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About this book

There are few industries in today’s world as dynamic and dramatically changing as the space sector, with new ventures and initiatives being announced on a daily basis. As well as emerging countries improving their launching and manufacturing capabilities, private actors are beginning to join public bodies in the space race, and participating in what is frequently being referred to as the new space era. With fantastic opportunities arising for business and economics, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the space sector, exploring recent initiatives, and the most important areas of investment in the industry, including emerging fields of activities such as asteroid mining and space tourism. It also addresses traditional and non-traditional security issues in the sector, together with discussing their legal implications. This interdisciplinary book provides insights for practitioners and researchers alike, particularly those involved in technology and innovation management, emerging markets, international relations, and security studies.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
The overall international space context is changing fast, and a brave new world of challenges and opportunities is opening up. “Competition is increasing; new entrants are bringing challenges and new ambitions in space; space activities are becoming increasingly commercial with greater private sector involvement; and major technological shifts are disrupting traditional industrial and business models in the sector, reducing the cost of accessing and using space. The combination of space data with digital technologies and other sources of data open up many business opportunities” (European Commission 2016: 2). In the context of the above-mentioned quote, the EU Commission was making references to the EU member states; yet, these words can be safely extended to all countries.
Stefania Paladini

Chapter 2. A Snapshot of Space: 2018

Abstract
An estimate of the size of the world’s space sector can prove surprisingly difficult to achieve. First of all, it depends on which activities are to be included, and which vary a great deal from a report to another and from country to country. The literature lists four uses of space (Hays et al. 2000), namely:
Stefania Paladini

Chapter 3. The Business of Space

Abstract
The following quotation from the EU’s policy paper defines the peculiarities of the space industry, together with its key characteristics: “The space manufacturing industry (satellites, launchers and ground segment) is a strategic, high-tech, high-risk and investment intensive industry with long development cycles and low production rate. In all space-faring nations, space industry mainly depends on institutional programmes, which take two forms: financing of research and development programmes and buying space products and services, as customers of the industry” (European Commission 2013: 3).
Stefania Paladini

Chapter 4. Europe in Space and the Space in Europe: A Complex Relationship

Abstract
The following official statement of the EU Commission in 2016 synthesises, better than several pages of discussion, what constitutes the heart of the matter in the European space sector: the presence of different and at time contrasting interests, especially on the security side, and the need of a more effective integration strategy to exploit synergies.
Stefania Paladini

Chapter 5. Beyond Europe: Space Powers Around the World

Abstract
No country currently spends, or has ever spent, as much as the USA in the world’s space industry. At the moment of the Apollo missions (Just to give a figure, NASA gave a final figure of the cost of the Apollo mission at US$25.4 billion in 1973 dollars (NASA 2014) , which translates in US$2018 dollar 144.18 million [the figure comes from the Bureau of Labour Statistics consumer price index, according to which prices in 2018 are 467.65% higher than prices in 1973].) that put a man on the lunar soil, the USA had a budget allocation for space missions of almost 4.5% of their federal budget—an astronomic amount if compared to the current allocation. Moreover, if there is a name known over all the others in the space sector is NASA .
Stefania Paladini

Chapter 6. Space Diplomacy: Traditional and Non-Traditional Security Issues

Abstract
As the EU Commission stated recently in an official communication, there is the growing perception of space as a “challenged” and together “challenging” place. “Space is becoming a more contested and challenged environment. New competitors – both public and private – are emerging around the world, partly spurred by the reduced costs of developing and launching satellites . Growing threats are also emerging in space: from space debris to cyber threats or the impact of space weather” (European Commission, 2016: 8).
Stefania Paladini

Chapter 7. The Legal Dimensions of Space

Abstract
The existing framework for what concerns the domain of space law has its roots in the Cold War period and the negotiations between the two then-competing superpowers: the USSR and the USA .
Stefania Paladini

Chapter 8. A Changing Space: Trends of the Twenty-First Century

Abstract
If it is true that space exploration started when humankind looked for the first time at a moonless night trying to figure out stars and designing constellations, for the first conscious effort to study it in a more systematic and scientific way the world needed to wait until Galileo and its prototype telescope, as simple as it was.
Stefania Paladini

Chapter 9. Beyond Space Fiction

Abstract
There are many scholarly contributions, which explore in great detail the advantages of space exploration , both in the Earth’s neighbourhood and farther away, beyond the Solar System. Crawford highlights the benefits in the short terms as well as in a longer timeline.
Stefania Paladini

Chapter 10. Conclusions

Abstract
2018 has been a record-breaking year for space activities, with more than 100 successful launches, the testing of a new powerful rocket (SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy ), new space exploration missions launched (e.g. BepiColombo, Mars InSight) and others making the news with some daring results (e.g. Osiris-Rex , Hayabusa 2, Chang’e 4). The ISS life has been extended to mid-2020s, a fact that is going to allow the development of privately funded stations like the already-deployed, inflatable Bigelow module.
Stefania Paladini

Backmatter

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