In the last two decades, throughout North America and Europe, industry and academic links have been identified as an important means for increasing output from national technical resources and improving industrial competitiveness ( see David et al. 1994; Roobeek 1990; Ergas 1993; Charles and Howells 1992; Van Dierdonck et al. 1990, Chanaron 1989, and Brunat and Reverdy 1989). Official statements from each of the three case study countries and the EU express the view that the PSSB should stimulate and support innovation in industry. Examples from the UK include ACARD, 1983; ACOST 1991; Department of Trade and Industry ( DTI) 1988; the 1993 White Paper ‘ Realising Our Potential’; from France the Ministère de la Recherche et de la Technologie ( MRT) policy statement ( 1990), and from Belgium the Conseil National De La Politique Scientific ( 1984) policy document. Public policy in effect aims to create a set of norms whereby industrial access to research in universities and more recently, in national laboratories, is standard practice.
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