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Using primarily Russian sources, this book explains the political and economic aspects of nuclear power. The nuclear fuel cycle is described, from the mining of natural uranium to the ultimate power generation, and to reprocessing to produce plutonium which is essential for both electricity generation and for weapons production. Historical aspects of nuclear developments in Germany, the USA, India, China and the Soviet Union are also considered and explained. The book then proceeds to argue that Russia is more powerful today in its nuclear weapons system and delivery than ever before, and that it is precisely this which has provoked President Trump to cancel the strategic nuclear weapons reduction treaty.

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
There are two aspects of nuclear power development. The first aspect is the supply of massive amount of energy at a low cost to develop human civilization, the peaceful atom. The second aspect is the supply of, the military atom, massive amount of weapons to destroy the human civilization. This book is about understanding the relationship between developments of these two aspects of nuclear power in three perspectives: past, present, and future.
Dipak Basu, Victoria W. Miroshnik

Chapter 2. Advantages of Nuclear Power

Abstract
The large-scale development of nuclear energy has been driven by the need for electricity as a result of rapid industrialization, exhaustion of energy reserves, and severe political instability in those countries exporting oil and gas. In addition, traditional energy supplies originating from fossil fuels harm the environment in terms of greenhouse gas emissions.
Dipak Basu, Victoria W. Miroshnik

Chapter 3. Geopolitical Aspects of Nuclear Power

Abstract
Much time has passed since the advent of nuclear weapons and the first nuclear power plants. During this period, the number of nuclear countries increased significantly, and the number of states with enterprises in the nuclear industry and nuclear energy increased.
Dipak Basu, Victoria W. Miroshnik

Chapter 4. Economic Aspects of Nuclear Power

Abstract
Technological sovereignty is the ability of the state to provide scientific, technical, and industrial development to create and maintain on its territory its technologies and infrastructure sufficient to guarantee the independence of its policies, economy, and defense capability from foreign technologies in critical, vital areas.
Dipak Basu, Victoria W. Miroshnik

Chapter 5. Military Aspects of Nuclear Energy

Abstract
Even in 1924, Einstein and the Indian scientist SN Bose studied the behavior of atoms at shallow temperatures; this is known as Bose–Einstein Thermo Dynamics. In Germany in 1939, the German physicists O. Hahn and F. Stresemann discovered the fission of uranium nuclei under the action of neutrons. Less than a month after this great news reached all the leading physical laboratories, already at a conference in Washington, scientists already half-jokingly and half-seriously talked about the release of nuclear energy.
Dipak Basu, Victoria W. Miroshnik

Chapter 6. History of the Development of Nuclear Power

Abstract
The history of the most common notions about atoms, the smallest particles that form matter, is usually traced back to the time of the ancient Indian philosophers Uddalak Aruni (8th century BC), Konad (6th century BC) (Dasgupta in History of Indian Philosophy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1922; Radhakrishnan in Indian Philosophy. Oxford University Press, New York, 1923), and the ancient Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus (460–370 BC). They represent the founders of an atomic theory of the universe and materialistic philosophy. The Greek philosopher Epicurus (341–270 BC) adopted this nuclear approach.
Dipak Basu, Victoria W. Miroshnik

Chapter 7. Global Nuclear Policy Development

Abstract
The history of nuclear energy covers a period of more than half a century, and during that time, it has already become a traditional branch of energy. Currently, 31 countries operate nuclear power plants. By the beginning of 2017, there are 451 power reactors in the world (not including those shut down for a long time) with a total capacity of 392,521 MW, 60 reactors were under construction. The vast majority of nuclear power plants are located in Europe, North America, Far East Asia, and the territory of the former USSR, while in Africa there are almost none, and in Australia and Oceania, there are none at all.
Dipak Basu, Victoria W. Miroshnik

Chapter 8. Global Nuclear Investment Environment

Abstract
In the early 2000s, the nuclear power plant construction world was headed (conditionally, of course) by the Big Four: Americans with their Westinghouse Electric as the flagship of the global nuclear industry, the French with their great powerful AREVA, the Japanese, the Americans with their 104 nuclear power plants, and reorganized into state enterprise ROSATOM.
Dipak Basu, Victoria W. Miroshnik

Chapter 9. Germany as Nuclear Power

Abstract
Research on nuclear energy and weapons have started in Germany in the early 1930s. In this chapter, we trace those developments. We begin with a report of Major-General V. A. Kravchenko, Deputy Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR, written in 1945 on the work done and the identification of data on research in the field of nuclear physics in Germany.
Dipak Basu, Victoria W. Miroshnik

Chapter 10. The United States as Nuclear Power

Abstract
The USA is the world’s most important largest producer of nuclear power. It accounts no less than 30% of worldwide nuclear generation of electricity. The country’s nuclear reactors produced about 20% of total electrical output. Capital expenditure on existing nuclear plants went up in 2012 due to post-Fukushima upgrades, and it went down 26% in 2015 when capital investment in operating plants was $6.25 billion” (Nuclear Energy Institute Report, 2019). The United States has now 98 operating nuclear power reactors in 30 states, operated by 30 different power companies. Average nuclear generation costs were reduced from$40/MWh in 2012 to \$34/MWh in 2017.
Dipak Basu, Victoria W. Miroshnik

Chapter 11. Russia as a Nuclear Power

Abstract
The Russian nuclear industry is one of the most advanced in the world in terms of scientific and technical developments in the design of reactors, nuclear fuel, nuclear power plant (NPP) operational experience, and access to NPP personnel. The industry has accumulated vast experience in solving large-scale tasks such as the creation of the world’s first NPP (1954) and the development of fuel to use in it.
Dipak Basu, Victoria W. Miroshnik

Chapter 12. Japan as Nuclear Power

Abstract
Japan is the only victim of nuclear destruction. Destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the US nuclear bomb attack in 1945 forced Japan to abandon nuclear weapons forever, but the recent rise of China is forcing Japan to change its passivity. However, since Japan currently is under the US nuclear umbrella, there will be no immediate change in its nuclear weapons policy.
Dipak Basu, Victoria W. Miroshnik

Chapter 13. India as a Nuclear Power

Abstract
The nuclear energy sector is the fifth-largest source of electricity in India after coal, gas, hydroelectricity, and wind power, and its contribution is increasing. As of March 2018, India has already twenty-two nuclear reactors in operation in seven nuclear power plants of various types, with a total installed capacity of 6780 MW. Nuclear energy sector produced a total of 35 TWh of electricity in 2017. Six more reactors are under construction with a combined generation capacity of 4300 MW.
Dipak Basu, Victoria W. Miroshnik

Chapter 14. China as Nuclear Power

Abstract
China’s nuclear strategy is based on the development of nuclear energy, which so far only takes 2% in the production of electricity in China. The main source of energy is coal, which accounts for 80% of the energy balance. The new Chinese authorities understand the unpromising ecological nature of the “black energy” and are actively developing nuclear power. By the beginning of 2018, 38 nuclear power units were in operation in China, which is about 9% of all capacities in the world.
Dipak Basu, Victoria W. Miroshnik

Chapter 15. Future of Nuclear Power Development

Abstract
In the 1990s and later, Russia often launched missiles, as part of a routine training program. After the collapse of the USSR and devastating Perestroika period in the ’90s, Russian deterrence systems were in disarray. Russian military secrets were exported in tons. However, even in such terrible conditions, Russians never allowed themselves to get rid of the weapons of the “last resort” (intercontinental nuclear missiles).
Dipak Basu, Victoria W. Miroshnik