This monograph provides a comprehensive study of the Riemann problem for systems of conservation laws arising in continuum physics. It presents the state-of-the-art on the dynamics of compressible fluids and mixtures that undergo phase changes, while remaining accessible to applied mathematicians and engineers interested in shock waves, phase boundary propagation, and nozzle flows. A large selection of nonlinear hyperbolic systems is treated here, including the Saint-Venant, van der Waals, and Baer-Nunziato models. A central theme is the role of the kinetic relation for the selection of under-compressible interfaces in complex fluid flows. This book is recommended to graduate students and researchers who seek new mathematical perspectives on shock waves and phase dynamics.