery for the boom. The co-simulation model of wheel loader based on the three-chamber cylinder was built in SimulationX, then the energy consumption was analyzed under two kinds of typical operating modes. The simulation results illustrate that when the initial pressures of accumulators are 6 and 8 MPa with heavy-load and without load, the system has the highest energy utilization rate. By establishing a loader prototype and investigating the operating characteristics and energy efficiency of the boom driven by a two-chamber cylinder and a three-chamber cylinder, the experimental results illustrate that the new system operates smoothly, reducing energy consumption by 39.24% and peak power by 27.41%.

Huidian Zhu, Jiangjiang Feng, Jing Yang

Open Access

Research Progress of Remanufacturing Technology in the Field of Construction Machinery

Excavator bucket teeth are often in direct contact with abrasive particles in the soil during work, resulting in the tip being severely worn. This study used laser cladding to synthesize (Ti, Nb)C reinforced coatings on the surface of Q550 steel of bucket teeth of commonly used excavators to improve the wear resistance, and researches the effects of different Ti, Nb, Cr3C2 powder ratios on the hardness, wear resistance, and wear loss of laser cladding (Ti, Nb)C reinforced coatings. The results show that the optimal powder ratio is 80% Ni-based + 1.26% Ti + 7.54% Nb + 11.2% Cr3C2. Under the optimal powder ratio, the hardness of the coating is 213.4 HV, the wear amount is 32.7 mg, and the wear failure form is abrasive wear and slight adhesive wear.

Kaiming Wang, Wei Liu, Xiaotong Pang, Yongle Hu, Yonggang Tong

Open Access

A Fast Vision-Based Algorithm for Automated Container Pose Measurement System

Addressing the current issues of low accuracy in container positioning and posture recognition, as well as long response times during the port automation loading and unloading process, this paper designs a rapid container target recognition and measurement device and method for automated loading and unloading, thereby optimizing the acquisition of key parameters in automated loading and unloading operations. This method combines advanced convolutional neural networks and traditional image processing algorithms to achieve precise detection and tracking of container corner fittings. Furthermore, this paper proposes a high-speed response method for small target measurement, which integrates minimized deep learning network technology and fuzzy image morphology matching algorithms to enhance the accuracy and stability of corner fitting detection. Through experimental verification, this method effectively improves the speed of single detection and reduces the localization error of small targets.

Yujie Zhang, Chao Mi

Open Access

The Relationship Between “Nominal Pressure” and Pressure Terms Related to Lightweight Design and Manufacture of Hydraulic Cylinders

Lightweight design and manufacture of hydraulic cylinders is receiving increasing attention in construction machinery and vehicle engineering. Hydraulic cylinders, designed based on some current standards such as JB/T 10205-2010 hydraulic cylinder, have a common issue that they need to be built with a large size. This “thick and heavy” is not conducive to improving equipment performance and achieving energy conservation and emission reduction. This paper identified the root causes leading to that issue and managed to make clear the interrelation between terms used in the “nominal pressure” system and the lightweight design and manufacturing method of hydraulic cylinders. A set of novel specifications to design and test hydraulic cylinders have also been proposed which adopts the “rated pressure” as the base parameter, after referring to some related standards. Furthermore, this approach would solve the lightweight problem of hydraulic cylinder manufacturing and lay a reliable foundation for the promotion of hydraulic cylinder technology in China.

Yao Liu, Jingyi Zhao, Rui Guo, Yingda Tang

Open Access

Comparative Analysis of Mathematical Models of Hydro-pneumatic Suspension Damping

At present, for the study of the dynamic characteristics of the hydro-pneumatic suspension of vehicles, the elastic force is mainly modeled by the variable gas equation of state, and the damping force is modeled by thin-walled orifice theory, which only considers the turbulent flow. Here, based on expressing the whole flow field including laminar flow, transition flow, and turbulence with piecewise function, the turbulence region is modeled by the Brasius formula and thin-walled orifice theory respectively. By applying vibration signals collected from real roads, the responses of two piecewise function damping force models and traditional thin-walled orifice model of 1/4 suspension system in the time domain and frequency domain respectively are calculated. The average absolute error MAE and root mean square error RSME are used to compare them with the real upper fulcrum data of the suspension cylinder. The results show that different models can simulate suspension vibration well in the low-frequency range, but there are obvious deficiencies in the middle and high-frequency range, while the short-hole flow theoretical model in the form of a piecewise function is closer to the real value in the frequency domain.

Zeguang Li, Laiping Li, Wei Huang

Open Access

Experimental Study on the Cohesive Model of Steel-Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic Interface by Laser Treatment

The interfacial bonding performance between steel and CFRP significantly influences the mechanical properties of steel-CFRP hybrid structures. Surface treatment is commonly employed to enhance the bonding interface of steel-CFRP. Laser surface treatment is particularly advantageous due to its high efficiency, automatic production capabilities, and widespread use in enhancing interfacial bonding performance. However, little attention has been given to the impact of laser surface treatment on the property parameters that describe the cohesive mode's mechanical behavior at the steel-CFRP interface. This study examined the cohesive zone modes of both original and laser-treated steel-CFRP joints through a double lap shear test following ASTM D3528-96 (2016) standards. Non-contact strain measurement was conducted using 3D digital image correlation techniques. The analysis indicates that the bilinear cohesive model effectively describes the mechanical behavior of the steel-CFRP interface. Laser surface treatment resulted in a respective increase of 83.8% in maximum shear strength, 111.6% in the relative slip corresponding to maximum shear strength and 116.8% in maximum relative slip. Consequently, this study showcases the efficacy of laser surface treatment in improving the mechanical performance at the steel-CFRP interface while quantitatively assessing these improvements through performance parameters within the cohesive zone model.

Hao Teng, Hailang Wan, Junying Min

Open Access

Study on Blast Resistance of Armored Steel Welded Joint Structures

In order to study the anti-detonation performance of welded joint structure of armored steel, the finite element analysis of welded joint structure under explosion impact was carried out by using material assignment method and structured ALE algorithm (S-ALE), and the accuracy of the model was verified by explosion impact test. The central deformation and failure form of each weld structure under different equivalent loads of a single explosion are studied. Repeated explosive loading of weld structure based on complete restart technology; The cumulative analysis of plastic deformation of weld structure under multiple explosions is realized, and the relationship between central deformation and explosion times and explosion equivalent is obtained.

Song Wu, Ming Zhang, Yunbo Zhou

Open Access

Plastic Constitutive Relation for Improving the Calculation Accuracy of Mechanical Performance of Die-Cast Al-Si Aluminium Alloy Products

With the interaction in automobile manufacturing technology, products made of integrated die-cast aluminum alloy are becoming more and more widespread. However, engineers frequently ignore the impact of structural features on mechanical properties when utilizing simulation software to determine a product's strength, and current constitutive models do not account for structural flaw studies. To examine the correlation between structural flaws and mechanical properties of the die-cast aluminum alloy, quasi-static tensile tests were performed on JDA1b alloy specimens. The defect rates were varied by adding circular holes with varying diameters at the center of the specimens. The results showed that the JDA1b alloy’s tensile strength and elongation significantly decreased as the fault rate increased. A constitutive model with defect rates is proposed, which has higher accuracy than the J–C model. Simulations and experimental findings effectively validated the accuracy of the proposed constitutive model. The proposed model provides support for high-precision computing for analyzing the mechanical performance of materials.

Xueqiang Wang, Liming Peng, Siping Li

Open Access

Modelling and Finite Element Simulation of Ball-End Milling for Nickel-Based Superalloy Inconel 718

Comprehensive exploration of ball-end milling processes is presented in this paper, with a primary focus on the modelling of milling forces and the execution of finite element analysis during the machining of Inconel 718, a material known for its challenging machinability. A detailed milling force model, considering various parameters such as cutting speeds, feed rates, and depths of cut, has been developed, providing valuable insights into the optimization of machining parameters. Temperature and stress distributions within the tool during milling, particularly in the context of difficult-to-machine materials like Inconel 718, were investigated through finite element analysis. Critical temperature profiles at the tool tip, rake face, and flank face, which have an impact on tool wear and lifespan, were identified through the temperature field analysis. Notably, a maximum tool tip temperature of 682 °C was observed during the machining of Inconel 718. Challenges posed by difficult materials were unveiled through the stress field analysis, aiding in stress mitigation and enhancing the understanding of machining processes. In conclusion, a significant contribution is made by this paper to the understanding of ball-end milling processes.

Yaoman Zhang, Jin Zheng

Open Access

Ultimate Strength Test and Numerical Simulation Analysis of Typical Cabin Made of a Novel Steel

A novel steel was proposed to apply to a ship, thereby enabling ships to safely complete their missions. But it is different in the ultimate bearing capacity between the novel material and traditional low-alloy high-carbon steels. There is little research on it. In this paper, the ultimate strength and the destruction mode of the typical cabin made of the novel steel under the hazardous condition are successfully obtained through a four-point bending test. Numerical simulation of the typical cabin at its limit state is verified by the test. Based on the numerical simulation method, theoretical initial deformation and ideal constitutive relation are introduced, which contributes to more conservative prediction for the ultimate strength of the ship made of the novel steel. This paper has guiding significance for subsequent tests and provides technical support for the structure design of the ship made of the novel steel.

Chen Luan, Pengyu Lou, Hongfu Wang, Qi Wan

Open Access

Aerodynamic Characterization of a Ballistic-Correction Bullet

Obtaining the aerodynamic parameters of a ballistic-correction bullet is crucial for improving ballistic correction efficiency and enhancing shooting accuracy. In this study, a numerical simulation method is utilized to analyze and calculate the aerodynamic characteristics of the bullet. The focus is on investigating the changes in aerodynamic parameters when the rudder wings are in both unexpanded and expanded states, as well as analyzing the impact of deflection angles on the bullet's aerodynamic characteristics. The simulation results demonstrate that the bullet exhibits favorable aerodynamic performance and static stability when the rudder wings are unexpanded, leading to improved ballistic correction efficiency during flight. Moreover, the results indicate that in the expanded state of the rudder wings, increasing the deflection angle enhances the impact on the bullet's aerodynamic characteristics, resulting in more pronounced changes and stronger correction capabilities. This research provides valuable insights into the aerodynamic characteristics of ballistic-correction bullets.

Hongyue Zhang, Zhilin Wu

Open Access

High Temperature Creep Property of Nanoparticle Reinforced Composite by Discrete Dislocation Dynamic Method

Metal-matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced by nanoparticles exert much fine mechanical performance such as high strength, high modulus and good conductivities. The creep property of nanoparticle reinforced MMCs is investigated by discrete dislocation dynamic (DDD) method in this study. Both motions of dislocation glide and climb are involved in the present scheme and a dual time step strategy is adopted to deal with the velocity gap between dislocation glide and climb. The results reveal a transition of creep mechanism as the creep stress increases, and a negative correlation between the threshold stress and the environmental temperature.

Jian Wang, Zhengwei Zhang, Kai Zhang, Hua Zhang

Open Access

Experimental Studies on the Load Characteristics of Low-Speed Droplets Impinging onto Surface

Droplet impingement on a wall is a fundamental scientific problem with wide engineering applications. When a droplet impacts the surface of an aircraft, it generates shock waves, airflow disturbances, and splashing phenomena. This not only has a negative impact on the aerodynamic performance and stability of the aircraft but also obstructs the field of view of optical sensors or causes distortion in optical devices. It can also damage the aircraft's structure, thus it’s vital to assess the droplet impact force for flight safety. However, droplets are often treated as rigid spheres for simplicity, but this does not reflect the real physical situation. In this paper, we utilized high-precision force sensors and high-speed imaging technology to experimentally investigate the impact dynamic of droplet impingement on a dry wall. The temporal evolution of force, the associated morphology changes and their relationship during collisions were analyzed systematically, we also elucidated the physical mechanisms underlying flow phenomenon. An unified and accurate mechanical model were established for droplet impingement, providing guidance for related engineering designs.

Guandong Li, Qiulin Qu, Peiqing Liu

Open Access

Load and Deformation Distribution Along the Bolt During Assembly Process

Bolt connection structure is widely utilized in modern large-scale equipment. Understanding the stress distribution along the bolt during assembly process is essential for improving its reliability. In this paper, assembly torque model is established to formulate the relationship between tightening torque and preload force, and a linear proportionality between them is obtained. The stress distribution during assembly process is modeled. Rotation angle and displacement distribution can be obtained from the proposed method. To validate our model, numerical simulation analysis is carried out to obtain the load and deformation distribution under different conditions. Comparison with the previous literature confirms the accuracy of the proposed model.

Zhixiang Li, Zhen Zhao, Jiaying Zhang

Open Access

Research of the Flow Field Characteristics of Flake Graphite in the Fan Shaped Nozzle of Premixed Water Jet

Graphite is an important strategic resource, in order to explore the flow performance of flake graphite in the flow field of the premixed water jet fan nozzle, numerical simulation of nozzle flow field was carried out by FLUENT software. According to the jet characteristics, the Euler model is selected to simulate the two-phase flow law of water and flake graphite, and standard k-ε turbulence model is selected as the turbulence model, the influence of different inlet pressure on the flow field distribution of flake graphite was analyzed. The results show that the axial velocity distribution of flake graphite flow field under different inlet pressures is similar, and the distribution cloud chart has significant plane symmetry, the jet plane diffuses outward at a certain angle. With the increase of target distance, the jet section changes from a flat structure to a symmetrical “groove” structure with high ends and low middle, the axial velocity of flake graphite flow field has secondary acceleration in the internal flow field and primary acceleration in the outward flow field, the maximum axial velocity appears near the nozzle outlet.

Xing Dong, Chenhao Guo, Jifeng Chen, Haorong Song

Open Access

Analysis of Factors Affecting Critical Speed of Multi-span Rotor System Coupled with Diaphragm Coupling

Taking the multi-span rotor system composed of two double diaphragm couplings coupled with three rotors as the object, the finite element model of the high-speed multi-span rotor system is established, and the critical speed of the rotor system is solved using ANSYS Workbench software. The effects of the radial stiffness of the diaphragm coupling and the bearing support stiffness on the critical speed of the rotor system in the first three orders are analyzed. The results show that, for the model established in this paper, within a certain range, the radial stiffness of the diaphragm coupling has a greater influence on the third-order critical speed of the multi-span rotor system, and the increase of the radial stiffness of the diaphragm coupling and the increase of the bearing support stiffness will increase the critical speed of the multi-span rotor system.

Zhihua Wu, Zhanwei Li, Mengfan Shi, Qing Zhang

Open Access

Stiffness and Strength Analysis of 2D Woven Composite Materials Based on Multi-scale Finite Element Method

This study is based on the multi-scale finite element method and establishes RVE model of 2D woven fiber yarn and woven structure. The Stiffness matrix of plain, satin and twill 2D braided composites is calculated by applying Periodic boundary conditions and tensile shear loads in six directions. Write a UMAT subroutine to perform finite element simulation of the strength of woven RVE based on the three-dimensional Hashin failure criterion, and compare and verify it with existing experimental data. By comparing the load displacement curves of three types of braided composite materials under the same volume fraction, the stiffness and strength characteristics of the three types of braided composite materials, as well as the mechanical performance similarity issues caused by structural similarity, are studied.

Weiye Wang, Renjun Yan, Kang Liu, Yu Qiu

Open Access

Simulation Study of Shear Stress Distribution in Bolted Connection Structures of Sandwich Composite Plate

For the shear problem of the bolt connection structure of Sandwich Composite Plate, shear test is carried out on two kinds of Bolt Connection Structure of Sandwich Composite Plate, namely, Pre-embedded countersunk bolt and Assembled countersunk bolt, and the shear strength and stress distribution of the two kinds of bolt connection structure are investigated by using ABAQUS, and the finite element simulation results coincided with the test phenomenon well. Using this model, the stress distribution under shear damage of the Bolt Connection Structure of Sandwich Composite Plate is analysed, and the influence of bolt preload is also analysed, and the results showed that: the stress of the Sandwich Composite Plate is mainly concentrated in the Skin on the bottom side, and gradually decreased to the top surface; the influence of bolt preload could be disregarded in the analysis of the shear strength and stress peak of the Sandwich Composite Plate.

Ruizhang You, Renjun Yan, Haowen Zhu, Ziwei Zhang

Intelligent Technology Application and Safety Management

Frontmatter

Open Access

Research on Path Planning of Concrete Pouring Construction Robot Based on Online Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm

Aiming at the problem of harsh concrete construction environment and low level automation of concrete pouring operation, this paper proposes an autonomous concrete pouring planning method based on real-time obstacle avoidance algorithm. A new 3-DoF articulated concrete pouring robot is designed and kinematically modeled. Rectangular fitting is adopted to simplify irregular obstacles. Then generate obstacle maps and apply intelligent obstacle avoidance algorithms based on the maps, which adopt the reward mechanism in reinforcement learning. The effectiveness of the proposed method in autonomous obstacle avoidance path planning for pouring robots is demonstrated through simulation and prototype experiments.

Siwen Fan, Wanli Li, Ruihao Yin

Open Access

Research and Practice on the Validation Testing Method of Safety of the Intended Functionality for High Way Assist Function

With the continuous development of the level of driving automation, the need for safety of the intended functionality (SOTIF) has gradually become prominent. As an important part of ensuring that vehicles meet the requirements of SOTIF, unknown scenario verification methods urgently need research and breakthroughs. A customized SOTIF verification test method for highway Assist (HWA) function based on Design Operation Domain (ODD) and a test route formulation method based on multi-dimensional key elements are studied and proposed. This method considers the data dimensions and environmental characteristics involved when deriving the acceptance criteria, and effectively meets the effective and practicable requirements of unknown scenario tests.

Kuiyuan Guo, Jiarui Zhang, Juan Shi, Zhiqiang Zhang, Guotian Ji

Open Access

Intelligent Construction Machinery SLAM with Stereo Vision and Inertia Fusion

Positioning technology is the foundation of intelligent construction machinery, the current mainstream positioning solution is simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) technology, which is mainly divided into lidar SLAM and visual SLAM. Due to the high cost of lidar, it is easy to degrade or even fail in scenes with a single environmental texture; while the cost of vision sensors is low and has a wealth of environmental texture information acquisition capabilities, which can effectively avoid degradation problems. In order to reduce the localization cost of intelligent construction machinery and improve the positioning accuracy, based on the VINS-Fusion stereo visual-inertial tightly coupled system framework, an improved Random Sampling Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm is used to reduce feature mismatch, and the Huber kernel function is used to IMU residuals and visual residuals are constrained to improve the effect of the SLAM system. Compared with the mainstream VINS-Fusion algorithm, the positioning root mean square error of this method on the EuRoC dataset is reduced by an average of 12.41%, which improves the positioning accuracy; simultaneously, the experimental results in the actual scene show that the motion trajectory of the algorithm, it is closer to the real trajectory than VINS-Fusion, which verifies the effectiveness of the method.

Tianliang Lin, Zhongyuan He, Jiangdong Wu, Qihuai Chen, Shengjie Fu

Open Access

Improved Bidirectional Dynamic JPS Algorithm for Global Path Planning of Mobile Robot

This paper proposed to improve the bidirectional dynamic JPS algorithm in order to address the issues with the jump point search algorithm in the process of pathfinding, such as numerous path inflection points, numerous intermediate search hop points, numerous extended nodes, and lengthy pathfinding time in the process of finding jump points. The algorithm was based on the two-way dynamic hopping point search algorithm, defined the target points in the forward and reverse expansion directions dynamically, defined the heuristic function dynamically. In the process of searching each other from the starting point and the target point, the dynamic constraint ellipse was constructed to limit the expansion area of the jump point. The simulation results show that the optimized bidirectional dynamic JPS algorithm has a certain performance in general maps, especially in indoor environment maps with fewer obstacles and the target point is close to the starting point.

Ronghua Liu, Xin Wang, Di Wu, Chunyuan Xie

Open Access

Customer Needs Assessment and Screening for Transmission Solution Selection

When selecting technology for transmission in the process of product development and design, various methods available for choose ideal solution from many different technical alternatives. However, this does not guarantee that a very good developed product will achieve ideal market result. This is often because there is a difference between the functionalities provided by the product and the actual customer demands. This article explores the use of the KANO model to analyze customer requirements in the early stages of product development. By categorizing customer needs and selecting the ideal solution based on different categories of customer needs, it ensures that the product development aligns with customer demands.

Hegen Wang

Open Access

Study on Intelligent Driving School Vehicle System Based on Digital Twin Technology

The development of intelligent vehicle systems has progressed through multiple stages, evolving from initial basic functionalities to the integration of intelligent and automated technologies, achieving significant advancements. With technological advancements, intelligent vehicle systems have gradually introduced driving assistance features such as autonomous driving assistance and adaptive cruise control. In response to the developmental needs of intelligent driving school vehicle systems, a comprehensive research proposal is presented based on digital twin technology. By incorporating a multi-source data acquisition module, real-time collection and monitoring of various sensor data within the driving school vehicles are achieved, ensuring the acquisition of crucial information during the driving process. To facilitate efficient communication between the data monitoring center and the driving school vehicles, a driving school local area network is established, providing a solid foundation for data transmission and real-time monitoring. A user-friendly and intuitive front-end interface is designed to visualize vehicle status information and student driving data for instructors, enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of driving school education. Finally, based on practical application tests, data processing of coordinate information is conducted and showcased in the front-end interface, validating the feasibility and practicality of the designed system in driving school vehicle management and educational training.

Xinran Zhang, Yongming Bian, Meng Yang, Jie Shao

Open Access

Research on Architecture of Intelligent Simulation System for Automatic Quay Crane Training Based on Embedded Digital Twin Technology

The training of automated container gantry crane drivers faces with challenges, such as high safety risks, difficult training, and high learning cost. Therefore, we have designed an intelligent simulation system architecture for automated container quay cranes training based on embedded digital twin technology. This system can be directly embedded into the real quay crane remote control console without changing the original quay crane hardware equipment. It enables real-time switching between virtual quay crane remote control operation simulations and real gantry crane remote control operation, providing training for quay bridge drivers while also accounting for the real quay crane operation in time. To achieve seamless switching between real control and simulation training, we have designed two types of controllers: an automatic quay bridge remote control operation simulation system based on OPC UA communication protocol, and a real quay crane automation controller based on PLC control bus. Both controllers can communicate bidirectionally with the remote control room operating station PLC. Practical application at a wharf has demonstrated that our designed system offers high safety, real operation experience, and significant training effectiveness, effectively improving automated quay crane training outcomes, efficiency, and effectiveness.

Mengjie He, Yujie Zhang, Yang Shen, Chao Mi

Open Access

A Research of Different Energy Management Strategies of Lithium-ion Battery-Ultracapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System

Given the exacerbating effect of fossil fuel use in conventional vehicles on the greenhouse effect, the imperative development of electric vehicle technology becomes evident. To address the high energy and power density demands of electric vehicles, a lithium-ion battery-ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage system proves effective. This study, utilizing ADVISOR and Matlab/Simulink, employs an electric vehicle prototype for modeling and simulating both logic threshold and fuzzy logic control strategies. It aims to analyze the average output power and state of charge (SOC) of the lithium-ion battery, as well as the SOC of the ultracapacitor, within hybrid energy storage systems governed by these differing strategies. The findings indicate that the fuzzy logic control strategy results in a reduction of 2.73 kW in the average output power of the lithium-ion battery and a 20% increase in the SOC drop rate of the ultracapacitor compared to the logic threshold control strategy. Under the logic threshold control strategy, lithium-ion batteries demonstrate superior output stability, albeit within a broader amplitude range. Conversely, the fuzzy logic control strategy maximizes the utilization of ultracapacitors but leads to frequent fluctuations in the output power of lithium-ion batteries, thereby exhibiting reduced stability. These results underscore the inherent trade-offs between stability and utilization efficiency in hybrid energy storage systems for electric vehicles under different control strategies. The selection of a control strategy should be contingent upon specific performance priorities and objectives within the context of electric vehicle design and operation.

Dongjie Zhang, Lin Hu, Qingtao Tian, Changfu Zou

Open Access

Recognition Method for Train Coupler Handle Based on YOLOv5 Model

To solve the problem of identifying different types of car couplers during the operation of the automatic uncoupling robot of a tippler, a method for recognizing the handle of a car coupler based on the YOLOv5 model has been proposed. This method selects YOLOv5n, which is relatively simple in the YOLOv5 series, as the benchmark model for the detection network. The overall structure is more concise, effectively reducing the number of model parameters while ensuring detection accuracy. The YOLOv5n model used for feature extraction and target recognition on two types of coupler datasets: upper action and lower action, greatly reducing the time required for training and testing, and achieving extremely high recognition accuracy. Compared with the commonly used SSD300 model and Faster R-CNN model, it shows significant advantages in terms of parameter quantity, computational complexity, predictive inference speed and weight file size.

Zhiyuan Liu, Yan Li, Zhanmou Xu, Jialu Li, Jiayi Ding, Xiong Zhang, Shuting Wan, Jingyi Zhao, Rui Guo, Wei Cai

Open Access

Numerical Study of Heat Transfer Effects on Non-Newtonian Nanofluid Flow Between Two Parallel Plates in the Presence of Darcy Brinkman Forchheimer

Due to its vast industrial applications and biological context, the investigation of the inconsistent heat and mass transfer that drives the flow of squeezing viscous nanofluids between two plates is a fascinating topic. In this study, we investigated the heat transfer analysis of unsteady viscous nanofluid between two parallel plates. The partial differential equations illustrating the flow model are converted to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by suggesting similarity transformations. The resulting dimensionless and nonlinear ODEs of temperature functions and velocity are solved using the well know numerical technique shooting method by transforming the problem into initial value problem from boundary value problem. The results found are consistent with this numerical solution. Graphically explore the impacts of different parameters on temperature profiles and velocity. The results are compared with the results solved by HPM. The results concurred with this numerical solution. These findings are considered much be useful in the application of polymer processing, power transmission, compression, temporary loading of mechanical parts, food processing, cooling water, gravity machinery, modeling of plastic transport in vivo, chemical processing instruments, and demolition due to freezing.

Muhammad Bashir, Munawwar Ali Abbas, Bo Sun, Li Chen, Saima Muhammad

Open Access

Accurate Finite Element Modeling of Bolted Joints and Modified IWAN Model

A three-dimensional finite element model of helical bolted joints is established in this paper, and the validity of the model establishment scheme is verified by a numerical examples of “the stress distribution on the bolted joint”. Then, Hysteresis curves of the resultant torque versus the applied torsion angle are obtained from the finite element analysis. The results indicate that: (1) The contact threads have experienced three states of adhesion, partial slip and macro slip during the tightening and loosening process; (2) In the state of macro sliding, the resultant torque exhibits an upward trend due to the increase of the clamping pressure in tightening process. On the contrary, the resultant torque exhibits a downward trend due to the decrease of the clamping pressure in the loosening process. A modified IWAN model is established for the three-dimensional helical bolted joint under torsional load by adding the residual stiffness and correction of torque based on the results of finite element analysis. The results of the modified IWAN model for the M12 bolted joint present that the modified IWAN model can reproduce the hysteresis curves obtained by finite element analysis accurately, and the modified IWAN model composed of three Jenkins elements can cover the dissipated energy precisely.

Jiuyi Li, Yunhou Sun, Qiang Yan, Huaiqiang Kang, Haoxiang Wang, Shangwei Dong

Open Access

Standard Components Query System Based on Logical Filtering and Semantic Retrieval

The establishment of a robust standard components database is essential in various industries to streamline product development and ensure quality. This paper presents a system for querying standard components data, leveraging the power of logical filtering and semantic retrieval. The structured approach of this system includes a well-defined database structure, logical filtering capabilities at different data levels, and advanced semantic retrieval techniques. The outputs of the system demonstrate its effectiveness in handling user queries, analysing unstructured data, and providing meaningful feedback based on logical filtering outcomes. This research contributes to the efficient utilization of standard components data through an innovative and powerful digital query system.

Ziyan Huang, Yongming Bian, Meng Yang

Open Access

Research and Practice on Verification Test of Intended Functional Safety Awareness System Based on HWA System

With the development of driving automation technology, more and more vehicles are equipped with intelligent driving functions. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) issued in 2021 “Intelligent connected Vehicle production Enterprises and Product Access Management Guide (Trial)” (draft for comment) proposed that “intelligent connected vehicle products should meet the process assurance requirements of functional safety, intended functional safety and cybersecurity.” As the “eyes” of the HWA functional system, the perception system, due to its complexity, may still have safety problems caused by functional limitations such as sensors or algorithms in the absence of faults. Therefore, the intended functional safety analysis and verification methods for the perception system are particularly important to ensure that the system does not have unreasonable safety risks. This paper describes the analysis method of the intended functional safety function deficiency, and puts forward the test verification strategy and test verification method of known hazard scenarios. Taking the HWA system as an example, this paper analyzes the hazard scenario of the HWA perception system based on camera and millimeter wave radar, conducts testing and verification evaluation for typical hazard scenarios, identifies the insufficient function of the HWA perception system, and puts forward functional modification suggestions to ensure that the perception system does not have unreasonable risks.

Zhiqiang Zhang, Shaohua Liu, Zhaoyuan Shi, Juan Shi

Open Access

Energy Management Control Strategy of Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle

Aiming at a series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, the mathematical model and Matlab/Simulink simulation model of the vehicle are established, and the energy management strategy based on rules is put forward. The simulation results show that the control strategy not only realizes four working modes of hydraulic hybrid vehicle, but also improves its fuel economy by 11.9%. It is found that the volume of accumulator and the working pressure range of accumulator are two important parameters that affect the fuel economy of hydraulic hybrid vehicle. Under the condition of a certain accumulator volume, increasing the working pressure range of the accumulator can not only increase the energy storage of the accumulator, but also reduce the idling times of the engine and further improve the fuel economy of the vehicle.

Jie Gong, Jinyi Zuo

Open Access

Research on Leveling Strategy of Suspension System of Roadway Heavy-Load Transport Vehicle

As a transport device for underground equipment, the roadway heavy-load transport vehicle needs to ensure its safety and stability during loading and transportation. In order to reduce the overturning risk and improve the stability during transportation, the improved position error leveling method is proposed, and the effectiveness of the scheme is verified by simulation analysis and actual results.

Jianjun Dai, Hao Zhang, Wenlei Li, Rui Guo, Jingyi Zhao

Open Access

Simulation of Nanoindentation Technology Based on Rough Surface

In order to study the influence of roughness on the nanoindentation test, finite element method was used to simulate the nanoindentation test process, and secondary indentation method was further proposed to suppress the influence of roughness on the indentation. After optimizing the indentation parameters, the relative error between the results of nanoindentation simulation for rough surface samples and smooth surface samples is stable within 5%. The secondary indentation method can effectively reduce the influence of roughness on nanoindentation test results.

Zihao Ye, Yonghang Wang, Jiasheng Yao, Jiankang Jiang

Open Access

Research on Wading Mobility of a Certain Type of Special Vehicle Based on MPS Method

In order to study the wading mobility of a certain type of special vehicle, a high-precision dynamic model of the special vehicle is built. The vehicle dynamic model is verified by in-situ acceleration test and traction test. Through the dam-break experiment and wet road traction test, the feasibility and reliability of calculating the water impact pressure, buoyancy and solving the fluid–solid coupling problem based on the moving particle semi-implicit algorithm (MPS) are verified. Then, based on the MPS algorithm, a multi-body dynamics-fluid analysis simulation model is built to simulate and analyze the vehicle mobility under the static water wading condition and the water flow lateral impact condition. The relationship between the maximum speed of the vehicle at different water depths and gears under the static water wading condition the and the relationship between the lateral offset of the vehicle and the flow velocity and the deflection angle of the vehicle entering the water in the lateral impact condition are obtained.

Yiyang Hao, Yunbo Zhou, Ming Zhang

Open Access

A Study of the Effect of Frontal Crash Seat Belts on Driver Injury in a Certain Type of Wheeled Tactical Vehicle

A finite element model of frontal collision of a certain type of wheeled tactical vehicle is established, and the collision test method is designed concerning the test requirements of Chinese frontal collision standard GB11551 and Chinese side collision standard GB2007 to get the acceleration inside the vehicle as well as the damage of the occupants, and the model accuracy is verified according to the results of the actual collision test and the simulation test, as well as the change of the energy in the process of the simulation. The Hybrid III 50% male dummy is placed in the driver’s seat, and under the action of different conditions and ways of restraint systems, the damage of each part of the dummy is obtained in the simulation test. The study shows that multi-point seat belts provide better occupant protection compared to traditional three-point seat belts in response to high-impact crash environments. It can improve the direction of the force on the occupant and effectively reduce the occupant injury. The final occupant WIC decreased by 25.9% relative to the initial four-point seat belt position, improving the survival rate of the occupants.

Tao Wang, Yunbo Zhou, Ming Zhang

Open Access

The Perfect Fluid Characteristic of the Quark Gluon Plasma

This article explores the unique characteristics of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) by analyzing open data obtained from the ALICE experiment for Pb–Pb collisions and from the CMS experiment for Xe–Xe collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The total integrated luminosity of the analyzed data is 3.42 $$\mu {b}^{-1}$$ μ b - 1 . The findings indicate that there are similar patterns in the correlation between the transverse momentum ( $${P}_{t}$$ P t ) and the flow coefficients ( $${v}_{2}$$ v 2 and $${v}_{3}$$ v 3 ) in both Xe–Xe and Pb–Pb collisions. Additionally, the paper estimates the shear viscosity to entropy density ratios of the QGPs by comparing the $${P}_{t}$$ P t dependence of $${v}_{2}$$ v 2 and $${v}_{3}$$ v 3 , as obtained from the experiments, with the calculations derived from relativistic hydrodynamics equations using various shear viscosity to entropy density ratios.

Ke Li, Cheng Ma, Jiahua Qu, Jiayi Zhang

Open Access

Thermal Error Modeling Method of Machining Center Linear Axis for Heat Conduction Mechanism

To address the thermal deformation of machine tool components, a thermal error prediction model based on the ROA-LSSVM network was proposed. First of all, the heat transfer mechanism of the linear feed system was analyzed. By analyzing temperature distribution characteristics during the heat transfer process, the best temperature measurement point position was determined to ensure that the thermal error could be accurately predicted. Secondly, in order to build a prediction model with high accuracy and strong robustness, Raccoon optimization algorithm (ROA) was proposed to optimize the hyperparameters of the least square support vector machine (LSSVM) network model, which was difficult to determine the kernel function and penalty function. Finally, the experiment was measured on a VDL-600A machining center, and the accuracy and practicability of the proposed thermal error prediction model were verified by the thermal deformation in the measurement process. The experimental results show that The ROA-LSSVM model reduces the RMSE by 42% compared with the LSSVM network and 45% compared with the SVM network.

Qiangqiang Ding, Shijie Guo, Geng Chen, Shufeng Tang

Open Access

Tolerance Analysis Method of Aircraft Door Sealing Structure Based on Linear Simplified Model

As a moving component of the aircraft, the sealing state of the door will directly affect the aircraft's pressurization level and aerodynamic performance. The existing analysis methods of sealing structures mainly consider the compression deformation and contact stress of the seals. However, in practical engineering applications, it has been found that the sealing performance of cabin door depends on the interaction between the sealing structure and the seal. On the one hand, the tolerance fluctuation and elastic deformation of the sealing structure will cause the deviation between the actual compression ratio of the seal from the theoretical value; On the other hand, the deformation caused by the resilience of the seal will change the tolerance distribution of the sealing structure. In this paper, based on the local linear simplification of loading curve of the seal, the calculation efficiency of the large-size sealing structure’s deformation is improved, so that the compression ratio fluctuation of the seal is converted into the deformation tolerance which is included in the tolerance simulation of the sealing structures to obtain the distribution characteristics of step difference value on the aerodynamic surface as well as the different compression states of the seal. The validity of this analysis method is confirmed by comparing with the commercial software calculation and the practical measured data of the aircraft door.

Jinlin Ke, Xiongfei Lv, Cuncun Jiang

Open Access

Experimental Study on the Impact of Thermal Stress on Aircraft Structural Performance

The local heat source of a civil aircraft affects the temperature of the lower panel structure of the center wing. In this paper, a local heat source is arranged on the lower panel structure of the center wing. The strain of the center wing lower panel skin under different temperature gradients under local thermal loads and the corresponding temperature gradients around the heat source were investigated. The natural mesh model and the fine finite element model were used to analyze the thermal load of the center wing lower panel. The temperature on the node was applied according to the real temperature in the test, and the analysis results were compared with the test values. After comparative analysis, the strain value of the natural mesh model has a high degree of fit with the test value, and the analysis results of the natural mesh model can be used to analyze the thermal stress intensity of the center wing lower panel.

Xiaoli Bo

Open Access

Analysis of Deformation in Aircraft Skin Vacuum Adsorption Clamping

Large lightweight alloy skin panels are extensively utilized in the aerospace industry and serve as crucial components constituting the outer shells of aircraft, launch vehicles, manned spacecraft, and other equipment. However, due to their thin-walled nature and limited stiffness, they are susceptible to clamping deformation and machining-induced deformations. Vacuum adsorption technology is widely employed in aircraft manufacturing to mitigate part deformation during machining through the utilization of profiling molds. However, to achieve the milling and drilling tasks in a single clamping process, it is necessary to reserve drilling positions in the vacuum adsorption mold. Unfortunately, this leads to significant deformation of the aircraft skin at the reserved drilling positions during processing. This article utilizes finite element simulation technology to analyze the deformation of the aircraft skin during the vacuum adsorption clamping process. The simulation results indicate that the maximum deformation reaches 5.602 mm, which primarily occurs at the middle hole of the vacuum adsorption mold. To address this issue, the article proposes a solution of adding sealing strips around the reserved holes. This solution effectively reduces the deformation of the skin during the processing stage.

Wenhao Xing, Aimin Wang, Long Wu, Baode Xu, Jiayu Zhang, Yuan Yu

Open Access

Analysis on Random Vibration and Impact Response of Vehicle-Borne Electronic Chassis

In order to meet lightweight design requirement of vehicle-borne electronic chassis, vibration and impact response of chassis was analyzed based on the theory of random vibration and transient impact dynamics. Considering the influence of heat dissipation, corrosion resistance, material strength and economy of processing, weight reduction design was carried out according to vibration and impact response stress nephogram of chassis. The computation results show that the weight of chassis frame decreased by 16.4% and the first-order modal frequency of chassis decreased by 14.2% after weight reduction. Impact response had a lag relative to input impact spectrum. The increase of vibration stress was obviously higher than that of impact stress in different directions, which was still less than the corresponding material yield strength. That is, the structural strength of chassis after weight reduction meets the requirements of vibration and impact resistant design. The research results can provide theoretical basis of electronic equipment lightweight design under vehicle vibration and impact environment.

Zenghui Zhu, Qingqin Meng

Open Access

The Influence of Longitudinal Oil Tank Bodies on the Vehicle’s Rollover Mechanics

In order to determine the influence of longitudinal oil tank bodies with different cross-sectional shapes on the vehicle's center of gravity position and the lateral overturning moment generated during cornering and braking, this paper conducts oscillation simulation calculations and analysis on longitudinal oil tanks with three different cross-sectional shapes. The optimal cross-section of the longitudinal tank is ultimately determined, providing a basis for the stability calculation of oil tankers.

Yonggang Zuo, Fuze Chen, Jiansheng Huang, Yuliang Zhang, Meichun Wu

Open Access

Simulation and Comparative Analysis of Welding of the Safety End of the Pipe Based on Different Body Heat Source Models

Based on ANSYS APDL, this paper simulates the welding process of the safety end of the pipe using different heat source models. The results show that the shape of the moving heat source under the body heat rate heat source model and the double ellipsoid heat source model is ellipsoidal shape. The body heat rate heat source has a larger high temperature area than the double ellipsoidal heat source. The variation law of temperature field and stress field is basically the same, but the overall stress field under double ellipsoid heat source load is about 20 MPa smaller than the total stress field under body heating rate. The comparison of different heat source models can provide some help for the numerical simulation of welding.

Wenjie Chen, Dongmei Ji
Metadata
Title
The 8th International Conference on Advances in Construction Machinery and Vehicle Engineering
Editors
Saman K. Halgamuge
Hao Zhang
Dingxuan Zhao
Yongming Bian
Copyright Year
2024
Publisher
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-9718-76-4
Print ISBN
978-981-9718-75-7
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-97-1876-4

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