Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Hint

Swipe to navigate through the articles of this issue

Published in: Journal of Business and Psychology 3/2022

24-07-2021 | Original Paper

The Interactive Effects of Coworker and Supervisor Support on Prenatal Stress and Postpartum Health: a Time-Lagged Investigation

Authors: Kristen P. Jones, Jacquelyn M. Brady, Alex P. Lindsey, Lilia M. Cortina, C. Kendall Major

Published in: Journal of Business and Psychology | Issue 3/2022

Login to get access
share
SHARE

Abstract

Pregnancy represents a critical time during which women are increasingly susceptible to challenges that can shape maternal health postpartum. Given the increasing number of women who are working through the duration of their pregnancies, in this study, we examine the extent to which both maternal psychological and physical health are influenced by social support received at work during pregnancy. Specifically, we examine 118 pregnant employees’ perceptions of coworker support, supervisor support, and stress over the course of 15 working days. We then link prenatal stress levels with postpartum maternal health outcomes following women’s return to work. At the within-person level, coworker support predicted next-day decreases in stress during pregnancy; however, stress did not predict next-day change in coworker support. There was no relationship between supervisor support and next-day change in stress during pregnancy or vice versa. At the between-person level, an interactive effect between coworker support and supervisor support emerged in predicting prenatal stress, such that women who benefitted from supportive coworkers and supportive supervisors during pregnancy reported the lowest levels of prenatal stress which were, in turn, associated with lower incidence of postpartum depression and quicker recovery times from birth-related injuries. Significant indirect effects suggested that when perceptions of supervisor support were higher (but not lower), coworker support during pregnancy predicted lower incidence of postpartum depression and quicker recovery times through reduced prenatal stress. Taken together, our findings provide novel insight into how specific aspects of the workplace environment may interact to shape maternal psychological and physical health during pregnancy and postpartum.
Appendix
Available only for authorised users
Footnotes
1
Extant evidence suggests typical healing times for each type of injury are comparable (Wick, 2018). According to the Mayo Clinic Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy, women who are recovering from a cesarean section should avoid driving for 1-2 weeks, are usually able to resume normal activities at home within 3-4 weeks, and are recommended to avoid sex for 4-6 weeks post-surgery. Similarly, women who received stitches due to a perineal tear during delivery typically experience discomfort for 1-2 weeks post-delivery with the tissue taking about 6 weeks to regain its natural strength.
 
2
We were unable to consider both sources of support and their relations with stress simultaneously in the same within-person (BLCS) model. This is because such an approach requires the estimation of a number of paths so high that convergence cannot be achieved. Specifically, autoregressive effects are modeled by estimating the paths between support1, support2, support3 all the way up to support15. The same paths are then estimated for stress1, stress 2, stress3, all the way up to stress15. Next, latent change scores (i.e., difference scores) are modeled at each point in time (excluding time 1) for each variable as measured by the change in that variable relative to the previous time point beyond autoregressive effects. For example, the difference between support at time 1 and support at time 2 represents the latent change score for support at time 2. The proportional change parameters are then estimated by regressing the latent change score for support at time 2 onto the true score for support at time 1, regressing the latent change score for support at time 3 onto the true score for support at time 2, and so on. All of these paths are then estimated for the other variable of interest, stress. Finally, the coupling parameters are estimated by specifying a path from the true score for support at time 1 to the latent change score for stress at time 2, and vice versa by specifying a path from the true score for stress at time 1 to the latent change score for support at time 2, and so on up to time 15. Thus, adding a third variable (i.e., the other source of support) and all of the required associated parameters (autoregressive, proportional change, and coupling parameters) overwhelms the model and precludes convergence.
 
Literature
go back to reference Aiken & West (1991): Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Sage. Aiken & West (1991): Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Sage.
go back to reference Austin, M. P. (2003). Psychosocial assessment and management of depression and anxiety in pregnancy. Key aspects of antenatal care for general practice. Australian Family Physician, 32, 119–126. PubMed Austin, M. P. (2003). Psychosocial assessment and management of depression and anxiety in pregnancy. Key aspects of antenatal care for general practice. Australian Family Physician, 32, 119–126. PubMed
go back to reference Beck, C. T. (2001). Predictors of postpartum depression: An update. Nursing Research, 50, 275–285. CrossRef Beck, C. T. (2001). Predictors of postpartum depression: An update. Nursing Research, 50, 275–285. CrossRef
go back to reference Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2013). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Routledge. Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2013). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Routledge.
go back to reference Drach-Zahavy, A., & Somech, A. (2008). Coping with work-family conflict: Integrating individual and organizational perspectives. In K. Korabik, D. S. Lero, & D. L. Whitehead (Eds.), Handbook of work-family integration: Research, theory, and best practices (pp. 267–285). Academic Press. Drach-Zahavy, A., & Somech, A. (2008). Coping with work-family conflict: Integrating individual and organizational perspectives. In K. Korabik, D. S. Lero, & D. L. Whitehead (Eds.), Handbook of work-family integration: Research, theory, and best practices (pp. 267–285). Academic Press.
go back to reference Friedman, S. D., & Greenhaus, J. H. (2000). Work and family—allies or enemies? What happens when business professionals confront life choices. Oxford University Press. Friedman, S. D., & Greenhaus, J. H. (2000). Work and family—allies or enemies? What happens when business professionals confront life choices. Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Halbesleben, J. R. B., Zellars, K., Carlson, D. C., Perrewe, P. L., & Rotondo, D. (2010). Moderating effect of work-linked couple relationships and work-family integration on the spouse instrumental support-emotional exhaustion relationship. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15, 371–387. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1037/​a0020521. CrossRefPubMed Halbesleben, J. R. B., Zellars, K., Carlson, D. C., Perrewe, P. L., & Rotondo, D. (2010). Moderating effect of work-linked couple relationships and work-family integration on the spouse instrumental support-emotional exhaustion relationship. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15, 371–387. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1037/​a0020521. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Halbesleben, J. R. B., Wheeler, A. R., & Rossi, A. M. (2012). The costs and benefits of working with one’s spouse: A two-sample examination of spousal support, work-family conflict, and emotional exhaustion in work-linked relationships. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33, 597–615. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​job.​771. CrossRef Halbesleben, J. R. B., Wheeler, A. R., & Rossi, A. M. (2012). The costs and benefits of working with one’s spouse: A two-sample examination of spousal support, work-family conflict, and emotional exhaustion in work-linked relationships. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33, 597–615. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​job.​771. CrossRef
go back to reference Hert, M., Correll, C. U., Bobes, J., Cetkovich-Bakmas, M. A., Cohen, D. A., Asai, I., Detraux, J., Gautam, S., Möller, H. J., Ndetei, D. M., Newcomer, J. W., Uwakwe, R., & Leucht, S. (2011). Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. I. Prevalence, impact of medications and disparities in health care. World Psychiatry, 10, 52–77. CrossRef Hert, M., Correll, C. U., Bobes, J., Cetkovich-Bakmas, M. A., Cohen, D. A., Asai, I., Detraux, J., Gautam, S., Möller, H. J., Ndetei, D. M., Newcomer, J. W., Uwakwe, R., & Leucht, S. (2011). Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. I. Prevalence, impact of medications and disparities in health care. World Psychiatry, 10, 52–77. CrossRef
go back to reference Hobfoll, S. E., & Stokes, J. P. (1988). The process and mechanics of social support. In S. Duck, D. F. Hay, S. E. Hobfoll, W. Ickes, & B. M. Montgomery (Eds.), Handbook of personal relationships: Theory, research and interventions (pp. 497–517). John Wiley & Sons. Hobfoll, S. E., & Stokes, J. P. (1988). The process and mechanics of social support. In S. Duck, D. F. Hay, S. E. Hobfoll, W. Ickes, & B. M. Montgomery (Eds.), Handbook of personal relationships: Theory, research and interventions (pp. 497–517). John Wiley & Sons.
go back to reference House, J. S. (1981). Work Stress and Social Support. Addison-Wesley. House, J. S. (1981). Work Stress and Social Support. Addison-Wesley.
go back to reference Katon, W. J. (2011). Epidemiology and treatment of depression in patients with chronic medical illness. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 13, 7–23. CrossRef Katon, W. J. (2011). Epidemiology and treatment of depression in patients with chronic medical illness. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 13, 7–23. CrossRef
go back to reference Laughlin, L. (2011). Maternity leave and employment patterns: 2006–2008. Current Population Report, P70-128. U.S. Census Bureau. Laughlin, L. (2011). Maternity leave and employment patterns: 2006–2008. Current Population Report, P70-128. U.S. Census Bureau.
go back to reference Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. Springer. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. Springer.
go back to reference Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (2nd ed.). Psychology Foundation of Australia. Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (2nd ed.). Psychology Foundation of Australia.
go back to reference Matthews, S. G., & Meany, M. J. (2005). Maternal adversity, vulnerability, & disease. In A. Riecher-Rossler & M. Steiner (Eds.), Perinatal stress, mood, and anxiety disorders: From bench to bedside (pp. 28–49). S Karger AG. Matthews, S. G., & Meany, M. J. (2005). Maternal adversity, vulnerability, & disease. In A. Riecher-Rossler & M. Steiner (Eds.), Perinatal stress, mood, and anxiety disorders: From bench to bedside (pp. 28–49). S Karger AG.
go back to reference Morikawa, M., Okada, T., Ando, M., Aleksic, B., Kunimoto, S., Nakamura, Y., Kubota, C., Uno, Y., Tamaji, A., Hayakawa, N., Furumura, K., Shiino, T., Morita, T., Ishikawa, N., Ohoka, H., Usui, H., Banno, N., Murase, S., Goto, S., … & Ozaki, N. (2015). Relationship between social support during pregnancy and postpartum depressive state: A prospective cohort study. Scientific Reports, 5, 10520. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1038/​srep10520 Morikawa, M., Okada, T., Ando, M., Aleksic, B., Kunimoto, S., Nakamura, Y., Kubota, C., Uno, Y., Tamaji, A., Hayakawa, N., Furumura, K., Shiino, T., Morita, T., Ishikawa, N., Ohoka, H., Usui, H., Banno, N., Murase, S., Goto, S., … & Ozaki, N. (2015). Relationship between social support during pregnancy and postpartum depressive state: A prospective cohort study. Scientific Reports, 5, 10520. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1038/​srep10520
go back to reference Thurgood, S., Avery, D. M., & Williamson, L. (2009). Postpartum depression (PPD). American Journal of Clinical Medicine, 6, 17–22. Thurgood, S., Avery, D. M., & Williamson, L. (2009). Postpartum depression (PPD). American Journal of Clinical Medicine, 6, 17–22.
go back to reference Van Dinter, M. C., & Graves, L. (2012). Managing adverse birth outcomes: Helping parents and families cope. American Family Physician, 85, 900–904. PubMed Van Dinter, M. C., & Graves, L. (2012). Managing adverse birth outcomes: Helping parents and families cope. American Family Physician, 85, 900–904. PubMed
go back to reference Wick, M. J. (2018). Mayo Clinic guide to a healthy pregnancy (2nd ed.). Mayo Clinic Press. Wick, M. J. (2018). Mayo Clinic guide to a healthy pregnancy (2nd ed.). Mayo Clinic Press.
go back to reference Wisner, K. L., Sit, D. K. Y., McShea, M. C., Rizzo, D. M., Zoretich, R. A., Hughes, C. L., Eng, H. F., Luther, J. F., Wisniewski, S. R., Costantino, M. L., Confer, A. L., Moses-Kolko, E. L., Famy, C. S., & Hanusa, B. H. (2013). Onset timing, thoughts of self-harm, and diagnoses in postpartum women with screen-positive depression findings. Journal of American Medical Association Psychiatry, 70, 490–498. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1001/​jamapsychiatry.​2013.​87. Wisner, K. L., Sit, D. K. Y., McShea, M. C., Rizzo, D. M., Zoretich, R. A., Hughes, C. L., Eng, H. F., Luther, J. F., Wisniewski, S. R., Costantino, M. L., Confer, A. L., Moses-Kolko, E. L., Famy, C. S., & Hanusa, B. H. (2013). Onset timing, thoughts of self-harm, and diagnoses in postpartum women with screen-positive depression findings. Journal of American Medical Association Psychiatry, 70, 490–498. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1001/​jamapsychiatry.​2013.​87.
Metadata
Title
The Interactive Effects of Coworker and Supervisor Support on Prenatal Stress and Postpartum Health: a Time-Lagged Investigation
Authors
Kristen P. Jones
Jacquelyn M. Brady
Alex P. Lindsey
Lilia M. Cortina
C. Kendall Major
Publication date
24-07-2021
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Journal of Business and Psychology / Issue 3/2022
Print ISSN: 0889-3268
Electronic ISSN: 1573-353X
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-021-09756-1

Other articles of this Issue 3/2022

Journal of Business and Psychology 3/2022 Go to the issue

Premium Partner