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2024 | Book

The Blue Book

Smart sustainable coastal cities and blue growth strategies for marine and maritime environments


About this book

This volume offers a wealth of results written by experts from interdisciplinary fields, contributing on a diversity of topics targeting marine and maritime environmental sustainability in coastal and ocean-related areas. The reader will benefit from the diversity and breadth of topical coverage as well as concepts conveyed from a variety researchers. The book serves as an open knowledge platform combining naval architecture and marine engineering, ecology, biomedical informatics, public health, architecture engineering and building physics, nanotechnology as well as advanced technologies, innovation and related fields.

The broad range of topics cover ecology, shipping, and health related issues. Specifically, the book presents chapters on the following:

· Shipping and ecology

· Topics of ocean wildlife and mega-fauna protection

· Big Data and sustainable applications for healthy and safe coastal cities

· Smart sustainable humanitarian assistance methods using large vessels

· Smart coastal city tourist activity, mobility management

· Urban climate condition mitigation

· Historical analysis of the case of disease outbreaks onboard ships

· Monitoring, simulating and decision making while developing housing at sea, such as in cruise-ships

· Conducting feasibility assessment for outbreak prevention following real-time, systematic disease detection on cruise ships

· Technological approaches for cruise ship disease propagation monitoring

· Scenario testing for sensors and actuators deployment to prevent and mitigate epidemics on cruise ships, as well as methods for improving biological safety on ships using nanotechnology

The book is expected to engage researchers in multidisciplinary areas as well as students and interested readers.

Table of Contents

Shipping and Ecology (Sustainability)
More than 2500 years ago, waterborne transportation constituted the dominant mode of trading, at least in the Mediterranean Sea region, which encompassed many highly populated cities along the shoreline. At that time, the most powerful Greek cities established colonies with which they kept close political, economic, cultural, and trading relations. Later, European trade extended into Asia and North Africa based on land routes, travel on which, however, was time consuming and restricted with respect to the bulk of the goods transported, and thereby expensive.
Gregory J. Grigoropoulos
Ocean Wildlife and Megafauna Protection
The Earth’s oceans cover over 70% of the planet’s surface, making them the largest habitat on Earth and home to a vast array of life collectively known as ocean wildlife [6]. From the tiniest plankton that form the base of the marine food web to the majestic blue whales, marine ecosystems harbor an extraordinary diversity of species, each playing a crucial role in maintaining the health and balance of these delicate environments [55]. The significance of ocean wildlife cannot be overstated, as these diverse marine organisms provide essential ecosystem services that support life on Earth [27]. Phytoplankton, for instance, play a vital role in producing oxygen through photosynthesis, contributing approximately 50% of the world’s oxygen supply [19]. Additionally, ocean wildlife plays a crucial role in regulating climate patterns by sequestering carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas responsible for global warming [77]. By absorbing and storing carbon, marine ecosystems help mitigate the impacts of climate change (Duarte et al. 2005). Moreover, ocean wildlife serves as the foundation of marine food chains, sustaining various marine species and supporting the livelihoods of millions of people worldwide [57]. Fisheries and aquaculture industries heavily rely on healthy marine ecosystems to provide a steady supply of fish and seafood for human consumption [26]. The fishing industry, in particular, is a significant source of livelihood for coastal communities and contributes to food security and economic growth in many regions [72]. In addition to supporting fisheries, marine wildlife-based tourism has emerged as a substantial economic driver in coastal regions. Activities such as whale watching, diving, and ecotourism draw visitors from around the world, contributing to local economies and creating employment opportunities for communities in coastal areas [40].
Mohammad Zahirul Islam
Big Data and Sustainable Applications for Healthy and Safe Coastal Cities
A huge amount of data is generated by humans on a daily basis but as businesses transform as more digital data is larger, resulting to more complex data sets, especially from new data sources. Because of the great potential it inherently offers, the above are encapsulated to the concept of big data that has become a very interesting topic, transforming the management, exploration, analysis, and leveraging of data in various domains [1, 2]. Various public and private sector industries generate, store, and analyze big data with an aim to improve the services they provide. This evolution of big data analytics has been supported by the emergence of Internet of Things (IoT). Robust big data management infrastructures provide the ground for managing and processing enormous amount of data, realizing different applications of Big Data analytics in various fields such as healthcare, maritime, banking, retail, computing, space communications etc. [3] Therefore industries, including the healthcare industry, are taking vigorous steps to convert this potential into better services and financial advantages.
Amalia Ntemou, Akrivi Kiousi, Nasos Grigoropoulos
Developing Housing at Sea: A Case for Humanitarian Assistance and Residency Vessels
The shipping industry, and especially, the cruise and ferry sector have experienced substantial blue growth in recent years. This chapter aims to elucidate the arguments for the use of passenger vessels as a semipermanent and shore-connected housing or residency options, primarily within the European Union, the UK and the USA with anecdotes presented from other regions as well. Not only can passenger vessels be developed in the private sector with cabins and suites for permanent sale, with the possibility of targeting low-income groups, but these vessels can also be utilized in the humanitarian sector and during emergencies.
Using anecdotal evidence, including newspaper articles, personal interviews, and scientific literature, this chapter compiles nonconfidential information from passenger shipping companies, which have been involved in the development of the residency vessel sector globally and have participated in the development of products ranging from luxury private accommodation to vessels catering to displaced persons and homeless populations. The sector is viewed as a potential blue growth strategy for coastal cities and ports due to the development of infrastructure, resources, and support needed to develop and sustain these projects. More research is needed in this area to further evaluate the benefits to local communities and affected populations as the current research on this topic is almost nonexistent, fragmented (where present) and unreliable.
Kaitlyn West, Rita Cheung
Smart Coastal City Mobility Management in the Context of High Tourist Activity and Methodological Approaches
The Smart City is a possible evolution of each City. With the rapid development of information technologies applied everywhere in city life, cities are becoming smarter and smarter. However, this context has multiple orientations, supported by an architecture of the assistive system and the associated implementation process. In this chapter, we present several cases of evolution of a city to become smart by integration of appropriate applications and associated assistive services. The integration of initially autonomous applications to a system is natural evolution, conducting to create an assistive system. We begin by the presentation of different smart city applications, then we try to conceptualize this issue and point out the main aspects. We propose also a design methodology with different approaches illustrated by several case studies that attempt to transform a coastal city into a Smart Coastal City. Proposed design methodology approaches and technologies can be used in order to manage the progress of a city to become smarter. We present several cases, supported by appropriate approaches, mainly mobility oriented and indicate their relations with proposed methodology, the role and functionalities of corresponding assistive systems, and the HCIs implemented in practice. Finally, we integrate all these aspects in the architecture of an assistive system managing them.
Bertrand David, Chuantao Yin, René Chalon
Urban Climate and Heat Mitigation in Coastal Cities
Climatic conditions in coastal cities are seriously affected by sea breeze and the local landscape characteristics. Sea breeze is a major cooling mechanism affecting the urban climate and decreasing urban temperatures. Despite the cooling provided by sea breeze, coastal cities exhibit serious overheating phenomena impacting their energy, environmental and financial status. The present chapter reviews the overheating problems of coastal cities, investigates the characteristics of sea breeze and its interaction with the local climate, analyses the main impact of urban overheating and presents the available mitigation technologies to counterbalance the impact of urban overheating and the potential benefits associated with the implementation of mitigation technologies.
Mattheos Santamouris, Konstantina Vasilakopoulou
Sick Ships: A Discussion on Historical Cases and Optimization for the Future
Ships and disease spreading have been associated with certain incidents throughout history, which led to changes in ways of designing and investigating blue growth strategy. Interestingly, the term “quarantine” and its associated meaning (40 days of isolation), whose origin traces back to the fourteenth century, was initially used for ships. Specifically, it referred to the mitigation of disease spreading from crew and passengers of ships to disembarkation areas. Ships, crew, passengers, and cargo were isolated from their onward destination in order to prevent lethal disease spreading on coastal areas and back onboard. While famous registries were not established at the time, the idea of health and safety has been the topic of interest for ship design and management, ever since. Nowadays, International registries have prescribed regulations and protocols to ensure health and safety. The need however persists to date on identifying new methods of preventing the incidence of communicable diseases onboard ships and thereafter to onward journey destinations. The COVID-19 outbreak has stressed this pressing need, as “quarantine” seemed to remain the main contemporary method of preventing spreads of the virus within large vessels such as cruise liners, and thereafter to onward destinations. This chapter, aims to contribute toward opening a discussion on optimizing interior ship design to achieve disease prevention and a sustainable blue growth strategy for the future.
Stamatina Th. Rassia, Thodoris Emm Tsikis
Disease Spread Control in Cruise Ships: Monitoring, Simulation, and Decision Making
Cruise ships transfer diverse populations between different countries, offering unique travel experiences to thousands of people worldwide. The benefits of cruises in tourism and national economies are apparent; however, the closed environment of cruise ships can easily become an incubator of infectious diseases, spreading rapidly among passengers. Health recommendations and protocols have been issued by proper organizations to enable disease spread control, especially after COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic; however, their effective application by the ship’s crew still constitutes a challenge, considering the application scale. This chapter aims to provide a foundational model toward an automatic system contributing to disease spread monitoring and control in cruise ships. Such a system would contribute to limiting the dependencies on the human factor, and consequently to passengers’ safety. Also, it provides an overview of state-of-the-art disease monitoring and decision-making systems, as well as simulation methods enabling the prediction of disease evolution, considered as components of that model. A summary of research directions and conclusions are derived from the review study performed, offering a useful reference for future research.
Georgios Triantafyllou, Panagiotis G. Kalozoumis, Eirini Cholopoulou, Dimitris K. Iakovidis
Real-Time, Systematic Disease Detection on Cruise Ships: Feasibility Assessment for Outbreak Prevention
The heavy toll of COVID-19 on the cruise industry has highlighted the long-standing issue of disease and epidemic management on ships. Optimal prevention of outbreaks on cruise ships would be achieved if each individual on board could be accurately diagnosed at the onset of symptoms, with or without a visit to the ship’s health center. This chapter discusses whether the current state of the art in point-of-care diagnostics, biosensors, and wearable devices can meet this challenge.
Prevention of outbreaks on cruise ships begins in the ship’s health center with accurate diagnosis of sick individuals. Diagnostic capabilities there should be expanded to include a broad range of commercially available point-of-care tests, in order to cover all common infectious diseases.
This should be complemented by real-time, accurate, individualized disease detection throughout the ship. The most mature option for respiratory disease recognition is undoubtedly the monitoring of respiratory sounds in the cabin or via wearable devices. Correlating symptoms and vital signs correlation measured with specific models of smart wearable devices is feasible, but is not fully generalized and validated. More selective solutions based on biomarkers or direct pathogen detection would be particularly appropriate but are still at the research stage.
Until disease tracking becomes fully available, it is proposed to perform real-time, continuous symptom tracking. This can be achieved with current commercial technologies, either with smart wearable devices, with fixed cabin sensors and/or with sensors deployed throughout the ship. A positively screened individual would be offered an immediate visit to the health center. There, a point-of-care diagnosis would be performed immediately to assess the risk that the symptoms are caused by an infectious disease.
Bérengère Lebental
Technology Approaches for Cruise Ship Disease Propagation Monitoring
In this chapter, possible sensor applications for symptom and contagion detection are described. For symptom detection, the most recent contagious outbreaks were considered, namely Norovirus, Covid-19, and Influenza. Possible measurable indicators were explored as well as the available approaches to accurately measure them.
For contagion control, different approaches are proposed that range from real-time location systems to mobile phone contact tracking. The particular conditions for locating a person inside a cruise ship raise additional obstacles taken into account when searching for possible solutions.
Bruno Almeida, Márcio Mateus, Miguel Pacheco, Pedro Maló, Tiago Teixeira
Scenarios for Sensors and Actuators Deployment to Prevent and Mitigate Epidemics on Cruise Ships
Following the COVID-19 outbreaks on board cruise ships in 2019, the naval community is considering how the rapid development of the Internet of Things could contribute to better preventing and mitigating outbreaks on cruise ships. A consortium of experts through the European Union-funded project Healthy Ship for You (HS4U) analyzed the high-level requirements and the state of the art of sensors and actuators solutions that could be used. Technologies for symptom detection, disease recognition, and passenger localization were identified, and approaches for surface, air and duct purification, and for communication between the crew, the public, and authorities were considered. Coupling the requirements with the state of the art allowed the consortium to propose several feasible scenarios for the deployment of sensors and actuators aboard a cruise ship. The architecture of a digital platform utilizing the sensors and actuators to assist the crew in preventing and mitigating an outbreak is also described. The information gathered here is expected to have a broad impact outside the HS4U consortium: (1) on the one hand, it aims to familiarize the cruise ship stakeholders with the technologies offered by the Internet of Things for health-related matters and to consider their adoption in the near future; and (2) on the other hand, it may contribute to the development of regulations regarding outbreak management by competent authorities.
Bérengère Lebental, Kaitlyn West, Olga Vainer, Michel Hoffman, Stathes Hadjiefthimiadis, Babis Andreou, Marc Bonazountas, Iro Palaiokosta, Astrinos Papadakis, Nasos Grigoropoulos, Amalia Ntemou, Anne-Sophie Fölster, Dimitris Drikakis, Bruno Almeida, Márcio Mateus, Miguel Pacheco, Pedro Maló, Tiago Teixeira
Improving Biological Safety on Ships Using Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology has recently emerged as a rapidly growing field with numerous biomedical science applications. In 2013 started an investigation to use silver nanoparticles and silver ion clusters in the maritime sector for the antifouling paints for vessel’s hulls, with good results in improving the resistance in time to corrosion and formation of fouling. In 2022, the interest was moved to the internal part of the boats, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which highlighted several issues with personal and public hygiene. Because of those issues, which are enhanced in a close and very populated environment like a cruise ship, the consortium HS4U (project 101069937) was born and granted by the European Climate, Infrastructure and Environment Executive Agency, project number: 101069937, started on 1 September 2022. The research goal is to improve the hygiene condition on cruise ships using several technologies, including silver-based nanotechnologies for surfaces biosafety.
Arturo Sommariva, Bruno Cantarelli, Costantino Gagliardi
The Blue Book
Stamatina Th. Rassia
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