Swipe to navigate through the articles of this issue
A lack of longitudinal data prevents many countries from estimating dynamic models and, thus, from obtaining valuable evidence for policymaking in the field of education. This is the case of Spain, where recent education reforms have targeted secondary schools, but their design has been based on incomplete information regarding the evolution of student performance and far from robust evidence concerning just when educational inequalities are generated. This paper addresses the absence of longitudinal data required for performing such analyses by using a dynamic model with repeated cross-sectional data. We are able to link the reading competencies of students from the same cohort that participated in two international assessments at different ages (9/10 and 15/16) and so identify when educational gaps—in terms of gender, socio-economic status and place of birth—emerge. Our results suggest that educational inequalities in Spain originate in lower educational levels. These results stress the importance of early intervention for improving performance during the compulsory education and for tackling educational inequalities.
Please log in to get access to this content
To get access to this content you need the following product:
Almond, D., & Currie, J. (2011). Human capital development before age five. In O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (Eds.), Handbook of labor economics (Vol. 4B, pp. 1315–1486). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Arellano, M., & Meghir, C. (1992). Female labour supply and on-the-job search: An empirical model estimated using complementary data sets. The Review of Economic Studies,59, 537–559. CrossRef
Bali, V., Anagnostopoulos, D., & Roberts, R. (2005). Toward a political explanation of grade retention. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis,27, 133–155. CrossRef
Bedard, K., & Dhuey, E. (2006). The persistence of early maturity: International evidence of long-run age effects. The Quarterly Journal of Economics. doi: 10.1093/qje/121.4.1437.
Brown, G., Micklewright, J., Schnepf, S., & Waldmann, R. (2007). International surveys of educational achievement: How robust are the findings? Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-985X.2006.00439.x.
Bukodi, E., & Goldthorpe, J. (2012). Decomposing ‘social origins’: The effects of parents’ class, status and educational on the educational attainment of their children. European Sociological Review,29, 1024–1039. CrossRef
Carneiro, P., & Heckman, J. (2004). Human capital policy. In J. Heckman & A. Krueger (Eds.), Inequality in America: What role for human capital policies (pp. 77–240). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Chen, X., Liu, C., Zhang, L., Shi, Y., & Rozelle, S. (2010). Does taking one step back get you two steps forward? Grade retention and school performance in poor areas in rural China. International Journal of Educational Development,30, 544–559. CrossRef
Choi, Á., & Calero, J. (2013). Determinantes del riesgo de fracaso escolar en España en PISA-2009 y propuestas de reforma. Revista de Educación,362, 562–593.
Choi, Á., & Jerrim, J. (2016). The use and (misuse) of PISA in guiding policy reform: evidence from Spain. Comparative Education. doi: 10.1080/03050068.2016.1142739.
Contini, D., & Grand, E. (2015). On estimating achievement dynamic models from repeated cross sections. Sociological Methods & Research. doi: 10.1177/0049124115613773.
Crawford, C., Dearden, L. & Greaves, E. (2007a). The impact of age within academic year on adult outcomes. IFS Working Paper W13/07.
Crawford, C., Dearden, L. & Greaves, E. (2013). When you are born matters: evidence for England. Report R80. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies.
Crawford, C., Dearden, L. & Meghir, C. (2007b). When you are born matters: the impact of date of birth on child cognitive outcomes in England. Report. London: Centre for the Economics of Education
Cunha, F., & Heckman, J. (2007). The technology of skill formation. American Economic Review,92, 31–47. CrossRef
Cunha, F., & Heckman, J. (2008). Formulating, identifying and estimating the technology of cognitive and noncognitive skill formation. Journal of Human Resources,43, 738–782. CrossRef
Cunha, F., Heckman, J., & Schennach, S. (2010). Estimating the technology of cognitive and noncognitive skill formation. Econometrica. doi: 10.3982/ECTA6551.
Datar, A. (2006). Does delaying kindergarten entrance give children a head start? Economics of Education Review,25, 43–62. CrossRef
De Simone, G. (2013). Render unto primary the things which are primary’s: Inherited and fresh learning divides in Italian secondary education. Economics of Education Review. doi: 10.1016/j.econedurev.2013.03.002.
Elder, T., & Lubotsky, D. (2009). Kindergarten entrance age and children’s achievement: Impact of state policies, family background and peers. The Journal of Human Resources. doi: 10.3368/jhr.44.3.641.
Feinstein, L. (2003). Inequality in the early cognitive development of British children in the 1970 cohort. Economica,70, 73–98. CrossRef
Ferguson, P., Jimerson, S., & Dalton, M. (2001). Sorting out successful failures: Exploratory analyses of factors associated with academic and behavioral outcomes of retained students. Psychology in the Schools,38, 327–341. CrossRef
Fernández, M. (2014). The evolution of inequality of educational opportunities: A systematic review of analyses of the Spanish case. Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas. doi: 10.5477/cis/reis.147.107.
Fernández-Macías, E., Antón, J., Braña, F., & Bustillo, R. (2013). Early School-leaving in Spain: evolution, intensity and determinants. European Journal of Education. doi: 10.1111/ejed.12000.
Fletcher, J., & Kim, T. (2016). The effect of changes in kindergarten entry age policies on educational achievement. Economics of Education Review. doi: 10.1016/j.econedurev.2015.11.004.
Fredriksson, P., & Öckert, B. (2014). Life-cycle effects of age at school start. Economic Journal,124, 977–1004. CrossRef
Frey, N. (2005). Retention, social promotion and academic redshirting: What do we know and need to know? Remedial and Special Education,26, 332–346. CrossRef
Gomes-Neto, J., & Hanushek, E. (1994). Causes and consequences of grade repetition: Evidence from Brazil. Economic Development and Cultural Change,43, 117–148. CrossRef
Guio, J., Choi, Á & Escardíbul, J-O. (2017). Labor markets, academic performance and school dropout risk: Evidence for Spain. International of Manpower, 10.1108/IJM-08-2016-0158.
Hanushek, E., & Wößmann, L. (2011). The economics of international differences in educational achievement. In E. A. Hanushek, S. Machin, & L. Wößmann (Eds.), Handbook of economics of education (Vol. 3, pp. 89–200). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
Heckman, J. (2011). The economics of inequality: The value of early childhood education. American Educator,35, 31–35.
Holmlund, H., Lindahl, M., & Plug, E. (2011). The causal effects of parents’ schooling on children’s schooling: A comparison of estimation methods. Journal of Economic Literature. doi: 10.1257/jel.49.3.615.
Hox, J. (1995). Applied multilevel analysis. Amsterdam: TT-Publikaties.
Jerrim, J., & Choi, Á. (2014). The mathematics skills of school children: how does England compare to the high-performing East Asian jurisdictions? Journal of Education Policy. doi: 10.1080/02680939.2013.831950.
Jerrim, J., Choi, Á., & Simancas, R. (2016). Two-sample two-stage least squares (TSTSLS) estimates of earnings mobility: How consistent are they? Survey Research Methods. doi: 10.18148/srm/2016.v10i2.6277.
Jerrim, J., & MacMillan, L. (2015). Income inequality, intergenerational mobility, and the Great Gatsby Curve: Is education the key? Social Forces,94, 505–533. CrossRef
Jerrim, J., & Micklewright, J. (2014). Socioeconomic gradients in Children’s cognitive skills: Are cross-country comparisons robust to who reports family background? European Sociological Review. doi: 10.1093/esr/jcu072.
Le Donné, N. (2014). European variations in socioeconomic inequalities in students’ cognitive achievement: The role of educational policies. European Sociological Review. doi: 10.1093/esr/jcu040.
Levels, M., Dronkers, J., & Kraaykamp, G. (2008). Immigrant children’s educational achievement in western countries: Origin, destination, and community effects on mathematical performance. American Sociological Review,73, 835–853. CrossRef
Liddell, C., & Rae, G. (2001). Predicting early grade retention: A longitudinal investigation of primary school progress in a sample of Rural South African children. British Journal of Educational Psychology,71, 413–428. CrossRef
Machin, S., & Pekkarinen, T. (2008). Global sex differences in test score variability. Science,322, 1331–1332. CrossRef
McEwan, P., & Shapiro, J. (2008). The benefits of delayed primary school enrollment: discontinuity estimates using exact birth dates. Journal of Human Resources,43, 1–29. CrossRef
MEC (2016). TIMSS 2015. Estudio Internacional de Tendencias en Matemáticas y Ciencias. Informe Español: Resultado y Contexto. MEC: Madrid.
Moffitt, R. (1993). Identification and estimation of dynamic models with a time series of repeated cross-sections. Journal of Econometrics. doi: 10.1016/0304-4076(93)90041-3.
Mullis, I., Martin, M., Kennedy, A. & Foy. P. (2007). PIRLS 2006 International Report. Boston. MA: Lynch School of Education, Boston College
OECD. (2014a). PISA 2012 results in focus: What 15-year-olds know and what they can do with what they know. Paris: OECD.
OECD. (2014b). PISA 2012 technical report. Paris: OECD.
OECD. (2016). PISA 2015 results (volume I): Excellence and equity in education. Paris: OECD.
Puhani, P., & Weber, A. (2007). Does the early bird catch the worm? Instrumental variable estimates of early educational effects of age of school entry in Germany. Empirical Economics,32, 359–386. CrossRef
Robertson, E. (2011). The effects of quarter of birth on academic outcomes at the elementary school level. Economics of Education Review. doi: 10.1016/j.econedurev.2010.10.005.
Royston, P., & White, I. (2011). Multiple imputation by chained equations (MICE): Implementation in STATA. Journal of Statistical Software. doi: 10.18637/jss.v045.i04.
Schütz, G., Ursprung, H., & Wößmann, L. (2008). Education policy and equality of opportunity. Kyklos. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6435.2008.00402.x.
Smith, J. (2009). Can regression discontinuity help answer an age-old question in education? The effect of age on elementary and secondary school achievement. The B.E. Journal of Economics Analysis & Policy,9, 1–30.
StataCorp. (2013). Stata Multiple Imputation: Reference Manual. Release 13. Texas: Stata Press.
Verbeek, M., & Vella, F. (2005). Estimating dynamic models from repeated cross-sections. Journal of Econometrics. doi: 10.1016/j.jeconom.2004.06.004.
Willms, D. (2006). Learning divides. Ten policy questions about the peroformance and equity of schools and schooling systems. Montreal: UNESCO.
Wilson, V., & Hughes, J. (2009). Who is retained in first grade? A psychosocial perspective. Elementary School Journal,109, 251–266. CrossRef
Zinovyeva, N., Felgueroso, F., & Vazquez, P. (2014). Immigration and student achievement in Spain: evidence from PISA. SERIEs. doi: 10.1007/s13209-013-0101-7.
- The Evolution of Educational Inequalities in Spain: Dynamic Evidence from Repeated Cross-Sections
- Publication date
- Springer Netherlands
- Social Indicators Research
An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement
Print ISSN: 0303-8300
Electronic ISSN: 1573-0921
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww