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About this book

Over the past two decades, society has been witnessing how technological, political, and societal changes have been transforming individual and collective urban mobility. Driven both by newcomers and traditional players, by disruptive as well as incremental innovations, the main objective now is to enhance mobility and accessibility while, reducing vehicle ownership, congestion, road accidents, and pollution in cities.

This transformation has been mainly enabled by the widespread adoption of internet-connected devices (e.g.: smartphones and tablets) and by the innovative business models, technologies, and use-cases that arose from this rapid digitalization, such as peer-to-peer, and two-sided markets providing several mobility schemes: car-sharing, car-pooling, bike sharing, free-floating (cars, bikes, electric scooter), ridesharing and ride hailing either for long distances as well as for urban and micro-mobility.

The book presents – in a holistic perspective – how this revolution is happening and what are the major cornerstones for the implementation of robomobility. It aims at answering several substantial issues, such as: What is robomobility and what does it imply for the different stakeholders of the public transport ecosystem? How do policy makers integrate this innovation and how ready the regulations are? How do citizens take part in this transformation? What is the level of user acceptance for this new type of mobility? What are its environmental impacts? What is the economic impact of deploying these shuttles in a local ecosystem?

Table of Contents


Robomobility Implementation into Public Transport Networks


Chapter 1. Autonomous on-Demand Vehicles and the (R)evolution of Public Transport Business Models

This chapter brings an overview of the evolution of automation in public transport, from the first automated metros until the most recent advances and trials in mixed-traffic conditions with Autonomous Vehicles for Collective Transport (AVCTs). It presents a typology of uses with five stages of on-demand services with AVCTs exemplified by many cutting edge experimentations distributed among the five proposed stages. The arrival of AVCTs shows an imminent disruption in the history of public transport, reconfiguring not only the forms of use but also its whole business model structure.
Fabio Antonialli

Chapter 2. Evolution of Government Policy for Autonomous Mobility: Korean and French Cases and Their Differences

Government behavior is one of the key factors shaping the coming era of autonomous mobility. This chapter explores the evolution of government policy and regulations in the 2010s for the commercial deployment of autonomous vehicles (AVs). This study explores the cases of Korea and France as they are major players in the global automotive industry and, at the same time, take contrasting approaches to the emergence of autonomous mobility. They have in common that AVs were set as a national strategic sector in the early 2010s for industrial competitiveness. Various policy measures and regulation changes have been followed in four areas: (1) research and development (R&D) and tests, (2) legal and regulatory framework, (3) infrastructure for AV deployment, and (4) social acceptance. The two countries take different approaches. While France takes a demand-pull approach, focusing on developing autonomous mobility, Korea takes a tech-push approach, focusing on developing autonomous vehicles. This difference reflects each country’s country-specific socio-economic context and their government’s perspective on autonomous driving.
Jeehoon Ki

Chapter 3. How to Assess Regulation Openness for Autonomous Driving in Public Transport? The ROAD Index

This chapter identifies and maps regulatory and legislative requirements and procedures for the deployment of autonomous public transport. After providing a general overview on the international and European organizations involved in regulatory statements and the branches of law framing regulation for public transport, we propose a tool to evaluate the level of regulation framework openness to robomobility, the ROAD index (the Regulation Openness for Autonomous Driving index). Taking into account regulations and policy making processes, we distinguished a set of four variables to measure the level of national or local readiness for the implementation of autonomous collective vehicles on open roads. ROAD index helps to evaluate regulation as facilitator or barrier to robomobility and to understand in which way decision makers can leverage on regulation to make it build a favorable framework for mobility innovation.
Sylvie Mira-Bonnardel, Elizabeth Couzineau

Chapter 4. Economic Assessment of Services with Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles: EASI-AV

While most of the current research on autonomous public transport focuses on improving operational and technical aspects, as well as tackling policy and user behavioral factors, the integration of autonomous buses into public networks is mainly dependent on costs and breakeven points (both for operators and local governments). Research quantifying costs and return on investment specifically in academic settings are sparse. This chapter aims to introduce a simulation tool: EASI-AV, designed as a decision-making tool to support public policies on the decision of implementing innovative mobility services. EASI-AV proposes to (1) assess the global economic impacts of deploying fleets of AVCTs in comparison with traditional public transport modes, and (2) help local authorities to build scenarios integrating autonomous buses into their public network and imagine new business models. The simulation is based on the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) approach and includes four aspects that may be used independently: the fleet size dimensioning, the TCO calculation with internal costs and local externalities, the business model simulation, and the global impact assessment in comparison with other transport modes. EASI-AV was tested with real data from pilot sites, and the results prove it to be fully relevant.
Fabio Antonialli, Sylvie Mira-Bonnardel, Julie Bulteau

Chapter 5. From Demonstrator to Public Service: The AVENUE Experience

The AVENUE projet’s vision for future public transport in urban and suburban areas is that autonomous vehicles will ensure safe, rapid, economic, sustainable, and personalised transport of passengers, while minimising vehicle changes and maximising vehicle utilisation. The goal of the project is to provide door to door, on-demand autonomous public transport services allowing commuters to benefit from the full capabilities of autonomous busses.
However, the road to a public transportation service is not so simple. Legal and regulatory requirements create barriers and obstacles, raising the costs and delaying the deployment of the services. In spite of the efforts from the European Commission for a harmonisation of the homologation process, urban public transportation is under national and local legislation, creating a highly fragmented European environment. In this chapter, we present some of our experience in setting up and deploying Autonomous busses in two cities, Geneva and Copenhagen.
Dimitri Konstantas

Integrating Robomobility in the Larger Perspective of Urban Mobility Innovation Embedded in Societal Contexts


Chapter 6. Recommendations for a User-Centered Design of Mobility Solutions

In this chapter, we are interested in the design and innovation processes of mobility solutions from the viewpoint of designers (vehicle providers, start-up companies developing digital mobility applications, mobility operators...). It is becoming increasingly important to take the door-to-door experience of travelers, and of other users of mobility systems, into account. Taking a step back on the research contributions of the Anthropolis chair (2016–2019), we advocate that user-centered insights are useful at different stages of solution development. When mobility solutions are not yet on the market, trials are mostly conducted to evaluate technological maturity (of autonomous shuttles for instance). Testers in these trials can say more about their experience and the value of the solution if asked to. When mobility solutions are on the market, there is a need to capture the experience of travelers and uncover their door-to-door problems through a systemic mobility diagnosis. This type of problem diagnosis can be used to feed innovation approaches, reveal value buckets for companies, and bring meaningful solutions for both travelers and the other users. Finally, we discuss the applicability and the potential of the recommendations for different mobility stakeholders.
Ouail Al Maghraoui, Flore Vallet, Jakob Puchinger

Chapter 7. The Integration of Innovative Mobility into the Urban Transport Network: A Literature Review

In this chapter, we investigate the potential integration of innovative mobility modes with urban public transport. We emphasize the design of future autonomous on-demand transport systems in the future and the interactions of these systems with public transport. These new modes pose several implementation challenges for public transport system design, including strategic, tactical, and operational choices when projecting the implementation. The impact on the overall urban transport systems is considered along with sustainability. We will review the current literature and state of the art, investigate technological developments, and finally develop some visions and research perspectives on the future integration of on-demand transport in public transport systems.
Ayman Mahmoud, Tarek Chouaki, Jakob Puchinger

Chapter 8. Public Transport in Emerging Countries: From Old Dilemmas to Opportunities for Transition to Sustainable Mobility Through the Case of Brazil

Throughout their trajectory, emerging countries like Brazil have not prioritized alternatives that guarantee the sustainable development of its public transport system, accumulating relevant gaps in infrastructure, quality and access to public transport. In this sense, the objective of this chapter is to present the context in which public transport has been developing in Brazil, both historically and currently, discussing the dilemmas and opportunities that could enable the transition to a more sustainable public transport system in the country. It seems that innovation projects based on sustainability in ubiquitous mobility are very welcome, but they do not replace the need for a conventional public transport solution. Additionally, automakers will not lead the most relevant transformations since most of the initiatives aimed at contributing to reduce the gaps from the public transport in Brazil come from new players interested in developing business models in this field, especially nascent companies focused on implementation of new technologies for the provision of mobility services. Although no new single player will be able to cause systemic changes alone, some opportunities are presented in order to improve the discussion about the development of a more sustainable public transport in the country, as well as to contribute as a reference for other emerging countries that may face similar challenges.
Adriana Marotti De Mello, João Valsecchi Ribeiro De Souza, Roberto Marx

Chapter 9. MaaS as a Catalyst for the Public Transport Revolution in Developing Countries

The Mobility-as-a-Service phenomenon entails the integration of different public and private transport, considering public transport as a backbone. The applicability of MaaS schemes is closely related to efficient public transport networks, which is not a reality in several developing countries. In this chapter, we present a new perspective on MaaS. Thus, we believe that for a revolution in public transport, MaaS can be a catalyst. We consider MaaS as a business model that can be modular and adaptable to any reality. By considering public transport as the backbone (whether it is efficient or not) its eventual inefficiency can be balanced with the integration of private actors, corroborating with the context of smart cities, and new alternatives for private transport means (e.g., autonomous vehicles and shuttles). To this end, we consider precepts from business ecosystem, PSS, eco-innovation, consumer behavior – and the act of sharing. Approaches like these can guide the applicability of MaaS in the context of Smart Cities and new perspectives, such as Corporate MaaS and Rural MaaS.
Rodrigo Marçal Gandia

Chapter 10. Reflexions on Urban Mobility Governance: Moving Towards Tomorrow’s Robomobility

The question of urban mobility governance is a challenge for all cities worldwide. Economic, financial, social, and environmental issues are at the heart of ecological transition programs in many major cities globally. This new governance model concerns public transport and the management of innovative mobility, including mobility on-demand. However, the modes of management of public transport are contrasted, varying according to the geographical location of cities, citizens’ way of life, and the history of each metropolis. What remains common to all cities is an ambition and a desire to implement in their mobility systems radical innovations such as autonomous shuttles and digitalization tools such as MaaS (Mobility-as-a-Service). The future of mobility is part of a robomobility approach, including autonomous vehicles. This forward-looking vision will radically challenge the relationships between users, citizens, and city governance.
Danielle Attias


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