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About this book

This book explores the part that electric vehicles can play in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Further, it explains the impact of public support, technological advances, lower costs and better battery performance in making electric vehicles a viable alternative.

The book begins by analyzing the international context of electric vehicles and how they are being developed in different countries, and by offering a forecast of the electricity demand they may create. It then discusses technological innovations in electric vehicle recharging systems. The book is concerned not only with the economic potential of electric vehicles, but also with environmental aspects; consequently, it examines the raw materials supply chain and performs a lifecycle assessment. The book concludes with a chapter on alternative energies in transport, which may also help to facilitate the energy transition.

Given its scope, the book offers a valuable resource for researchers, graduate students, policymakers and industry professionals interested in the energy transition and transport.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

EV International Landscape

Abstract
This chapter is devoted to give a general overview of the best practises in some European countries for maximizing the deployment of the electrical vehicle. After a brief introduction where the main reasons for promoting this technological transition are outlined, it has reviewed the general EU regulatory context. Then, different policies of relevant countries in the electrical vehicle development such as Denmark, France, Italy, Norway, Germany, Estonia, and The Netherland are analyzed. Finally, the different stakeholders involved in e-mobility are reviewed with a particular focus on the role than Distribution System Operators may have in the business model development.
José María Maza-Ortega, Francisco Jesús Matas-Díaz, Ángel Arcos-Vargas

Forecast of EV Derived Electrical Demand. The Spanish Case

Abstract
The inclusion of the electric vehicles in Spain is unavoidable, as well as in the developed countries, and the electrification of the Spanish vehicle fleet will produce an increase in the electric energy demand which will require changes in the current infrastructure. This chapter estimates the total consumption of an entire electric fleet considering the electrification of all the vehicles registered in Spain. The analysis performs a sampling of the most recent models of EV in the market and the typical driven annual distances of each type of vehicle. Finally, the environmental impact is estimated regarding CO2 emissions, the optimal charging scheme is established and some consideration about the impact in the grid are taken into account.
Francisco José Gutiérrez-García, Ángel Arcos-Vargas

EV Recharging Systems: Technological Review and Impact on the Electric System

Abstract
This chapter is devoted to analyze some basic technical concepts required to understand the charging of electrical vehicles (AC and DC currents, wired or inductive charging, energy flows, charging time, etc.). This analysis will reveal that electric vehicles could be charged in different ways, so it would be required some standardization in terms of charging modes and connectors. This standardization must also be extended to the communication protocols between the electrical vehicle and charging station, safety issues and electrical installations. Without any doubt, a massive penetration of electrical vehicles may considerably impact the power system and, particularly, at the distribution level. For this reason, this chapter evaluates different strategies that can be applied to minimize as much as possible this negative impact that the EV charging may create.
Francisco Jesús Matas-Díaz, José María Maza-Ortega, Ángel Arcos-Vargas

Success Factors in EV Deployment: An Economic Analysis

Abstract
More than one million new electric vehicles (EV) were registered worldwide in the year 2017 (record to date), reaching the stock of this type of vehicles three million units in this year. The objective of this paper is to analyse the key factors of the important deployment of the EV from a comparative perspective at international level. The study analyses, using a stochastic frontier model for panel data, the effect on EV registration of the charging infrastructure (fast and slow chargers), the storage technology and the measures to stimulate the supply and demand of this type of vehicles.
Fernando Núñez, Angel Arcos-Vargas

Economic Analysis of Recharging Electric Vehicles

Abstract
This chapter analyzes the business model of electric vehicle recharging. As seen in previous chapters, the existence of a fast charging network is a success factor for the penetration of electric vehicles. Although, under current conditions, it is difficult to justify the provision of this service from a single-product private company point of view. The profit and loss accounts of these potential companies are considered, including possible alternatives to improve their results. Another possibility could be that the business model is based on the cross-selling of other products (restaurants, department stores, …) for which another type of more complex analysis would be necessary.
Angel Arcos-Vargas, Antonio Hidalgo

Environmental Aspects of the Electric Vehicle

Abstract
The purpose of this chapter is to understand the complete environmental impact of Electric Vehicles (EVs) compared with traditional combustion engines (ICE). In addition, a review of how European rules have been adapting to cover these impacts is presented. Although the typical approach to the problem is based on the evaluation of the emissions during the use of vehicles, the approach presented here covers the whole life of the Vehicle (manufacturing, use of the vehicle and end of life and recycling) and estimates the amount of material and energy used, the emissions or the toxicity. Results show that EVs have an environmental impact, which is concentrated in the manufacturing phase. Compared with traditional ICEs, EVs have clearly lower emissions when driving, which is certainly critical when defining air quality policies in urban regions. The importance of coordination in environmental policies regional and worldwide is therefore required to guarantee a sustainable and fair transition to a decarbonized transportation.
Pablo Frías Marín, Carlos De Miguel Perales

A Macroeconomic Contribution: Extended Environmental Input–Output Analysis

Abstract
An environmentally extended Input–Output (IO) model is used to estimate the impact of the increased use of electric cars (EV) on production, Gross Value Added, employment, and greenhouse gas emissions. The year taken as a reference is 2030 and the analysis is carried out for a sample of 29 countries that include the EU 28 and Norway. The reference databases for the IO model correspond to 2014 and the four sectors mainly impacted by the introduction of EV are coking plants and oil refining, the manufacture of motor vehicles, commerce and repair of motor vehicles, and the supply of electric power The results vary significantly between countries although the greatest impacts appear in those located in Eastern Europe.
Manuel Ordóñez Ríos, Angel Arcos-Vargas, José Manuel Cansino Muñoz-Repiso, Rocío Román Collado

The Interest of Mineral Raw Materials in the Development of Electric Vehicles

Abstract
This paper examines the outlook for the supply and demand of mineral raw materials, as related to strong growth in the introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) in the near future. Given the nature of the topic to be addressed, this analysis will be global in scope. It will also focus on batteries, as the fundamental element differentiating EVs from internal combustion vehicles. An analysis of the readiness of the supply side to respond to a major increase in demand for the various raw materials involved shows very substantial differences between the different supply chains, including those of substances classified as critical. No less important are the geopolitical consequences that might threaten some aspects of the market.
Luis de la Torre Palacios, Eloy Álvarez Pelegry, Jose Antonio Espí Rodríguez

Alternative Energies in Transport in the Context of Energy Transitions

Abstract
Alternative energies in transport are essential to advance toward a low-carbon economy. Besides the transport sector is responsible for a high share of greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions. Nevertheless, in the energy transition processes, little has been done concerning transport. However, during the last years, European institutions have developed quite an abundant number of rules to foster different energy alternatives for road transport. There are different energy alternatives, with distinct economic and environmental characteristics. As alternative energies infrastructure seems to be relevant to achieve the penetration of alternative energies, the last section of the document shows the present situation of energy alternatives vehicles and infrastructure development for some European countries.
Eloy Álvarez Pelegry, Macarena Larrea Basterra
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